Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 18901

Search results for: viability analysis matrix

18901 Manufacturing and Characterization of Ni-Matrix Composite Reinforced with Ti3SiC2 and Ti2AlC; and Al-Matrix with Ti2SiC

Authors: M. Hadji, N. Chiker, Y. Hadji, A. Haddad

Abstract:

In this paper, we report for the first time on the synthesis and characterization of novel MAX phases (Ti3SiC2, Ti2AlC) reinforced Ni-matrix and Ti2AlC reinforced Al-matrix. The stability of MAX phases in Al-matrix and Ni-matrix at a temperature of 985°C has been investigated. All the composites were cold pressed and sintered at a temperature of 985°C for 20min in H2 environment, except (Ni/Ti3SiC2) who was sintered at 1100°C for 1h.Microstructure analysis by scanning electron microscopy and phase analysis by X-Ray diffraction confirmed that there was minimal interfacial reaction between MAX particles and Ni, thus Al/MAX samples shown that MAX phases was totally decomposed at 985°C.The Addition of MAX enhanced the Al-matrix and Ni-matrix.

Keywords: MAX phase, microstructures, composites, hardness, SEM

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18900 The Second Smallest Eigenvalue of Complete Tripartite Hypergraph

Authors: Alfi Y. Zakiyyah, Hanni Garminia, M. Salman, A. N. Irawati

Abstract:

In the terminology of the hypergraph, there is a relation with the terminology graph. In the theory of graph, the edges connected two vertices. In otherwise, in hypergraph, the edges can connect more than two vertices. There is representation matrix of a graph such as adjacency matrix, Laplacian matrix, and incidence matrix. The adjacency matrix is symmetry matrix so that all eigenvalues is real. This matrix is a nonnegative matrix. The all diagonal entry from adjacency matrix is zero so that the trace is zero. Another representation matrix of the graph is the Laplacian matrix. Laplacian matrix is symmetry matrix and semidefinite positive so that all eigenvalues are real and non-negative. According to the spectral study in the graph, some that result is generalized to hypergraph. A hypergraph can be represented by a matrix such as adjacency, incidence, and Laplacian matrix. Throughout for this term, we use Laplacian matrix to represent a complete tripartite hypergraph. The aim from this research is to determine second smallest eigenvalues from this matrix and find a relation this eigenvalue with the connectivity of that hypergraph.

Keywords: connectivity, graph, hypergraph, Laplacian matrix

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18899 Conditions on Expressing a Matrix as a Sum of α-Involutions

Authors: Ric Joseph R. Murillo, Edna N. Gueco, Dennis I. Merino

Abstract:

Let F be C or R, where C and R are the set of complex numbers and real numbers, respectively, and n be a natural number. An n-by-n matrix A over the field F is called an α-involutory matrix or an α-involution if there exists an α in the field such that the square of the matrix is equal to αI, where I is the n-by-n identity matrix. If α is a complex number or a nonnegative real number, then an n-by-n matrix A over the field F can be written as a sum of n-by-n α-involutory matrices over the field F if and only if the trace of that matrix is an integral multiple of the square root of α. Meanwhile, if α is a negative real number, then a 2n-by-2n matrix A over R can be written as a sum of 2n-by-2n α-involutory matrices over R if and only the trace of the matrix is zero. Some other properties of α-involutory matrices are also determined

Keywords: α-involutory Matrices, sum of α-involutory Matrices, Trace, Matrix Theory

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18898 Texture Analysis of Grayscale Co-Occurrence Matrix on Mammographic Indexed Image

Authors: S. Sushma, S. Balasubramanian, K. C. Latha

Abstract:

The mammographic image of breast cancer compressed and synthesized to get co-efficient values which will be converted (5x5) matrix to get ROI image where we get the highest value of effected region and with the same ideology the technique has been extended to differentiate between Calcification and normal cell image using mean value derived from 5x5 matrix values

Keywords: texture analysis, mammographic image, partitioned gray scale co-oocurance matrix, co-efficient

Procedia PDF Downloads 343
18897 On Block Vandermonde Matrix Constructed from Matrix Polynomial Solvents

Authors: Malika Yaici, Kamel Hariche

Abstract:

In control engineering, systems described by matrix fractions are studied through properties of block roots, also called solvents. These solvents are usually dealt with in a block Vandermonde matrix form. Inverses and determinants of Vandermonde matrices and block Vandermonde matrices are used in solving problems of numerical analysis in many domains but require costly computations. Even though Vandermonde matrices are well known and method to compute inverse and determinants are many and, generally, based on interpolation techniques, methods to compute the inverse and determinant of a block Vandermonde matrix have not been well studied. In this paper, some properties of these matrices and iterative algorithms to compute the determinant and the inverse of a block Vandermonde matrix are given. These methods are deducted from the partitioned matrix inversion and determinant computing methods. Due to their great size, parallelization may be a solution to reduce the computations cost, so a parallelization of these algorithms is proposed and validated by a comparison using algorithmic complexity.

