Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 615

Search results for: variability

615 The Effect of Spatial Variability on Axial Pile Design of Closed Ended Piles in Sand

Authors: Cormac Reale, Luke J. Prendergast, Kenneth Gavin

Abstract:

While significant improvements have been made in axial pile design methods over recent years, the influence of soils natural variability has not been adequately accounted for within them. Soil variability is a crucial parameter to consider as it can account for large variations in pile capacity across the same site. This paper seeks to address this knowledge deficit, by demonstrating how soil spatial variability can be accommodated into existing cone penetration test (CPT) based pile design methods, in the form of layered non-homogeneous random fields. These random fields model the scope of a given property’s variance and define how it varies spatially. A Monte Carlo analysis of the pile will be performed taking into account parameter uncertainty and spatial variability, described using the measured scales of fluctuation. The results will be discussed in light of Eurocode 7 and the effect of spatial averaging on design capacities will be analysed.

Keywords: Reliability, spatial variability, CPT, pile axial design

Procedia PDF Downloads 110
614 Investigation of Surface Water Quality Intera-Annual Variations, Gorganroud Basin, Iran

Authors: K. Ebrahimi, S. Shahid, H. Dehban

Abstract:

Climate variability can affect surface water quality. The objective of present study is to assess the impacts of climate variability on water quality of Gorganroud River, Iran, over the time period 1971 to 2011. To achieve this aim, climate variability and water quality variations were studied involving a newly developed drought index (MRDI) and hysteresis curves, respectively. The results show that climate variability significantly affected surface water quality over the time. The existence of yearly internal variation and hysteresis phenomenon for pH and EC parameters was observed. It was found that though drought affected pH considerably, it could not affect EC significantly.

Keywords: Water Quality, Climate Variability, hysteresis curves, multi drought index

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
613 Poincare Plot for Heart Rate Variability

Authors: Mazhar B. Tayel, Eslam I. AlSaba

Abstract:

The heart is the most important part in any body organisms. It effects and affected by any factor in the body. Therefore, it is a good detector of any matter in the body. When the heart signal is non-stationary signal, therefore, it should be study its variability. So, the Heart Rate Variability (HRV) has attracted considerable attention in psychology, medicine and have become important dependent measure in psychophysiology and behavioral medicine. Quantification and interpretation of heart rate variability. However, remain complex issues are fraught with pitfalls. This paper presents one of the non-linear techniques to analyze HRV. It discusses 'What Poincare plot is?', 'How it is work?', 'its usage benefits especially in HRV', 'the limitation of Poincare cause of standard deviation SD1, SD2', and 'How overcome this limitation by using complex correlation measure (CCM)'. The CCM is most sensitive to changes in temporal structure of the Poincaré plot as compared to SD1 and SD2.

Keywords: heart rate variability, chaotic system, standard deviation, variance, poincare, complex correlation measure

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
612 An Investigation of Trends and Variability of Rainfall in Shillong City

Authors: Kamal Kumar Tanti, Nayan Moni Saikia, Markynti Swer

Abstract:

This study aims to investigate and analyse the trends and variability of rainfall in Shillong and its nearby areas, located in Meghalaya hills of North-East India; which is geographically a neighbouring area to the wettest places of the Earth, i.e., Cherrapunji and Mawsynram. The analysis of variability and trends to annual, seasonal, monthly and daily rainfall was carried out, using the data collected from the IMD station at Shillong; thereby attempting to highlight whether rainfall in Shillong area has been increasing or decreasing over the years. Rainfall variability coefficient is utilized to compare the current rainfall trend of the area with its past rainfall trends. The present study also aims to analyse the frequency of occurrence of extreme rainfall events over the region. These studies will help us to establish a correlation between the current rainfall trend and climate change scenario of the study area.

Keywords: Climate Change, Extreme Rainfall Events, seasonal, trends and variability of rainfall, annual, monthly and daily rainfall, rainfall variability coefficient, Shillong, Cherrapunji, Mawsynram

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
611 The Effect of Patient Positioning on Pleth Variability Index during Surgery

Authors: Omid Azimaraghi, Noushin Khazaei

Abstract:

Background: Fluid therapy is an important aspect of the perioperative period and a major challenge for anesthesiologists. To authors best knowledge, there is a lack of strong guidance and evidence regarding the optimal approach to fluid therapy. Therefore a variety of medical devices have been introduced to help physicians. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of pleth variability index in guiding fluid therapy in different patient positions. Materials and Methods: Inclusion criteria consisted of patients aged 18-50 years old and classified as American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I and II, who were candidates for elective thyroidectomy surgery. In total, 36 patients meeting the inclusion criteria were enrolled in the study. After induction of anesthesia and start of mechanical ventilation Pleth variability index was measured in the supine position, then patients were placed in Trendelenburg and reverse Trendelenburg position (30 degrees, 5 minutes); Pleth Variability Index has measured again in the mentioned positions. Results: Mean PVI (Pleth Variability Index) in the supine position was 14.3 ± 3.7 in comparison to 21.5 ± 4.3 in the reverse Trendelenburg position. The mean PVI in Trendelenburg position was 9.1 ± 2.0 in Trendelenburg position (p < 0.05). Conclusion: In conclusion, we found that Pleth Variability Index varies with patient position and this should be taken into account when using this index during fluid therapy.

