Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 629

Search results for: toxicity

629 Estimation of the Acute Toxicity of Halogenated Phenols Using Quantum Chemistry Descriptors

Authors: Khadidja Bellifa, Sidi Mohamed Mekelleche

Abstract:

Phenols and especially halogenated phenols represent a substantial part of the chemicals produced worldwide and are known as aquatic pollutants. Quantitative structure–toxicity relationship (QSTR) models are useful for understanding how chemical structure relates to the toxicity of chemicals. In the present study, the acute toxicities of 45 halogenated phenols to Tetrahymena Pyriformis are estimated using no cost semi-empirical quantum chemistry methods. QSTR models were established using the multiple linear regression technique and the predictive ability of the models was evaluated by the internal cross-validation, the Y-randomization and the external validation. Their structural chemical domain has been defined by the leverage approach. The results show that the best model is obtained with the AM1 method (R²= 0.91, R²CV= 0.90, SD= 0.20 for the training set and R²= 0.96, SD= 0.11 for the test set). Moreover, all the Tropsha’ criteria for a predictive QSTR model are verified.

Keywords: hydrophobicity, halogenated phenols, toxicity mechanism, electrophilicity index, quantitative stucture-toxicity relationships

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628 Metal Nanoparticles Caused Death of Metastatic MDA-MB-231 Cells

Authors: O. S. Adeyemi, C. G. Whiteley

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The present study determined the toxic potential of metal nanoparticles in cell culture system. Silver and gold nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized following established "green" protocols. The synthesized nanoparticles, in varying concentrations ranging from 0.1–100 µM were evaluated for toxicity in metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells. The nanoparticles promoted a generation of reactive oxygen species and reduced cell viability to less than 50% in the demonstration of cellular toxicity. The nanoparticles; gold and the silver-gold mixture had IC50 values of 56.65 and 18.44 µM respectively. The IC50 concentration for silver nanoparticles could not be determined. Furthermore, the probe of the cell death using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy revealed the partial involvement of apoptosis as well as necrosis. Our results revealed cellular toxicity caused by the nanoparticles but the mechanism remains yet undefined.

Keywords: Nanomedicine, Toxicity, Nanotoxicology, cell death

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627 Toxicological Study of Umbilicus rupesris L. Leaves: Hematological, Biochemical, and Histopathological Studies

Authors: Afaf Benhouda, Mouloud Yahia, Hachani Khadraoui, Asma Meddour, Souhila Benbia, Abdelmoudjib Ghecham, Djahida Benhouda

Abstract:

Umbilicus rupestris (UR) is an herbal medicine traditionally applied against the ignitions of the skin. The present paper aimed to study the acute and subacute toxicity with orally administered methanolic leaves extract of Umbilicus rupestris L (URMeOH). In acute toxicity tests, four groups of rats (n = 6/group/female) were orally treated with doses of 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 mg/kg, and general behaviour, adverse effects, and mortality were recorded for up to 14 days. In subacute toxicity study, rats received URAMeOH by gavage at the doses of 100, 200 mg/kg/day (n = 6/group) for 28 days, and biochemical, hematological, and histopathological changes in tissues (liver, kidney) were determined. URMeOH did not produce any hazardous symptoms or death and in the acute toxicity test. Subacute treatment with URMeOH did not show any change in body weight, and hematological and biochemical profiles. In addition, no change was observed either in macroscopic or microscopic aspects of vital organs in rats. Our result showed that Umbilicus rupestris extract could be safe for human use.

Keywords: acute toxicity, biochemical parameters, hematological parameters, Umbilicus rupestris, subacute toxicity

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626 Acute Oral Toxicity Study of Mystroxylon aethiopicum Root Bark Aqueous Extract in Albino Mice

Authors: Mhuji Kilonzo

Abstract:

Acute oral toxicity of Mystroxylon aethiopicum root bark aqueous was evaluated in albino mice of either sex. In this study, five groups of mice were orally treated with doses of 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000 and 5000 mg/kg body weight of the crude extract. The mortality, signs of toxicity and body weights were observed individually for two weeks. At the end of the two weeks study, all animals were sacrificed, and the hematological and biochemical parameters, as well as organ weights relative to body weight of each animal, were determined. No mortality, signs of toxicity and abnormalities in vital organs were observed in the entire period of study for both treated and control groups of mice. Additionally, there were no significant changes (p > 0.05) in the blood hematology and biochemical analysis. However, the body weights of all mice increased significantly. The Mystroxylon aethiopicum root bark aqueous extract were found to have a high safe margin when administered orally. Hence, the extract can be utilized for pharmaceutical formulations.