Keywords: block vandermonde matrix, solvents, matrix polynomial, matrix inverse, matrix determinant, parallelization

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18896 Inverse Matrix in the Theory of Dynamical Systems

Authors: Renata Masarova, Bohuslava Juhasova, Martin Juhas, Zuzana Sutova

Abstract:

In dynamic system theory a mathematical model is often used to describe their properties. In order to find a transfer matrix of a dynamic system we need to calculate an inverse matrix. The paper contains the fusion of the classical theory and the procedures used in the theory of automated control for calculating the inverse matrix. The final part of the paper models the given problem by the Matlab.

Keywords: dynamic system, transfer matrix, inverse matrix, modeling

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18895 Nonlinear Evolution on Graphs

Authors: Benniche Omar

Abstract:

We are concerned with abstract fully nonlinear differential equations having the form y’(t)=Ay(t)+f(t,y(t)) where A is an m—dissipative operator (possibly multi—valued) defined on a subset D(A) of a Banach space X with values in X and f is a given function defined on I×X with values in X. We consider a graph K in I×X. We recall that K is said to be viable with respect to the above abstract differential equation if for each initial data in K there exists at least one trajectory starting from that initial data and remaining in K at least for a short time. The viability problem has been studied by many authors by using various techniques and frames. If K is closed, it is shown that a tangency condition, which is mainly linked to the dynamic, is crucial for viability. In the case when X is infinite dimensional, compactness and convexity assumptions are needed. In this paper, we are concerned with the notion of near viability for a given graph K with respect to y’(t)=Ay(t)+f(t,y(t)). Roughly speaking, the graph K is said to be near viable with respect to y’(t)=Ay(t)+f(t,y(t)), if for each initial data in K there exists at least one trajectory remaining arbitrary close to K at least for short time. It is interesting to note that the near viability is equivalent to an appropriate tangency condition under mild assumptions on the dynamic. Adding natural convexity and compactness assumptions on the dynamic, we may recover the (exact) viability. Here we investigate near viability for a graph K in I×X with respect to y’(t)=Ay(t)+f(t,y(t)) where A and f are as above. We emphasis that the t—dependence on the perturbation f leads us to introduce a new tangency concept. In the base of a tangency conditions expressed in terms of that tangency concept, we formulate criteria for K to be near viable with respect to y’(t)=Ay(t)+f(t,y(t)). As application, an abstract null—controllability theorem is given.

Keywords: abstract differential equation, graph, tangency condition, viability

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18894 Supplementation of Fig Fruit (Ficus carica linn.) Extract in Extender on Sperm Motility and Viability of Native Chicken Semen after Cooling

Authors: N. Isnaini, S. Wahjuningsih

Abstract:

Fig fruit is the fruit of a tropical plant with content of flavanoids, vitamins A, C, and E which are antioxidants that effectively prevent and neutralize free radicals. This study was conducted to evaluate the supplementation of fig fruit extract in a physiological NaCl-based diluent on sperm motility and viability of native chicken semen after cooling. Semen was collected from 4 male mature chocks using massage method. Fresh semen evaluated for colour, pH, volume, concentration, mass motility, individual motility, life sperm and sperm abnormality. Semen was diluted with physiological NaCl-based extender supplemented with different levels of fig fruit extract (0, 10, 20 and 30 %) v/v with the ratio of 1 semen: 4 diluter. Semen used had mass motility of 2+ and motility of 70%. Immediately after dilution semen was stored in 3-5 °C and sperm motility and viability percentage were observed at 0, 12 and 24 h. The obtained data were analyze with Analysis of Variant (ANOVA) and Least Significant Difference were determined. The experiment was designed using completely random design (4 treatments and 10 replications). The results showed that the level of fig fruit extract had very significant effect (P < 0,01) on sperm motility and viability percentage in 0, 12 and 24 h of cooling. It can be concluded that the best fig fruit extract level for resulting optimal sperm motility and viability was 10%.

Keywords: chock, antioxidant, fig fruit extract, sperm

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18893 Redundancy Component Matrix and Structural Robustness

Authors: Xinjian Kou, Linlin Li, Yongju Zhou, Jimian Song

Abstract:

We introduce the redundancy matrix that expresses clearly the geometrical/topological configuration of the structure. With the matrix, the redundancy of the structure is resolved into redundant components and assigned to each member or rigid joint. The values of the diagonal elements in the matrix indicates the importance of the corresponding members or rigid joints, and the geometrically correlations can be shown with the non-diagonal elements. If a member or rigid joint failures, reassignment of the redundant components can be calculated with the recursive method given in the paper. By combining the indexes of reliability and redundancy components, we define an index concerning the structural robustness. To further explain the properties of the redundancy matrix, we cited several examples of statically indeterminate structures, including two trusses and a rigid frame. With the examples, some simple results and the properties of the matrix are discussed. The examples also illustrate that the redundancy matrix and the relevant concepts are valuable in structural safety analysis.