Keywords: Surgery, Position, fluid therapy, Pleth Variability Index

Procedia PDF Downloads 21
610 Heart Rate Variability as a Measure of Dairy Calf Welfare

Authors: J. B. Clapp, S. Croarkin, C. Dolphin, S. K. Lyons

Abstract:

Chronic pain or stress in farm animals impacts both on their welfare and productivity. Measuring chronic pain or stress can be problematic using hormonal or behavioural changes because hormones are modulated by homeostatic mechanisms and observed behaviour can be highly subjective. We propose that heart rate variability (HRV) can quantify chronic pain or stress in farmed animal and represents a more robust and objective measure of their welfare.

Keywords: welfare, heart rate variability, dairy calf, non-invasive, biomonitor

Procedia PDF Downloads 362
609 Spatial and Temporal Variability of Fog Over the Indo-Gangetic Plains, India

Authors: Sanjay Kumar Srivastava, Anu Rani Sharma, Kamna Sachdeva

Abstract:

The aim of the paper is to analyze the characteristics of winter fog in terms of its trend and spatial-temporal variability over Indo-Gangetic plains. The study reveals that during last four and half decades (1971-2015), an alarming increasing trend in fog frequency has been observed during the winter months of December and January over the study area. The frequency of fog has increased by 118.4% during the peak winter months of December and January. It has also been observed that on an average central part of IGP has 66.29% fog days followed by west IGP with 41.94% fog days. Further, Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) decomposition and Mann-Kendall variation analysis are used to analyze the spatial and temporal patterns of winter fog. The findings have significant implications for the further research of fog over IGP and formulate robust strategies to adapt the fog variability and mitigate its effects. The decision by Delhi Government to implement odd-even scheme to restrict the use of private vehicles in order to reduce pollution and improve quality of air may result in increasing the alarming increasing trend of fog over Delhi and its surrounding areas regions of IGP.

Keywords: Climatology, spatial variability, fog, temporal variability

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
608 Applications of the Morphological Variability in River Management: A Study of West Rapti River

Authors: Partha Sarathi Mondal, Srabani Sanyal

Abstract:

Different geomorphic agents produce a different landforms pattern. Similarly rivers also have a distinct and diverse landforms pattern. And even, within a river course different and distinct assemblage of landforms i.e. morphological variability are seen. These morphological variability are produced by different river processes. Channel and floodplain morphology helps to interpret river processes. Consequently morphological variability can be used as an important tool for assessing river processes, hydrological connectivity and river health, which will help us to draw inference about river processes and therefore, management of river health. The present study is documented on West Rapti river, a trans-boundary river flowing through Nepal and India, from its source to confluence with Ghaghra river in India. The river shows a significant morphological variability throughout its course. The present study tries to find out factors and processes responsible for the morphological variability of the river and in which way it can be applied in river management practices. For this purpose channel and floodplain morphology of West Rapti river was mapped as accurately as possible and then on the basis of process-form interactions, inferences are drawn to understand factors of morphological variability. The study shows that the valley setting of West Rapti river, in the Himalayan region, is confined and somewhere partly confined whereas, channel of the West Rapti river is single thread in most part of Himalayan region and braided in valley region. In the foothill region valley is unconfined and channel is braided, in middle part channel is meandering and valley is unconfined, whereas, channel is anthropogenically altered in the lower part of the course. Due to this the morphology of West Rapti river is highly diverse. These morphological variability are produced by different geomorphic processes. Therefore, for any river management it is essential to sustain these morphological variability so that the river could not cross the geomorphic threshold and environmental flow of the river along with the biodiversity of riparian region is maintained.

Keywords: environmental flow, channel morphology, floodplain morphology, geomorphic threshold

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
607 Transport Mode Selection under Lead Time Variability and Emissions Constraint

Authors: Chiranjit Das, Sanjay Jharkharia

Abstract:

This study is focused on transport mode selection under lead time variability and emissions constraint. In order to reduce the carbon emissions generation due to transportation, organization has often faced a dilemmatic choice of transport mode selection since logistic cost and emissions reduction are complementary with each other. Another important aspect of transportation decision is lead-time variability which is least considered in transport mode selection problem. Thus, in this study, we provide a comprehensive mathematical based analytical model to decide transport mode selection under emissions constraint. We also extend our work through analysing the effect of lead time variability in the transport mode selection by a sensitivity analysis. In order to account lead time variability into the model, two identically normally distributed random variables are incorporated in this study including unit lead time variability and lead time demand variability. Therefore, in this study, we are addressing following questions: How the decisions of transport mode selection will be affected by lead time variability? How lead time variability will impact on total supply chain cost under carbon emissions? To accomplish these objectives, a total transportation cost function is developed including unit purchasing cost, unit transportation cost, emissions cost, holding cost during lead time, and penalty cost for stock out due to lead time variability. A set of modes is available to transport each node, in this paper, we consider only four transport modes such as air, road, rail, and water. Transportation cost, distance, emissions level for each transport mode is considered as deterministic and static in this paper. Each mode is having different emissions level depending on the distance and product characteristics. Emissions cost is indirectly affected by the lead time variability if there is any switching of transport mode from lower emissions prone transport mode to higher emissions prone transport mode in order to reduce penalty cost. We provide a numerical analysis in order to study the effectiveness of the mathematical model. We found that chances of stock out during lead time will be higher due to the higher variability of lead time and lad time demand. Numerical results show that penalty cost of air transport mode is negative that means chances of stock out zero, but, having higher holding and emissions cost. Therefore, air transport mode is only selected when there is any emergency order to reduce penalty cost, otherwise, rail and road transport is the most preferred mode of transportation. Thus, this paper is contributing to the literature by a novel approach to decide transport mode under emissions cost and lead time variability. This model can be extended by studying the effect of lead time variability under some other strategic transportation issues such as modal split option, full truck load strategy, and demand consolidation strategy etc.