Keywords: Safety, albino mice, Mystroxylon aethiopicum, acute oral toxicity

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625 Determination of Acid Volatile Sulfides–Simultaneously Extracted Metal Relationship and Toxicity in Contaminated Sediment Layer in Mid-Black Sea Coasts

Authors: Arife Simsek, Gulfem Bakan

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Sediment refers to the accumulation of varying amounts of sediment material in natural waters and the formation of bottom sludge. Sediments are the most important sources of pollutants as well as important future sources and carriers of pollutants. The accumulation of pollutants in sediments can cause serious environmental problems for the surrounding areas. Heavy metals (such as Cr, Cd, Al, Pb, Cu, Al, Zn) disrupt the water quality, affect the useful use of sediment, affect the ecosystem and have a toxic effect on the life of the sediment layer. This effect, which accumulates in the aquatic organisms, can enter the human body with the food chain and affect health seriously. Potential metal toxicity can be determined by comparing acid volatile sulfides (AVS) – simultaneously extracted metal (SEM) ratio in anoxic sediments to determine the effect of metals. Determination of the concentration of SEM and AVS is useful in screening sediments for potential toxicity due to the high metal concentration. In the case of SEM/AVS < 0 (anoxic sediment); in terms of AVS biomass production, its toxicity can be controlled. No toxic effects may be observed when SEM / AVS < 0. SEM / AVS > 0 (in the case of oxic sediment); metals with sensitive fraction such as Cu, As, Ag, Zn are stored. In this study, AVS and SEM measurements of sediment samples collected from five different points in the district of Tekkeköy in Samsun province were performed. The SEM - AVS ratio was greater than 0 in all samples. Therefore, it is necessary to test the toxicity against the risks that may occur in the ecosystem.

Keywords: Toxicity, Sediment, heavy metal, Black Sea, AVS-SEM

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624 Protective Effect of Protocatechuic Acid Alone and in Combination with Ascorbic Acid in Aniline Hydrochloride Induced Spleen Toxicity in Rats

Authors: Aman Upaganlawar, Upasana Khairnar, Chandrashekhar Upasani

Abstract:

The present study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of protocatechuic acid alone and in combination with ascorbic acid in aniline hydrochloride-induced spleen toxicity in rats. Male Wistar rats of either sex (200-250g) were used and divided into different groups. Spleen toxicity was induced by aniline hydrochloride (100 ppm) in drinking water for 28 days. Treatment group received protocatechuic acid (40 mg/kg/day, p.o), ascorbic acid (40 mg/kg/day, p.o), and combination of protocatechuic acid (20 mg/kg/day, p.o) and ascorbic acid (20 mg/kg/day, p.o) followed by aniline hydrochloride. At the end of treatment period, serum and tissue parameters were evaluated. Rats supplemented with aniline hydrochloride showed a significant alteration in body weight, spleen weight, feed consumption, water intake, hematological parameters (Hemoglobin content, Red Blood Cells, White Blood Cells and Total iron content), tissue parameters (Lipid peroxidation, Reduced glutathione, Nitric oxide content) compared to control group. Histopathology of aniline hydrochloride-induced spleen showed significant damage compared to control rats. Treatment with Protocatechuic acid along with ascorbic acid showed better protection as compared to protocatechuic acid or ascorbic acid alone in aniline hydrochloride-induced spleen toxicity. In conclusion Treatment with protocatechuic acid and ascorbic acid in combination showed significant protection in aniline hydrochloride-induced splenic toxicity in rats.