Keywords: Structural Robustness, Structural Reliability, Redundancy Component, Redundancy Matrix

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18892 The Activity of Polish Propolis and Cannabidiol Oil Extracts on Glioblastoma Cell Lines

Authors: Sylwia K. Naliwajko, Renata Markiewicz-Zukowska, Justyna Moskwa, Krystyna Gromkowska-Kepka, Konrad Mielcarek, Patryk Nowakowski, Katarzyna Socha, Anna Puscion-Jakubik, Maria H. Borawska

Abstract:

Glioblastoma (grade IV WHO) is a rapidly progressive brain tumor with very high morbidity and mortality. The vast malignant gliomas are not curable despite the therapy (surgical, radiotherapy, chemotherapy) and patients seek alternative or complementary treatments. Patients often use cannabidiol (CBD) oil as an alternative therapy of glioblastoma. CBD is one of the cannabinoids, an active component of Cannabis sativa. THC (Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol) can be addictive, and in many countries CBD oil without THC ( < 0,2%) is available. Propolis produced by bees from the resin collected from trees has antiglioma properties in vitro and can be used as a supplement in complementary therapy of gliomas. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of extract from CBD oil in combination with propolis extract on two glioblastoma cell lines. The MTT (Thiazolyl Blue Tetrazolium Bromide) test was used to determine the influence of CBD oil extract and polish propolis extract (PPE) on the viability of glioblastoma cell lines – U87MG and LN18. The cells were incubated (24, 48 and 72 h) with CBD oil extract and PPE. CBD extract was used in concentration 1, 1.5 and 3 µM and PPE in 30 µg/mL. The data were presented compared to the control. The statistical analysis was performed using Statistica v. 13.0 software. CBD oil extract in concentrations 1, 1.5 and 3 µM did not inhibit the viability of U87MG and LN18 cells (viability more than 90% cells compared to the control). There was no dose-response viability, and IC50 value was not recognized. PPE in the concentration of 30 µg/mL time-dependently inhibited the viability of U87MG and LN18 cell line (after 48 h the viability as a percent of the control was 59,7±6% and 57,8±7%, respectively). In a combination of CBD with PPE, the viability of the treated cells was similar to PPE used alone (58,2±7% and 56,5±9%, respectively). CBD oil extract did not show anti-glioma activity and in combination with PPE did not change the activity of PPE.

Keywords: anticancer, cannabidiol, cell line, glioblastoma

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18891 In vitro Effects of Amygdalin on the Functional Competence of Rabbit Spermatozoa

Authors: Marek Halenár, Eva Tvrdá, Tomáš Slanina, Ľubomír Ondruška, Eduard Kolesár, Peter Massányi, Adriana Kolesárová

Abstract:

The present in vitro study was designed to reveal whether amygdalin (AMG) is able to cause changes to the motility, viability and mitochondrial activity of rabbit spermatozoa. New Zealand White rabbits (n = 10) aged four months were used in the study. Semen samples were collected from each animal and used for the in vitro incubation. The samples were divided into five equal parts and diluted with saline supplemented with 0, 0.5, 1, 2.5 and 5 mg/mL AMG. At times 0h, 3h and 5h spermatozoa motion parameters were assessed using the SpermVision™ computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA) system, cell viability was examined with the metabolic activity (MTT) assay, and the eosin-nigrosin staining technique was used to evaluate the viability of rabbit spermatozoa. All AMG concentrations exhibited stimulating effects on the spermatozoa activity, as shown by a significant preservation of the motility (P<0.05 with respect to 0.5 mg/mL and 1 mg/mL AMG; Time 5 h) and mitochondrial activity (P< 0.05 in case of 0.5 mg/mL AMG; P< 0.01 in case of 1 mg/mL AMG; P < 0.001 with respect to 2.5 mg/mL and 5 mg/mL AMG; Time 5 h). None of the AMG doses supplemented had any significant impact of the spermatozoa viability. In conclusion, the data revealed that short-term co-incubation of spermatozoa with AMG may result in a higher preservation of the sperm structural integrity and functional activity.