Keywords: Carbon Emissions, inventory theoretic model, lead time variability, transport mode selection

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
606 Chemical Variability in the Essential Oils from the Leaves and Buds of Syzygium Species

Authors: Rabia Waseem, Low Kah Hin, Najihah Mohamed Hashim

Abstract:

The variability in the chemical components of the Syzygium species essential oils has been evaluated. The leaves of Syzygium species have been collected from Perak, Malaysia. The essential oils extracted by using the conventional Hydro-distillation extraction procedure and analyzed by using Gas chromatography System attached with Mass Spectrometry (GCMS). Twenty-seven constituents were found in Syzygium species in which the major constituents include: α-Pinene (3.94%), α-Thujene (2.16%), α-Terpineol (2.95%), g-Elemene (2.89%) and D-Limonene (14.59%). The aim of this study was the comparison between the evaluated data and existing literature to fortify the major variability through statistical analysis.

Keywords: Statistical Analysis, Medicinal Plants, Cluster Analysis, Essential Oil, chemotaxonomy

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
605 Variability of Climatic Elements in Nigeria Over Recent 100 Years

Authors: T. Salami, O. S. Idowu, N. J. Bello

Abstract:

Climatic variability is an essential issue when dealing with the issue of climate change. Variability of some climate parameter helps to determine how variable the climatic condition of a region will behave. The most important of these climatic variables which help to determine the climatic condition in an area are both the Temperature and Precipitation. This research deals with Longterm climatic variability in Nigeria. Variables examined in this analysis include near-surface temperature, near surface minimum temperature, maximum temperature, relative humidity, vapour pressure, precipitation, wet-day frequency and cloud cover using data ranging between 1901-2010. Analyses were carried out and the following methods were used: - Regression and EOF analysis. Results show that the annual average, minimum and maximum near-surface temperature all gradually increases from 1901 to 2010. And they are in the same case in a wet season and dry season. Minimum near-surface temperature, with its linear trends are significant for annual, wet season and dry season means. However, the diurnal temperature range decreases in the recent 100 years imply that the minimum near-surface temperature has increased more than the maximum. Both precipitation and wet day frequency decline from the analysis, demonstrating that Nigeria has become dryer than before by the way of rainfall. Temperature and precipitation variability has become very high during these periods especially in the Northern areas. Areas which had excessive rainfall were confronted with flooding and other related issues while area that had less precipitation were all confronted with drought. More practical issues will be presented.

Keywords: Climate, variability, Flooding, excessive rainfall

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
604 Would Intra-Individual Variability in Attention to Be the Indicator of Impending the Senior Adults at Risk of Cognitive Decline: Evidence from Attention Network Test(ANT)

Authors: Hanna Lu, Sandra S. M. Chan, Linda C. W. Lam

Abstract:

Objectives: Intra-individual variability (IIV) has been considered as a biomarker of healthy ageing. However, the composite role of IIV in attention, as an impending indicator for neurocognitive disorders warrants further exploration. This study aims to investigate the IIV, as well as their relationships with attention network functions in adults with neurocognitive disorders (NCD). Methods: 36adults with NCD due to Alzheimer’s disease(NCD-AD), 31adults with NCD due to vascular disease (NCD-vascular), and 137 healthy controls were recruited. Intraindividual standard deviations (iSD) and intraindividual coefficient of variation of reaction time (ICV-RT) were used to evaluate the IIV. Results: NCD groups showed greater IIV (iSD: F= 11.803, p < 0.001; ICV-RT:F= 9.07, p < 0.001). In ROC analyses, the indices of IIV could differentiateNCD-AD (iSD: AUC value = 0.687, p= 0.001; ICV-RT: AUC value = 0.677, p= 0.001) and NCD-vascular (iSD: AUC value = 0.631, p= 0.023;ICV-RT: AUC value = 0.615, p= 0.045) from healthy controls. Moreover, the processing speed could distinguish NCD-AD from NCD-vascular (AUC value = 0.647, p= 0.040). Discussion: Intra-individual variability in attention provides a stable measure of cognitive performance, and seems to help distinguish the senior adults with different cognitive status.

Keywords: Ageing, Neurocognitive Disorders, intra-individual variability, attention network

Procedia PDF Downloads 301
603 Natural Factors of Interannual Variability of Winter Precipitation over the Altai Krai

Authors: Sukovatov K.Yu., Bezuglova N.N.