Keywords: Antioxidants, ascorbic acid, aniline, spleen toxicity, protocatechuic acid

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623 Toxicity Identification and Evaluation for the Effluent from Seawater Desalination Facility in Korea Using D. magna and V. fischeri

Authors: Sung Jong Lee, Hong Joo Ha, Chun Sang Hong

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In recent years, the interests on the impacts of industrial wastewater on aquatic ecosystem have increased with concern about ecosystem protection and human health. Whole effluent toxicity tests are used to monitor toxicity by unknown toxic chemicals as well as conventional pollutants from industrial effluent discharges. This study describes the application of TIE (toxicity identification evaluation) procedures to an acutely toxic effluent from a Seawater desalination facility in industrial complex which was toxic to Daphnia magna. In TIE phase I (characterization step), the toxic effects by heavy metals, organic compounds, oxidants, volatile organic compounds, suspended solids and ammonia were screened and revealed that the source of toxicity is far from these toxicants group. Chemical analysis (TIE phase II) on TDS showed that the concentration of chloride ion (24,215 ~ 29,562 mg/L) was substantially higher than that predicted from EC50 for D. magna. In confirmation step (TIE phase III), chloride ion was demonstrated to be main toxicant in this effluent by the spiking approach, species sensitivity approach, and deletion approach. Calcium, potassium, magnesium, sodium, fluorine, sulfate ion concentration was not shown toxicity from D. magna. Finally, we concluded that chloride was the most contributing toxicant in the waste water treatment plant. Further research activities are needed for technical support of toxicity identification and evaluation on the various types of wastewater treatment plant discharge in Korea. Acknowledgement: This research was supported by a grant (16IFIP-B089911-03) from Plant Research Program funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government.

Keywords: TIE, D. magna, V. fischeri, seawater desalination facility

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622 Antibacterial Activities, Chemical Constitutes and Acute Toxicity of Peganum Harmala L. Essential Oil

Authors: Samy Selim

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Natural products are still major sources of innovative therapeutic agents for various conditions, including infectious diseases. Peganum harmala L. oil had wide range uses as traditional medicinal plants. The current study was designed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of P. harmala essential oil. The chemical constitutes and toxicity of these oils was also determined to obtain further information on the correlation between the chemical contents and antibacterial activity. The antibacterial effect of the essential oils of P. harmala oil was studied against some foodborne pathogenic bacteria species. The oil of plant was subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The impact of oils administration on the change in rate of weight gain and complete blood picture in hamsters were investigated. P. harmala oil had strong antibacterial effect against bacterial species especially at minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) less than 75.0 μg/ml. From the oil of P. harmala, forty one compounds were identified, and the major constituent was 1-hexyl-2-nitrocyclohexane (9.07%). Acute toxicity test was performed on hamsters and showed complete survival after 14 days, and there were no toxicity symptoms occurred. This study demonstrated that these essential oils seemed to be destitute of toxic effect which could compromise the medicinal use of these plants in folk medicine.

Keywords: Gas Chromatography, analysis mass spectrometry, antibacterial activities, acute toxicity, chemical constitutes, weight gain, Peganum harmala

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621 In silico and Toxicity Study of the Combination of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) and Garlic (Allium sativum L.) as Antihypertensive Herbs

Authors: Doni Dermawan

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Hypertension is a disease with a high prevalence in Indonesia. The prevalence of hypertension in Indonesia is based on the Basic Health Research (Riskesdas) in 2013 which amounted to 25.8%. Medicinal plants have been widely used to treat hypertension including roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) and garlic (Allium sativum L.) by a mechanism as angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor. The purpose of this research is to analyze the in silico (molecular studies) of pharmacological effects and toxicity of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) and garlic (Allium sativum L.) as well as a combination of both are used as antihypertensive herbs. The results of study showed that roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) and garlic (Allium sativum L.) have great potential as antihypertensive herbs based on the affinity and stability of active substances to specific receptor with a much better value than a of antihypertensive drugs (lisinopril). Toxicity values determined by the method of AST, ALT and ALP in which the three values obtained indicate the presence of acute toxic effects that need to be considered in determining the dose of the extract of roselle and garlic as antihypertensives.