Keywords: amygdalin, CASA, mitochondrial activity, motility, rabbits, spermatozoa, viability

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18890 Effect of Papaverine on Developmental Neurotoxicity: Neurosphere as in vitro Model

Authors: Mohammed Y. Elsherbeny, Mohamed Salama, Ahmed Lotfy, Hossam Fareed, Nora Mohammed

Abstract:

Background: Developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) entails the toxic effects imparted by various chemicals on brain during the early childhood when human brains are vulnerable during this period. DNT study in vivo cannot determine the effect of the neurotoxins, as it is not applicable, so using the neurosphere cells of lab animals as an alternative is applicable and time saving. Methods: Cell culture: Rat neural progenitor cells were isolated from rat embryos’ brain. The cortices were aseptically dissected out and the tissues were triturated. The dispersed tissues were allowed to settle. The supernatant was then transferred to a fresh tube and centrifuged. The pellet was placed in Hank’s balanced salt solution and cultured as free-floating neurospheres in proliferation medium. Differentiation was initiated by growth factor withdrawal in differentiation medium and plating onto a poly-d-lysine/ laminin matrix. Chemical Exposure: Neurospheres were treated for 2 weeks with papaverine in proliferation medium. Proliferation analyses: Spheres were cultured. After 0, 4, 5, 11 and 14 days, sphere size was determined by software analyses (CellProfiler, version 2.1; Broad Institute). Diameter of each neurosphere was measured and exported to excel file further to statistical analysis. Viability test: Trypsin-EDTA solution was added to neurospheres to dissociate neurospheres into single cells suspension, then viability evaluated by the Trypan Blue exclusion test. Result: As regards proliferation analysis and percentage of viable cells of papaverin treated groups: There was no significant change in cells proliferation compared to control at 0, 4, 5, 11 and 14 days with concentrations 1, 5 and 10 µM of papaverine, but there is a significant change in cell viability compared to control after 1 week and 2 weeks with the same concentrations of papaverine. Conclusion: Papaverine has toxic effect on viability of neural cell, not on their proliferation, so it may produce focal neural lesions not growth morphological changes.

Keywords: developmental neurotoxicity, neurotoxin, papaverine, neuroshperes

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18889 Fabrication Characteristics and Mechanical Behaviour of Fly Ash-Alumina Reinforced Zn-27Al Alloy Matrix Hybrid Composite Using Stir-Casting Technique

Authors: Oluwagbenga B. Fatile, Felix U. Idu, Olajide T. Sanya

Abstract:

This paper reports the viability of developing Zn-27Al alloy matrix hybrid composites reinforced with alumina, graphite and fly ash (a solid waste byproduct of coal in thermal power plants). This research work was aimed at developing low cost-high performance Zn-27Al matrix composite with low density. Alumina particulates (Al2O3), graphite added with 0, 2, 3, 4, and 5 wt% fly ash were utilized to prepare 10wt% reinforcing phase with Zn-27Al alloy as matrix using two-step stir casting method. Density measurement estimated percentage porosity, tensile testing, micro hardness measurement, and optical microscopy were used to assess the performance of the composites produced. The results show that the hardness, ultimate tensile strength, and percent elongation of the hybrid composites decrease with increase in fly ash content. The maximum decrease in hardness and ultimate tensile strength of 13.72% and 15.25% respectively were observed for composite grade containing 5wt% fly ash. The percentage elongation of composite sample without fly ash is 8.9% which is comparable with that of the sample containing 2wt% fly ash with percentage elongation of 8.8%. The fracture toughness of the fly ash containing composites was, however, superior to those of composites without fly ash with 5wt% fly ash containing composite exhibiting the highest fracture toughness. The results show that fly ash can be utilized as complementary reinforcement in ZA-27 alloy matrix composite to reduce cost.

Keywords: fly ash, hybrid composite, mechanical behaviour, stir-cast

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18888 On Direct Matrix Factored Inversion via Broyden's Updates

Authors: Adel Mohsen

Abstract:

A direct method based on the good Broyden's updates for evaluating the inverse of a nonsingular square matrix of full rank and solving related system of linear algebraic equations is studied. For a matrix A of order n whose LU-decomposition is A = LU, the multiplication count is O (n3). This includes the evaluation of the LU-decompositions of the inverse, the lower triangular decomposition of A as well as a “reduced matrix inverse”. If an explicit value of the inverse is not needed the order reduces to O (n3/2) to compute to compute inv(U) and the reduced inverse. For a symmetric matrix only O (n3/3) operations are required to compute inv(L) and the reduced inverse. An example is presented to demonstrate the capability of using the reduced matrix inverse in treating ill-conditioned systems. Besides the simplicity of Broyden's update, the method provides a mean to exploit the possible sparsity in the matrix and to derive a suitable preconditioner.

Keywords: Broyden's updates, matrix inverse, inverse factorization, solution of linear algebraic equations, ill-conditioned matrices, preconditioning

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18887 A Review on Aluminium Metal Matric Composites

Authors: V. Singh, S. Singh, S. S. Garewal

Abstract:

Metal matrix composites with aluminum as the matrix material have been heralded as the next great development in advanced engineering materials. Aluminum metal matrix composites (AMMC) refer to the class of light weight high performance material systems. Properties of AMMCs can be tailored to the demands of different industrial applications by suitable combinations of matrix, reinforcement and processing route. AMMC finds its application in automotive, aerospace, defense, sports and structural areas. This paper presents an overview of AMMC material systems on aspects relating to processing, types and applications with case studies.