Abstract:

Winter precipitation variability over the Altai Krai was investigated by retrieving temporal patterns. The spectral singular analysis was used to describe the variance distribution and to reduce the precipitation data into a few components (modes). The associated time series were related to large-scale atmospheric and oceanic circulation indices by using lag cross-correlation and wavelet-coherence analysis. GPCC monthly precipitation data for rectangular field limited by 50-550N, 77-880E and monthly climatological circulation index data for the cold season were used to perform SSA decomposition and retrieve statistics for analyzed parameters on the time period 1951-2017. Interannual variability of winter precipitation over the Altai Krai are mostly caused by three natural factors: intensity variations of momentum exchange between mid and polar latitudes over the North Atlantic (explained variance 11.4%); wind speed variations in equatorial stratosphere (quasi-biennial oscillation, explained variance 15.3%); and surface temperature variations for equatorial Pacific sea (ENSO, explained variance 2.8%). It is concluded that under the current climate conditions (Arctic amplification and increasing frequency of meridional processes in mid-latitudes) the second and the third factors are giving more significant contribution into explained variance of interannual variability for cold season atmospheric precipitation over the Altai Krai than the first factor.

Keywords: interannual variability, winter precipitation, Altai Krai, wavelet-coherence

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
602 Analysis of Weather Variability Impact on Yields of Some Crops in Southwest, Nigeria

Authors: Olumuyiwa Idowu Ojo, Oluwatobi Peter Olowo

Abstract:

The study developed a Geographical Information Systems (GIS) database and mapped inter-annual changes in crop yields of cassava, cowpea, maize, rice, melon and yam as a response to inter-annual rainfall and temperature variability in Southwest, Nigeria. The aim of this project is to study the comparative analysis of the weather variability impact of six crops yield (Rice, melon, yam, cassava, Maize and cowpea) in South Western States of Nigeria (Oyo, Osun, Ekiti, Ondo, Ogun and Lagos) from 1991 – 2007. The data was imported and analysed in the Arch GIS 9 – 3 software environment. The various parameters (temperature, rainfall, crop yields) were interpolated using the kriging method. The results generated through interpolation were clipped to the study area. Geographically weighted regression was chosen from the spatial statistics toolbox in Arch GIS 9.3 software to analyse and predict the relationship between temperature, rainfall and the different crops (Cowpea, maize, rice, melon, yam, and cassava).

Keywords: GIS, temperature, Rainfall, Comparative Analysis, crop yields, weather variability

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
601 Impact of Climate Variability on Household's Crop Income in Central Highlands and Arssi Grain Plough Areas of Ethiopia

Authors: Arega Shumetie Ademe, Belay Kassa, Degye Goshu, Majaliwa Mwanjalolo

Abstract:

Currently the world economy is suffering from one critical problem, climate change. Some studies done before identified that impact of the problem is region specific means in some part of the world (temperate zone) there is improvement in agricultural performance but in some others like in the tropics there is drastic reduction in crop production and crop income. Climate variability is becoming dominant cause of short-term fluctuation in rain-fed agricultural production and income of developing countries. The purely rain-fed Ethiopian agriculture is the most vulnerable sector to the risks and impacts of climate variability. Thus, this study tried to identify impact of climate variability on crop income of smallholders in Ethiopia. The research used eight rounded unbalanced panel data from 1994- 2014 collected from six villages in the study area. After having all diagnostic tests the research used fixed effect method of regression. Based on the regression result rainfall and temperature deviation from their respective long term averages have negative and significant effect on crop income. Other extreme devastating shocks like flood, storm and frost, which are sourced from climate variability, have significant and negative effect on crop income of households’. Parameters that notify rainfall inconsistency like late start, variation in availability at growing season, and early cessation are critical problems for crop income of smallholder households as to the model result. Given this, impact of climate variability is not consistent in different agro-ecologies of the country. Rainfall variability has similar impact on crop income in different agro-ecology, but variation in temperature affects cold agro-ecology villages negatively and significantly, while it has positive effect in warm villages. Parameters that represent rainfall inconsistency have similar impact in both agro-ecologies and the aggregate model regression. This implies climate variability sourced from rainfall inconsistency is the main problem of Ethiopian agriculture especially the crop production sub-sector of smallholder households.

Keywords: temperature, Climate Variability, Rainfall, household, crop income

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
600 Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security in Sub-Saharan Africa: What Effects and What Answers?

Authors: Abdoulahad Allamine

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to assess the impact of climate variability on agriculture and food security in 43 countries of sub-Saharan Africa. We use for this purpose the data from BADC bases, UNCTAD, and WDI FAOSTAT to estimate a VAR model on panel data. The sample is divided into three (03) agro-climatic zones, more explicitly the equatorial zone, the Sahel region and the semi-arid zone. This allows to highlight the differential impacts sustained by countries and appropriate responses to each group of countries. The results show that the sharp fluctuations in the volume of rainfall negatively affect agriculture and food security of countries in the equatorial zone, with heavy rainfall and high temperatures in the Sahel region. However, countries with low temperatures and low rainfall are the least affected. The hedging policies against the risks of climate variability must be more active in the first two groups of countries. On this basis and in general, we recommend integration of agricultural policies between countries is done to reduce the effects of climate variability on agriculture and food security. It would be logical to encourage regional and international closer collaboration on the development and dissemination of improved varieties, ecological intensification, and management of biotic and abiotic stresses facing these climate variability to sustainably increase food production. Small farmers also need training in agricultural risk hedging techniques related to climate variations; this requires an increase in state budgets allocated to agriculture.