Keywords: Toxicity, antihypertensive, in silico, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Allium sativum

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620 Histopathological and Biochemical Evaluation of Hydroxyurea-Induced Hepato-Pulmonary Toxicity and Lymphoid Necrosis in Rats

Authors: Samah Oda, Asmaa Khafaga, Mohammed Hashim, Asmaa Khamis

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Toxicity of hydroxyurea (HU), a treatment for certain tumors, polycythemia, and thrombocytosis, was evaluated in rats in one-month toxicity study. Sixty male albino rats were equally classified into four groups. Rats received daily oral gavage of HU in 0, 250, 500, and 750 mg/kg b.wt. Chemical and histopathological assessment of liver, lung, spleen, and bone marrow was performed at 10, 20, and 30 days of the experiment. No significant change was reported in alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), globulin, and albumin/ globulin ratio during the experiment. Significant decreases in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total albumin were reported in rats received 500 and 750 mg/kg b.wt of HU. In addition, total cholesterol level increased significantly after 10 days; however, it significantly decreased after 20 and 30 days of the experiment. Moreover, hepatocytic vacuolation and necrosis with portal inflammatory infiltrates were reported along experimental periods. Pulmonary congestion, hemorrhage, interstitial mononuclear infiltration, peribronchitis, and bronchial epithelial necrosis were also reported. Severe lymphocytic necrosis in spleen and severe loss of hematopoietic cells and replacement with corresponding adipose tissue in bone marrow tissues was demonstrated. In conclusion, HU could be able to induce severe dose and time-dependent hepato-pulmonary toxicity and lymphoid depression in rats.

Keywords: Histopathology, hydroxyurea, hepato-pulmonary toxicity, lymphoid depression

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619 Adverse Effects of Natural Pesticides on Human and Animals: An Experimental Analysis

Authors: Abdel-Tawab H. Mossa

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Synthetic pesticides are widely used in large-scale worldwide for control pests in agriculture and public health sectors in both developed and developing countries. Although the positive role of pesticides, they have many adverse toxic effects on humans, animals, and the ecosystem. Therefore, in the last few years, scientists have been searching for new active compounds from natural resources as an alternative to synthetic pesticides. Currently, many commercial natural pesticides are available commercially worldwide. These products are recommended for uses in organic farmers and considered as safe pesticides. This paper focuses on the adverse effects of natural pesticides on mammals. Available commercial pesticides in the market contain essential oils (e.g. pepper, cinnamon, and garlic), plant extracts, microorganism (e.g. bacteria, fungi or their toxin), mineral oils and some active compounds from natural recourses e.g. spinosad, neem, pyrethrum, rotenone, abamectin and other active compounds from essential oils (EOs). Some EOs components, e.g., thujone, pulegone, and thymol have high acute toxicity (LD50) is 87.5, 150 and 980 mg/kg. B.wt on mice, respectively. Natural pesticides such as spinosad, pyrethrum, neem, abamectin, and others have toxicological effects to mammals and ecosystem. These compounds were found to cause hematotoxicity, hepato-renal toxicity, biochemical alteration, reproductive toxicity, genotoxicity, and mutagenicity. It caused adverse effects on the ecosystem. Therefore, natural pesticides in general not safe and have high acute toxicity and can induce adverse effects at long-term exposure.

Keywords: Ecosystem, Biochemical, Safety, Toxicity, Natural Pesticides, Genotoxicity

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618 Protective Effect of Aframomun chrysanthum Seed Aqueous Extract in Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Toxicity in Rats

Authors: N. Nwachoko, E. B. Essien, E. O. Ayalogu

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Owing to the outbreak of different diseases and microbial resistance to some available drugs, proper identification, and evaluation of plants have been encouraged. There have been claims worldwide by the traditional system that some plants possessed medicinal properties. Plants and their components have been said to be source of large amount of drugs which comprise of distinct groups such as antispasmodics, anticancer and antimicrobials. Researchers have reported that chemicals in plants are responsible for the medicinal uses of plants. Thus this study evaluated the protective effect of Aframomun chrysanthum seed aqueous extract in acetaminophen-induced liver toxicity in rats. A suspension of 750 mg/kg acetaminophen was administered once every 72 hours to induce toxicity in the rats. Oral administration of 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight of the extract and 100 mg/kg of silymarin (reference drug) were administered for 10 days. Biochemical analysis showed significant (p < 0.05) increase in the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT)and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)as well as the concentrations of albumin (ALB) and total bilirubin (T.B.) levels in rats administered with acetaminophen only. The levels of these parameters were significantly (p < 0.05) decreased in the groups pretreated with the extract.