Keywords: aluminum metal matrix composites, applications of aluminum metal matrix composites, lighting material processing of aluminum metal matrix composites

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18886 Comparative Evaluation of Different Extenders and Sperm Protectors to Keep the Spermatozoa Viable for More than 24 Hours

Authors: A. M. Raseona, D. M. Barry, T. L. Nedambale

Abstract:

Preservation of semen is an important process to ensure that semen quality is sufficient for assisted reproductive technology. This study evaluated the effectiveness of different extenders to preserve Nguni bull semen stored at controlled room temperature 24 °C for three days, as an alternative to frozen-thawed semen straws used for artificial insemination. Semen samples were collected from two Nguni bulls using an electro-ejaculator and transported to the laboratory for evaluation. Pooled semen was aliquot into three extenders Triladyl, Ham’s F10 and M199 at a dilution ratio of 1:4 then stored at controlled room temperature 24 °C. Sperm motility was analysed after 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours. Morphology and viability were analysed after 72 hours. The study was replicated four times and data was analysed by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Triladyl showed higher viability percentage and consistent total motility for three days. Ham’s F10 showed higher progressive motility compared to the other extenders. There was no significant difference in viability between Ham’s F10 and M199. No significant difference was also observed in total abnormality between the two Nguni bulls. In conclusion, Nguni semen can be preserved in Triladyl or Ham’s F10 and M199 culture media stored at 24 °C and stay alive for three days. Triladyl proved to be the best extender showing high viability and consistency in total motility as compared to Ham’s F10 and M199.

Keywords: bull semen, artificial insemination, Triladyl, Ham’s F10, M199, viability

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18885 The Norm, Singular Value and Condition Number Analysis for the Hadamard Matrices

Authors: Emine Tuğba Akyüz

Abstract:

In this study, the analysis of Hadamard matrices, which is a special type of matrix, was made under three headings: norms, singular values, condition number. Six norm types was applied to Hadamard matrices and the relationship between the results and the size of the matrix has been studied. As a result of the investigation when 2-norm was used on the problem Hx =f, the equation ‖x‖_2= ‖f‖_2/√n was shown (H is n-dimensional Hadamard matrix). Related with this, the relationship between the the singular value of H and 2-norm and eigenvalues was shown. Then, the evaluation of condition number for Hx =f was made.

Keywords: condition number, Hadamard matrix, norm, singular value

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18884 Visualizing Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Activity Using Extracellular Matrix-Immobilized Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer Bioprobe in Cancer Cells

Authors: Hawon Lee, Young-Pil Kim

Abstract:

Visualizing matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) activity is necessary for understanding cancer metastasis because they are implicated in cell migration and invasion by degrading the extracellular matrix (ECM). While much effort has been made to sense the MMP activity, but extracellularly long-term monitoring of MMP activity still remains challenging. Here, we report a collagen-bound fluorescent bioprobe for the detection of MMP-2 activity in the extracellular environment. This bioprobe consists of ECM-immobilized part (including collagen-bound protein) and MMP-sensing part (including peptide substrate linked with fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) coupler between donor green fluorescent protein (GFP) and acceptor TAMRA dye), which was constructed through intein-mediated self-splicing conjugation. Upon being immobilized on the collagen-coated surface, this bioprobe enabled efficient long-lasting observation of MMP-2 activity in the cultured cells without affecting cell growth and viability. As a result, the FRET ratio (acceptor/donor) decreased as the MMP2 activity increased in cultured cancer cells. Furthermore, unlike wild-type MMP-2, mutated MMP-2 expression (Y580A in the hemopexin region) gave rise to lowering the secretion of MMP-2 in HeLa. Conclusively, our method is anticipated to find applications for tracing and visualizing enzyme activity.

Keywords: collagen, ECM, FRET, MMP

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18883 Numerical Simulation of Effect of Various Rib Configurations on Enhancing Heat Transfer of Matrix Cooling Channel

Authors: Seok Min Choi, Minho Bang, Seuong Yun Kim, Hyungmin Lee, Won-Gu Joo, Hyung Hee Cho

Abstract:

The matrix cooling channel was used for gas turbine blade cooling passage. The matrix cooling structure is useful for the structure stability however the cooling performance of internal cooling channel was not enough for cooling. Therefore, we designed the rib configurations in the matrix cooling channel to enhance the cooling performance. The numerical simulation was conducted to analyze cooling performance of rib configured matrix cooling channel. Three different rib configurations were used which are vertical rib, angled rib and c-type rib. Three configurations were adopted in two positions of matrix cooling channel which is one fourth and three fourth of channel. The result shows that downstream rib has much higher cooling performance than upstream rib. Furthermore, the angled rib in the channel has much higher cooling performance than vertical rib. This is because; the angled rib improves the swirl effect of matrix cooling channel more effectively. The friction factor was increased with the installation of rib. However, the thermal performance was increased with the installation of rib in the matrix cooling channel.