Keywords: Food Security, Climate Variability, Sub-Saharan Africa, agro-climatic zones, VAR on panel data

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
599 Impacts of Climate Change on Food Grain Yield and Its Variability across Seasons and Altitudes in Odisha

Authors: Dibakar Sahoo, Sridevi Gummadi

Abstract:

The focus of the study is to empirically analyse the climatic impacts on foodgrain yield and its variability across seasons and altitudes in Odisha, one of the most vulnerable states in India. The study uses Just-Pope Stochastic Production function by using two-step Feasible Generalized Least Square (FGLS): mean equation estimation and variance equation estimation. The study uses the panel data on foodgrain yield, rainfall and temperature for 13 districts during the period 1984-2013. The study considers four seasons: winter (December-February), summer (March-May), Rainy (June-September) and autumn (October-November). The districts under consideration have been categorized under three altitude regions such as low (< 70 masl), middle (153-305 masl) and high (>305 masl) altitudes. The results show that an increase in the standard deviations of monthly rainfall during rainy and autumn seasons have an adversely significant impact on the mean yield of foodgrains in Odisha. The summer temperature has beneficial effects by significantly increasing mean yield as the summer season is associated with harvesting stage of Rabi crops. The changing pattern of temperature has increasing effect on the yield variability of foodgrains during the summer season, whereas it has a decreasing effect on yield variability of foodgrains during the Rainy season. Moreover, the positive expected signs of trend variable in both mean and variance equation suggests that foodgrain yield and its variability increases with time. On the other hand, a change in mean levels of rainfall and temperature during different seasons has heterogeneous impacts either harmful or beneficial depending on the altitudes. These findings imply that adaptation strategies should be tailor-made to minimize the adverse impacts of climate change and variability for sustainable development across seasons and altitudes in Odisha agriculture.

Keywords: Climate Change, Adaptation Strategies, altitude, foodgrain

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
598 Effect of Climate Variability on Honeybee's Production in Ondo State, Nigeria

Authors: Justin Orimisan Ijigbade

Abstract:

The study was conducted to assess the effect of climate variability on honeybee’s production in Ondo State, Nigeria. Multistage sampling technique was employed to collect the data from 60 beekeepers across six Local Government Areas in Ondo State. Data collected were subjected to descriptive statistics and multiple regression model analyses. The results showed that 93.33% of the respondents were male with 80% above 40 years of age. Majority of the respondents (96.67%) had formal education and 90% produced honey for commercial purpose. The result revealed that 90% of the respondents admitted that low temperature as a result of long hours/period of rainfall affected the foraging efficiency of the worker bees, 73.33% claimed that long period of low humidity resulted in low level of nectar flow, while 70% submitted that high temperature resulted in improper composition of workers, dunes and queen in the hive colony. The result of multiple regression showed that beekeepers’ experience, educational level, access to climate information, temperature and rainfall were the main factors affecting honey bees production in the study area. Therefore, beekeepers should be given more education on climate variability and its adaptive strategies towards ensuring better honeybees production in the study area.

Keywords: Climate Variability, humidity, honeybees production, rainfall and temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 114
597 Trend Analysis of Rainfall: A Climate Change Paradigm

Authors: Shyamli Singh, Ishupinder Kaur, Vinod K. Sharma

Abstract:

Climate Change refers to the change in climate for extended period of time. Climate is changing from the past history of earth but anthropogenic activities accelerate this rate of change and which is now being a global issue. Increase in greenhouse gas emissions is causing global warming and climate change related issues at an alarming rate. Increasing temperature results in climate variability across the globe. Changes in rainfall patterns, intensity and extreme events are some of the impacts of climate change. Rainfall variability refers to the degree to which rainfall patterns varies over a region (spatial) or through time period (temporal). Temporal rainfall variability can be directly or indirectly linked to climate change. Such variability in rainfall increases the vulnerability of communities towards climate change. Increasing urbanization and unplanned developmental activities, the air quality is deteriorating. This paper mainly focuses on the rainfall variability due to increasing level of greenhouse gases. Rainfall data of 65 years (1951-2015) of Safdarjung station of Delhi was collected from Indian Meteorological Department and analyzed using Mann-Kendall test for time-series data analysis. Mann-Kendall test is a statistical tool helps in analysis of trend in the given data sets. The slope of the trend can be measured through Sen’s slope estimator. Data was analyzed monthly, seasonally and yearly across the period of 65 years. The monthly rainfall data for the said period do not follow any increasing or decreasing trend. Monsoon season shows no increasing trend but here was an increasing trend in the pre-monsoon season. Hence, the actual rainfall differs from the normal trend of the rainfall. Through this analysis, it can be projected that there will be an increase in pre-monsoon rainfall than the actual monsoon season. Pre-monsoon rainfall causes cooling effect and results in drier monsoon season. This will increase the vulnerability of communities towards climate change and also effect related developmental activities.