Keywords: Toxicity, Silymarin, hepatoprotective, Aframomun chrysanthum

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617 Protective Effect of Celosia Argentea Leaf Extract on Cadmium Induced Toxicity and Oxidative Stress in Rats

Authors: Sulyman Abdulhakeem Olarewaju, S. O. Malomo, M. T. Yakubu, J. O. Akolade

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The ameliorative effect of Celosia argentea var. cristata leaf extract against cadmium (Cd) induced oxidative stress and toxicity in selected tissues of rats was investigated. Toxicity coupled with oxidative stress was induced in rats by oral administration of Cd (8 mg/kg b. wt). Preliminary quantitative phytochemical and in vitro antioxidant analyses showed that the methanolic extract of C. argentea leaves was constituted by polyphenols (5.72%), saponins (3.20%), tannins (0.65%) and cadenolides (0.006%). IC50 of 9800, 7406, and 45.04 μg/ml were recorded for inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation, 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and hydrogen peroxide radicals respectively. Simultaneous administration of C. argentea leaf extract with Cd significantly attenuated Cd-induced elevation of serum enzyme markers such as aspartate and alanine transaminase, alkaline and acid phosphatase as well as γ-glutaryltransferase in a dose-dependent fashion, while their reduced level in the liver were significantly increased. Higher levels of enzymatic antioxidants; superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were observed in the liver, brain, kidney and testes of the Cd-induced rats treated with C. argentea extract, while lipid peroxidation expressed in malondialdehyde concentrations were lower when compared to values in rats administered Cd only. Other Cd-induced toxicity and stress markers in the serum viz. reduced uric acid and albumin levels as well as elevated total and unconjugated bilirubin were attenuated by the extract and their values compared favorably with those animals co-administered cadmium with ascorbic acid. Data from the study showed that oral administration of extract from the leaf C. argentea may ameliorate Cd-induced oxidative stress and toxicity in rats.

Keywords: Toxicity, Oxidative Stress, Antioxidants, cadmium, celosia

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616 Analgesic, Toxicity and Anti-Pyretic Activities of Methanolic Extract from Hyoscyamus albus Leaves in Albinos Rats

Authors: Yahia Massinissa, Henhouda Affaf, Yahia Mouloud

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The aim of this study was to investigate the toxicity; analgesic and anti-pyretic properties of standardized HA methanolic extract (HAMeOH) in vivo. The acute toxicity study was performed on rats while adopting the OECD-420 Guidelines (fixed dose procedure). Assessment of analgesic activity was performed in rats with two analgesic models. One was acetic acid induced writhing response and the other formalin-induced paw licking. The anti-pyretic effect was tested by brewer’s yeast induced fever in rats. For the acute toxicity test, the higher dose administration of 2000 mg/kg bw. of Hyoscyamus albus did not produce any toxic signs or deaths in rats. There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in the body and organ weights between control and treated groups. The (LD50) of Hyoscyamus albus was higher than 2000 g/kg bw. In subacute toxicity study, no mortality and toxic signs were observed with the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg bw. of extracts of for 28 consecutive days. These analgesic experimental results indicated that HAMeOH (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg) decreased the acetic acid-induced writhing responses and HAMeOH (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg) decreased the licking time in the second phase of the formalin test. Moreover, in the model of yeast induced elevation of the body temperature HAMeOH showed dose-dependent lowering of the body temperature up to 3h at both the doses these results obtained, were comparable to that of paracetamol. The present findings indicate that the leaves of Hyoscyamus albus L. possess potent analgesic and antipyretic activity.