Keywords: matrix cooling, rib, heat transfer, gas turbine

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18882 Parallel Computation of the Covariance-Matrix

Authors: Claude Tadonki

Abstract:

We address the issues related to the computation of the covariance matrix. This matrix is likely to be ill conditioned following its canonical expression, thus consequently raises serious numerical issues. The underlying linear system, which therefore should be solved by means of iterative approaches, becomes computationally challenging. A huge number of iterations is expected in order to reach an acceptable level of convergence, necessary to meet the required accuracy of the computation. In addition, this linear system needs to be solved at each iteration following the general form of the covariance matrix. Putting all together, its comes that we need to compute as fast as possible the associated matrix-vector product. This is our purpose in the work, where we consider and discuss skillful formulations of the problem, then propose a parallel implementation of the matrix-vector product involved. Numerical and performance oriented discussions are provided based on experimental evaluations.

Keywords: covariance-matrix, multicore, numerical computing, parallel computing

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18881 Effect of Capsule Storage on Viability of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus in Yogurt Powder

Authors: Kanchana Sitlaothaworn

Abstract:

Yogurt capsule was made by mixing 14% w/v of reconstitution of skim milk with 2% FOS. The mixture was fermented by commercial yogurt starter comprising Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. These yogurts were made as yogurt powder by freeze-dried. Yogurt powder was put into capsule then stored for 28 days at 4oc. 8ml of commercial yogurt was found to be the most suitable inoculum size in yogurt production. After freeze-dried, the viability of L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus reduced from 109 to 107 cfu/g. The precence of sucrose cannot help to protect cell from ice crystal formation in freeze-dried process, high (20%) sucrose reduced L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus growth during fermentation of yogurt. The addition of FOS had reduced slowly the viability of both L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus similar to control (without FOS) during 28 days of capsule storage. The viable cell exhibited satisfactory viability level in capsule storage (6.7x106cfu/g) during 21 days at 4oC.

Keywords: yogurt capsule, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus, freeze-drying, sucrose

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18880 Effect of Papaverine on Neurospheres

Authors: Noura Shehab-Eldeen, Mohamed Elsherbeeny, Hossam Elmetwally, Mohamed Salama, Ahmed Lotfy, Mohamed Elgamal, Hussein Sheashaa, Mohamed Sobh

Abstract:

Mitochondrial toxins including papaverine may be implicated in the etiology and pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. The aim was to detect the effect of papaverine on the proliferation and viability of neural stem cells. Rat neural progenitor cells were isolated from embryos (E14) brains. The dispersed tissues were allowed to settle, then, The supernatant was centrifuged at 1,000 g for 5 min. The pellet was placed in Hank’s solution cultured as free-floating neurospheres Dulbecco’s modified Eagle medium (DMEM) and Hams F12 (3:1) supplemented with B27 (Invitrogen GmBH, Karlsruhe, Germany), 20 ng/mL epidermal growth factor (EGF; Biosource, Karlsruhe, Germany), 20 ng/mL recombinant human fibroblast growth factor (rhFGF; R&D Systems, Wiesbaden-Nordenstadt, Germany), and penicillin and streptomycin (1:100; Invitrogen) at 37°C with 7.5% CO2 . Differentiation was initiated by growth factor withdrawal and plating onto a poly-d-lysine/ laminin matrix. The neurospheres were fed every 2-3 days by replacing 50% of the culture media with fresh media. The culture suspension was transferred to a dish containing 16 wells. The wells were divided as follows: 4 wells received no papaverine (control), 4 wells 1 u, 4 wells 5 u and 4 wells 10 u of papaverine solution. In the next 2 weeks, photography (0,4,5,11days) and viability test were done. The photographs were analysed. Results : papaverine didn't affect proliferation of neurospheres, while it affected viability compared to control , this was dose related. Conclusion: This indicates the harmful effect of papaverine suggesting it to be a candidate neurotoxin causing Parkinsonism.