Keywords: Greenhouse gases, Mann-Kendall test, rainfall variability, Sen's slope

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
596 A Ground Observation Based Climatology of Winter Fog: Study over the Indo-Gangetic Plains, India

Authors: Sanjay Kumar Srivastava, Anu Rani Sharma, Kamna Sachdeva

Abstract:

Every year, fog formation over the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGPs) of Indian region during the winter months of December and January is believed to create numerous hazards, inconvenience, and economic loss to the inhabitants of this densely populated region of Indian subcontinent. The aim of the paper is to analyze the spatial and temporal variability of winter fog over IGPs. Long term ground observations of visibility and other meteorological parameters (1971-2010) have been analyzed to understand the formation of fog phenomena and its relevance during the peak winter months of January and December over IGP of India. In order to examine the temporal variability, time series and trend analysis were carried out by using the Mann-Kendall Statistical test. Trend analysis performed by using the Mann-Kendall test, accepts the alternate hypothesis with 95% confidence level indicating that there exists a trend. Kendall tau’s statistics showed that there exists a positive correlation between time series and fog frequency. Further, the Theil and Sen’s median slope estimate showed that the magnitude of trend is positive. Magnitude is higher during January compared to December for the entire IGP except in December when it is high over the western IGP. Decade wise time series analysis revealed that there has been continuous increase in fog days. The net overall increase of 99 % was observed over IGP in last four decades. Diurnal variability and average daily persistence were computed by using descriptive statistical techniques. Geo-statistical analysis of fog was carried out to understand the spatial variability of fog. Geo-statistical analysis of fog revealed that IGP is a high fog prone zone with fog occurrence frequency of more than 66% days during the study period. Diurnal variability indicates the peak occurrence of fog is between 06:00 and 10:00 local time and average daily fog persistence extends to 5 to 7 hours during the peak winter season. The results would offer a new perspective to take proactive measures in reducing the irreparable damage that could be caused due to changing trends of fog.

Keywords: Climatology, Trend Analysis, visibility, Mann-Kendall test, spatial variability, fog, temporal variability

Procedia PDF Downloads 116
595 Distribution-Free Exponentially Weighted Moving Average Control Charts for Monitoring Process Variability

Authors: Chen-Fang Tsai, Shin-Li Lu

Abstract:

Distribution-free control chart is an oncoming area from the statistical process control charts in recent years. Some researchers have developed various nonparametric control charts and investigated the detection capability of these charts. The major advantage of nonparametric control charts is that the underlying process is not specifically considered the assumption of normality or any parametric distribution. In this paper, two nonparametric exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) control charts based on nonparametric tests, namely NE-S and NE-M control charts, are proposed for monitoring process variability. Generally, weighted moving average (GWMA) control charts are extended by utilizing design and adjustment parameters for monitoring the changes in the process variability, namely NG-S and NG-M control charts. Statistical performance is also investigated on NG-S and NG-M control charts with run rules. Moreover, sensitivity analysis is performed to show the effects of design parameters under the nonparametric NG-S and NG-M control charts.

Keywords: Distribution-free control chart, EWMA control charts, GWMA control charts

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
594 Variability of Hydrological Modeling of the Blue Nile

Authors: Abeer Samy, Oliver C. Saavedra Valeriano, Abdelazim Negm

Abstract:

The Blue Nile Basin is the most important tributary of the Nile River. Egypt and Sudan are almost dependent on water originated from the Blue Nile. This multi-dependency creates conflicts among the three countries Egypt, Sudan, and Ethiopia making the management of these conflicts as an international issue. Good assessment of the water resources of the Blue Nile is an important to help in managing such conflicts. Hydrological models are good tool for such assessment. This paper presents a critical review of the nature and variability of the climate and hydrology of the Blue Nile Basin as a first step of using hydrological modeling to assess the water resources of the Blue Nile. Many several attempts are done to develop basin-scale hydrological modeling on the Blue Nile. Lumped and semi distributed models used averages of meteorological inputs and watershed characteristics in hydrological simulation, to analyze runoff for flood control and water resource management. Distributed models include the temporal and spatial variability of catchment conditions and meteorological inputs to allow better representation of the hydrological process. The main challenge of all used models was to assess the water resources of the basin is the shortage of the data needed for models calibration and validation. It is recommended to use distributed model for their higher accuracy to cope with the great variability and complexity of the Blue Nile basin and to collect sufficient data to have more sophisticated and accurate hydrological modeling.

Keywords: Climate Change, watershed, Hydrological Modeling, Blue Nile Basin

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
593 An Evolutionary Perspective on the Role of Extrinsic Noise in Filtering Transcript Variability in Small RNA Regulation in Bacteria

Authors: Rinat Arbel-Goren, Joel Stavans

Abstract:

Cell-to-cell variations in transcript or protein abundance, called noise, may give rise to phenotypic variability between isogenic cells, enhancing the probability of survival under stress conditions. These variations may be introduced by post-transcriptional regulatory processes such as non-coding, small RNAs stoichiometric degradation of target transcripts in bacteria. We study the iron homeostasis network in Escherichia coli, in which the RyhB small RNA regulates the expression of various targets as a model system. Using fluorescence reporter genes to detect protein levels and single-molecule fluorescence in situ hybridization to monitor transcripts levels in individual cells, allows us to compare noise at both transcript and protein levels. The experimental results and computer simulations show that extrinsic noise buffers through a feed-forward loop configuration the increase in variability introduced at the transcript level by iron deprivation, illuminating the important role that extrinsic noise plays during stress. Surprisingly, extrinsic noise also decouples of fluctuations of two different targets, in spite of RyhB being a common upstream factor degrading both. Thus, phenotypic variability increases under stress conditions by the decoupling of target fluctuations in the same cell rather than by increasing the noise of each. We also present preliminary results on the adaptation of cells to prolonged iron deprivation in order to shed light on the evolutionary role of post-transcriptional downregulation by small RNAs.