Keywords: neurospheres, neural stem cells, papaverine, Parkinsonism

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18879 Application of Neural Network in Portfolio Product Companies: Integration of Boston Consulting Group Matrix and Ansoff Matrix

Authors: M. Khajezadeh, M. Saied Fallah Niasar, S. Ali Asli, D. Davani Davari, M. Godarzi, Y. Asgari

Abstract:

This study aims to explore the joint application of both Boston and Ansoff matrices in the operational development of the product. We conduct deep analysis, by utilizing the Artificial Neural Network, to predict the position of the product in the market while the company is interested in increasing its share. The data are gathered from two industries, called hygiene and detergent. In doing so, the effort is being made by investigating the behavior of top player companies and, recommend strategic orientations. In conclusion, this combination analysis is appropriate for operational development; as well, it plays an important role in providing the position of the product in the market for both hygiene and detergent industries. More importantly, it will elaborate on the company’s strategies to increase its market share related to a combination of the Boston Consulting Group (BCG) Matrix and Ansoff Matrix.

Keywords: artificial neural network, portfolio analysis, BCG matrix, Ansoff matrix

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18878 Multiple Images Stitching Based on Gradually Changing Matrix

Authors: Shangdong Zhu, Yunzhou Zhang, Jie Zhang, Hang Hu, Yazhou Zhang

Abstract:

Image stitching is a very important branch in the field of computer vision, especially for panoramic map. In order to eliminate shape distortion, a novel stitching method is proposed based on gradually changing matrix when images are horizontal. For images captured horizontally, this paper assumes that there is only translational operation in image stitching. By analyzing each parameter of the homography matrix, the global homography matrix is gradually transferred to translation matrix so as to eliminate the effects of scaling, rotation, etc. in the image transformation. This paper adopts matrix approximation to get the minimum value of the energy function so that the shape distortion at those regions corresponding to the homography can be minimized. The proposed method can avoid multiple horizontal images stitching failure caused by accumulated shape distortion. At the same time, it can be combined with As-Projective-As-Possible algorithm to ensure precise alignment of overlapping area.

Keywords: image stitching, gradually changing matrix, horizontal direction, matrix approximation, homography matrix

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18877 Evaluation Framework for Investments in Rail Infrastructure Projects

Authors: Dimitrios J. Dimitriou, Maria F. Sartzetaki

Abstract:

Transport infrastructures are high-cost, long-term investments that serve as vital foundations for the operation of a region or nation and are essential to a country’s or business’s economic development and prosperity, by improving well-being and generating jobs and income. The development of appropriate financing options is of key importance in the decision making process in order develop viable transport infrastructures. The development of transport infrastructure has increasingly been shifting toward alternative methods of project financing such as Public Private Partnership (PPPs) and hybrid forms. In this paper, a methodological decision-making framework based on the evaluation of the financial viability of transportation infrastructure for different financial schemes is presented. The framework leads to an assessment of the financial viability which can be achieved by performing various financing scenarios analyses. To illustrate the application of the proposed methodology, a case study of rail transport infrastructure financing scenario analysis in Greece is developed.

Keywords: rail transport infrastructure, financial viability, scenario analysis, rail project feasibility

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18876 Matrix Method Posting

Authors: Varong Pongsai

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is introducing a new method of accounting posting which is called Matrix Method Posting. This method is based on the Matrix operation of pure Mathematics. Although, accounting field is classified as one of the social-science knowledge, many of accounting operations are placed by Mathematics sign and operation. Through the operation applying, it seems to be that the operations of Mathematics should be applied to accounting possibly. So, this paper tries to over-lap Mathematics logic to accounting logic smoothly. According to the context of discovery, deductive approach is employed to prove a simultaneously logical concept of both Mathematics and Accounting. The result proves that the Matrix can be placed to operate accounting perfectly, because Matrix and accounting logic also have a similarity concept which is balancing 2 sides during operations. Moreover, the Matrix posting also has a lot of benefit. It can help financial analyst calculating financial ratios comfortably. Furthermore, the matrix determinant which is a signature operation itself also helps auditors checking out the correction of clients’ recording. If the determinant is not equaled to 0, it will point out that the recording process of clients getting into the problem. Finally, the Matrix should be easily determining a concept of merger and consolidation far beyond the present day concept.

Keywords: matrix method posting, deductive approach, determinant, accounting application

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18875 Inductions of CaC₂ on Sperm Morphology and Viability of the Albino Mice (Mus musculus)

Authors: Dike H. Ogbuagu, Etsede J. Oritsematosan

Abstract:

This work investigated possible inductions of CaC₂, often misused by fruit vendors to stimulate artificial ripening, on mammalian sperm morphology and viability. Thirty isogenic strains of male albino mice, Mus musculus (age≈ 8weeks; weight= 32.5±2.0g) were acclimatized (ambient temperature 28.0±1.0°C) for 2 weeks and fed standard growers mash and water ad libutum. They were later exposed to graded toxicant concentrations (w/w) of 2.5000, 1.2500, 0.6250, and 0.3125% in 4 cages. A control cage was also established. After 5 weeks, 3 animals from each cage were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and the cauda epididymis excised. Sperm morphology and viability were determined by microscopic procedures. The ANOVA, means plots, Student’s t-test and variation plots were used to analyze data. The common abnormalities observed included Double Head, Pin Head, Knobbed Head, No Tail and With Hook. The higher toxicant concentrations induced significantly lower body weights [F(829.899) ˃ Fcrit(4.19)] and more abnormalities [F(26.52) ˃ Fcrit(4.00)] at P˂0.05. Sperm cells in the control setup were significantly more viable than those in the 0.625% (t=0.005) and 2.500% toxicant doses (t=0.018) at the 95% confidence limit. CaC₂ appeared to induced morphological abnormalities and reduced viability in sperm cells of M. musculus.