Keywords: Noise, Escherichia coli, cell-to-cell variability, single-molecule fluorescence in situ hybridization (smFISH), transcript

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
592 Recent Climate Variability and Crop Production in the Central Highlands of Ethiopia

Authors: Arragaw Alemayehu, Woldeamlak Bewket

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to understand the influence of current climate variability on crop production in the central highlands of Ethiopia. We used monthly rainfall and temperature data from 132 points each representing a pixel of 10×10 km. The data are reconstructions based on station records and meteorological satellite observations. Production data of the five major crops in the area were collected from the Central Statistical Agency for the period 2004-2013 and for the main cropping season, locally known as Meher. The production data are at the Enumeration Area (EA ) level and hence the best available dataset on crop production. The results show statistically significant decreasing trends in March–May (Belg) rainfall in the area. However, June – September (Kiremt) rainfall showed increasing trends in Efratana Gidim and Menz Gera Meder which the latter is statistically significant. Annual rainfall also showed positive trends in the area except Basona Werana where significant negative trends were observed. On the other hand, maximum and minimum temperatures showed warming trends in the study area. Correlation results have shown that crop production and area of cultivation have positive correlation with rainfall, and negative with temperature. When the trends in crop production are investigated, most crops showed negative trends and below average production was observed. Regression results have shown that rainfall was the most important determinant of crop production in the area. It is concluded that current climate variability has a significant influence on crop production in the area and any unfavorable change in the local climate in the future will have serious implications for household level food security. Efforts to adapt to the ongoing climate change should begin from tackling the current climate variability and take a climate risk management approach.

Keywords: Crop Production, Regression, Climate Variability, Ethiopia, trend, central highlands

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
591 Climate Change and Variability-Induced Resource Based Conflicts: The Case of the Issa, Ittu and Afar (Agro) Pastoralists of Eastern Ethiopia

Authors: Bamlaku Tadesse Mengistu

Abstract:

This article explores the link between climate change/variability and its adaptation/coping strategies with resource-based ethnic conflicts among the Afar, Issa-Somali, and Ittu-Oromo ethnic groups. The qualitative data were collected from community leaders, ordinary members of the communities, and administrative and political bodies at various levels through one-on-one interviews, focus group discussions and field observations. The quantitative data were also collected through a household survey from the randomly selected 128 households drawn from the three districts of Mieso-Mullu, Mieso, and Amibara districts. The study shows that there is a causal relationship between resource scarcity impacted by climate change/variability and ethnic conflicts. The study reveals that the increasing nature of resource scarcity and environmental problems, and also the changing nature of ethnic diversity will aggravate the resource-based inter-ethnic conflicts.

Keywords: Climate Change, ethnic conflict, Eastern Ethiopia, Afar, Issa, Ittu

Procedia PDF Downloads 9
590 Linking Temporal Changes of Climate Factors with Staple Cereal Yields in Southern Burkina Faso

Authors: Pius Borona, Cheikh Mbow, Issa Ouedraogo

Abstract:

In the Sahel, climate variability has been associated with a complex web of direct and indirect impacts. This natural phenomenon has been an impediment to agro-pastoral communities who experience uncertainty while involving in farming activities which is also their key source of livelihood. In this scenario, the role of climate variability in influencing the performance, quantity and quality of staple cereals yields, vital for food and nutrition security has been a topic of importance. This response of crops and subsequent yield variability is also a subject of immense debate due to the complexity of crop development at different stages. This complexity is further compounded by influence of slowly changing non-climatic factors. With these challenges in mind, the present paper initially explores the occurrence of climate variability at an inter annual and inter decadal level in South Burkina Faso. This is evidenced by variation of the total annual rainfall and the number of rainy days among other climatic descriptors. Further, it is shown how district-scale cereal yields in the study area including maize, sorghum and millet casually associate variably to the inter-annual variation of selected climate variables. Statistical models show that the three cereals widely depict sensitivity to the length of the growing period and total dry days in the growing season. Maize yields on the other hand relate strongly to the rainfall amount variation (R2=51.8%) showing high moisture dependence during critical growth stages. Our conclusions emphasize on adoption of efficient water utilization platforms especially those that have evidently increased yields and strengthening of forecasts dissemination.

Keywords: Climate Variability, Rainfall, Seasonality, Burkina Faso, cereal yields, rain fed farming

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
589 Nonlinear Analysis of Shear Deformable Deep Beam Resting on Nonlinear Two-Parameter Random Soil

Authors: M. Seguini, D. Nedjar

Abstract:

In this paper, the nonlinear analysis of Timoshenko beam undergoing moderate large deflections and resting on nonlinear two-parameter random foundation is presented, taking into account the effects of shear deformation, beam’s properties variation and the spatial variability of soil characteristics. The finite element probabilistic analysis has been performed by using Timoshenko beam theory with the Von Kàrmàn nonlinear strain-displacement relationships combined to Vanmarcke theory and Monte Carlo simulations, which is implemented in a Matlab program. Numerical examples of the newly developed model is conducted to confirm the efficiency and accuracy of this later and the importance of accounting for the foundation second parameter (Winkler-Pasternak). Thus, the results obtained from the developed model are presented and compared with those available in the literature to examine how the consideration of the shear and spatial variability of soil’s characteristics affects the response of the system.

Keywords: Nonlinear Analysis, Soil-Structure Interaction, timoshenko beam, Winkler foundation, spatial variability, Pasternak foundation, Euler-Bernoulli beam, large deflection

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
588 Long Term Variability of Temperature in Armenia in the Context of Climate Change

Authors: Hrachuhi Galstyan, Lucian Sfîcă, Pavel Ichim

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to analyze the temporal and spatial variability of thermal conditions in the Republic of Armenia. The paper describes annual fluctuations in air temperature. Research has been focused on case study region of Armenia and surrounding areas, where long–term measurements and observations of weather conditions have been performed within the National Meteorological Service of Armenia and its surrounding areas. The study contains yearly air temperature data recorded between 1961-2012. Mann-Kendal test and the autocorrelation function were applied to detect the change trend of annual mean temperature, as well as other parametric and non-parametric tests searching to find the presence of some breaks in the long term evolution of temperature. The analysis of all records reveals a tendency mostly towards warmer years, with increased temperatures especially in valleys and inner basins. The maximum temperature increase is up to 1,5 °C. Negative results have not been observed in Armenia. The patterns of temperature change have been observed since the 1990’s over much of the Armenian territory. The climate in Armenia was influenced by global change in the last 2 decades, as results from the methods employed within the study.

Keywords: Climate Change, Air Temperature, long-term variability, trend

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
587 Percentile Norms of Heart Rate Variability (HRV) of Indian Sportspersons Withdrawn from Competitive Games and Sports

Authors: Pawan Kumar, Dhananjoy Shaw

Abstract:

Heart rate variability (HRV) is the physiological phenomenon of variation in the time interval between heartbeats and is alterable with fitness, age and different medical conditions including withdrawal/retirement from games/sports. Objectives of the study were to develop (a) percentile norms of heart rate variability (HRV) variables derived from time domain analysis of the Indian sportspersons withdrawn from competitive games/sports pertaining to sympathetic and parasympathetic activity (b) percentile norms of heart rate variability (HRV) variables derived from frequency domain analysis of the Indian sportspersons withdrawn from competitive games/sports pertaining to sympathetic and parasympathetic activity. The study was conducted on 430 males. Ages of the sample ranged from 30 to 35 years of same socio-economic status. Date was collected using ECG polygraphs. Data were processed and extracted using frequency domain analysis and time domain analysis. Collected data were computed with percentile from one to hundred. The finding showed that the percentile norms of heart rate variability (HRV) variables derived from time domain analysis of the Indian sportspersons withdrawn from competitive games/sports pertaining to sympathetic and parasympathetic activity namely, NN50 count (ranged from 1 to 189 score as percentile range). pNN50 count (ranged from .24 to 60.80 score as percentile range). SDNN (ranged from 17.34 to 167.29 score as percentile range). SDSD (ranged from 11.14 to 120.46 score as percentile range). RMMSD (ranged from 11.19 to 120.24 score as percentile range) and SDANN (ranged from 4.02 to 88.75 score as percentile range). The percentile norms of heart rate variability (HRV) variables derived from frequency domain analysis of the Indian sportspersons withdrawn from competitive games/sports pertaining to sympathetic and parasympathetic activity namely Low Frequency (Normalized Power) ranged from 20.68 to 90.49 score as percentile range. High Frequency (Normalized Power) ranged from 14.37 to 81.60 score as percentile range. LF/ HF ratio(ranged from 0.26 to 9.52 score as percentile range). LF (Absolute Power) ranged from 146.79 to 5669.33 score as percentile range. HF (Absolute Power) ranged from 102.85 to 10735.71 score as percentile range and Total Power (Absolute Power) ranged from 471.45 to 25879.23 score as percentile range. Conclusion: The analysis documented percentile norms for time domain analysis and frequency domain analysis for versatile use and evaluation.

Keywords: RMSSD, Percentile, SDANN

Procedia PDF Downloads 296
586 Relationship between Rainfall and Storm in Aegean Region

Authors: Zahide Acar, Irmak Zimba, Yusuf Firat Kurtulus

Abstract:

Global climate change, which is one of the most important problems of our age, affects human life to a great extent. Changes in precipitation and wind frequencies, which are important parameters of the climate, are among the most important indicators of climate change. Changes in precipitation and storm have many materials and moral effects on socio-economic life. Revealing these changes will contribute to taking precautions against possible negative effects. The aim of this study is to evaluate the long-term precipitation trends in the Aegean region and the variability observed in the number of stormy days. For this purpose, average annual rainfall and wind data of 32 stations in the Aegean region were used. Stormy days were calculated from daily wind data. The variability of stormy days between years had been demonstrated. The relationships between the variables of long-term precipitation and stormy days were analyzed. The Mann-Kendall (M-K) rank correlation coefficient method was used to understand the magnitude and nature of the variability in the data. Spearman, the correlation coefficient method, was used to reveal the relationship between rainfall and storm parameters.

Keywords:

Procedia PDF Downloads 1