Keywords: artificial ripening, calcium carbide, fruit vendors, sperm morphology, sperm viability

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18874 Effects of Pre-Storage Invigoration Treatments on Ageing Dendrocalamus hamiltonii Seeds

Authors: Geetika Richa, M. L. Sharma

Abstract:

Bamboo as an ancient herbal medicine has been used for thousands of years in Asia and goes by many names such as tabashir, banslochan etc. It is often used for its tonic and astringent properties. Modern analysis of bamboos show high amount of vitamins and minerals which makes them valuable as a curative. Bamboo leaf decoction and young shoots are known as remedy for intestinal worms, healing of ulcers and stomach disorders. Bamboos are known to be propagated by large scale plantations but propagation through seeds occurs very limited as they have very short viability of few months. Seeds loses viability over a period of time even under controlled conditions and important factors that affect seed viability is the decline in reserve food material, decrease in membrane integrity and fall in endogenous level of growth hormones. Invigoration treatments that include hydration, dehydration, incorporation of bioactive chemicals such as growth regulators, nutrients and antioxidants etc. improve the seed performance. Our studies were aimed to determine the most effective invigoration treatments to enhance vigour and viability of seeds by following invigoration treatments, i.e., hardening. Treated seeds were stored at controlled temperature and humidity (in desiccators at 4°C). In hardening, chemicals were applied in 3 different concentrations to three replicates of 10 seeds. Hardening was done withGA3, IAA, (each with concentrations of 10 ppm, 20 ppm and 50 ppm), calcium oxychloride, neem leaf powder and clay (each with concentrations of 2%, 5% and 10%). Statistically all the hardening materials were effective but GA3 50 ppm was the most effective one in maintaining germination percentage and vigour index. Hardening treatments increased the germination percentage of seeds, i.e. 86.2%, over control which showed germination percentage of 80.2%. It was concluded that in order to maintain seed viability during storage for longer period of time, invigoration treatments have been found to be very effective.

Keywords: invigoration, seed quality, viability, hardening, membrane integrity, decoction

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18873 Plasticity in Matrix Dominated Metal-Matrix Composite with One Active Slip Based Dislocation

Authors: Temesgen Takele Kasa

Abstract:

The main aim of this paper is to suggest one active slip based continuum dislocation approach to matrix dominated MMC plasticity analysis. The approach centered the free energy principles through the continuum behavior of dislocations combined with small strain continuum kinematics. The analytical derivation of this method includes the formulation of one active slip system, the thermodynamic approach of dislocations, determination of free energy, and evolution of dislocations. In addition zero and non-zero energy dissipation analysis of dislocation evolution is also formulated by using varational energy minimization method. In general, this work shows its capability to analyze the plasticity of matrix dominated MMC with inclusions. The proposed method is also found to be capable of handling plasticity of MMC.

Keywords: active slip, continuum dislocation, distortion, dominated, energy dissipation, matrix dominated, plasticity

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18872 Corrosion Characterization of Al6061, Quartz Metal Matrix Composites in Alkali Medium

Authors: Radha H. R., Krupakara P. V.

Abstract:

Metal matrix composites are attracting today's manufacturers of many automobile parts so that they lost longer and their properties can be tailored according to the requirement. In this paper an attempt has been made to study the corrosion characteristics of Aluminium 6061 / quartz metal matrix composites in alkali medium like sodium hydroxide solutions. Metal matrix composites are heterogeneous mixtures of a matrix and reinforcement. In this work the matrix selected is Aluminium 6061 alloy which is commercially available and the reinforcement selected is quartz particulates of 50-80 micron size which is available in plenty in and around Bangalore district, India. Composites containing Aluminium 6061 with 2, 4 and 6 weight percent of quartz are manufactured by liquid melt metallurgy technique using vortex method. Corrosion tests like static weight loss and open circuit potential tests are conducted in different concentrated solutions of sodium hydroxide. To compare the results the matrix Aluminium 6061 is also casted in the same way. Specimens for the test are prepared according to ASTM standards. In all the tests the metal matrix composites showed better corrosion resistance than matrix alloy.

Keywords: aluminium 6061, corrosion, quartz, vortex

Procedia PDF Downloads 263