Keywords: Toxicity, Hyoscyamus albus, methanolic extract, analgesic activity, antipyretic activity, formalin test

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615 Studies on Toxicity and Mechanical Properties of Nonmetallic Printed Circuit Boards Waste in Recycled HDPE Composites

Authors: Shantha Kumari Muniyandi, Johan Sohaili, Siti Suhaila Mohamad

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The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of reusing nonmetallic printed circuit boards (PCBs) waste in recycled HDPE (rHDPE) in terms of toxicity and mechanical properties. A series of X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRF) analysis tests have been conducted on raw nonmetallic PCBs waste to determine the chemical compositions. It can be seen that the nonmetallic PCBs approximately 72% of glass fiber reinforced epoxy resin materials such as SiO2, Al2O3, CaO, MgO, BaO, Na2O, and SrO, 9.4% of metallic materials such as CuO, SnO2, and Fe2O3, and 6.53% of Br. Total Threshold Limit Concentration (TTLC) and Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) tests also have been done to study the toxicity characteristics of raw nonmetallic PCB powders, rHDPE/PCB and virgin HDPE for comparison purposes. For both of the testing, Cu was identified as the highest metal element contained in raw PCBs with the concentration of 905 mg/kg and 59.09 mg/L for TTLC and TCLP, respectively. However, once the nonmetallic PCB was filled in rHDPE composites, the concentrations of Cu were reduced to 134 mg/kg for TTLC and to 3 mg/L for TCLP testing. For mechanical properties testing, incorporation of 40 wt% nonmetallic PCB into rHDPE has increased the flexural modulus and flexural strength by 140% and 36%, respectively. While, Izod Impact strength decreased steadily with incorporation of 10 – 40 wt% nonmetallic PCBs.

Keywords: Composites, Mechanical Properties, nonmetallic printed circuit board, recycled HDPE, total threshold limit concentration, toxicity characteristic leaching procedure

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614 Comparative and Combined Toxicity of NiO and Mn₃O₄ Nanoparticles as Assessed in vitro and in vivo

Authors: Ilzira A. Minigalieva, Tatiana V. Bushueva, Eleonore Frohlich, Vladimir Panov, Ekaterina Shishkina, Boris A. Katsnelson

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Background: The overwhelming majority of the experimental studies in the field of metal nanotoxicology have been performed on cultures of established cell lines, with very few researchers focusing on animal experiments, while a juxtaposition of conclusions inferred from these two types of research is blatantly lacking. The least studied aspect of this problem relates to characterizing and predicting the combined toxicity of metallic nanoparticles. Methods: Comparative and combined toxic effects of purposefully prepared spherical NiO and Mn₃O₄ nanoparticles (mean diameters 16.7 ± 8.2 nm and 18.4 ± 5.4 nm respectively) were estimated on cultures of human cell lines: MRC-5 fibroblasts, THP-1 monocytes, SY-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, as well as on the latter two lines differentiated to macrophages and neurons, respectively. The combined cytotoxicity was mathematically modeled using the response surface methodology. Results: The comparative assessment of the studied NPs unspecific toxicity previously obtained in vivo was satisfactorily reproduced by the present in vitro tests. However, with respect to manganese-specific brain damage which had been demonstrated by us in animal experiment with the same NPs, the testing on neuronall cell culture showed only a certain enhancing effect of Mn₃O₄-NPs on the toxic action of NiO-NPs, while the role of the latter prevailed. Conclusion: From the point of view of the preventive toxicology, the experimental modeling of metallic NPs combined toxicity on cell cultures can give non-reliable predictions of the in vivo action’s effects.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, manganese oxide, nickel oxide, in vitro toxicity

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613 Toxicological Analysis of Some Plant Combinations Used for the Treatment of Hypertension by Lay People in Northern Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa

Authors: Mmbulaheni Ramulondi, Sandy Van Vuuren, Helene De Wet

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The use of plant combinations to treat various medical conditions is not a new concept, and it is known that traditional people do not only rely on a single plant extract for efficacy but often combine various plant species for treatment. The knowledge of plant combinations is transferred from one generation to the other in the belief that combination therapy may enhance efficacy, reduce toxicity, decreases adverse effects, increase bioavailability and result in lower dosages. However, combination therapy may also be harmful when the interaction is antagonistic, since it may result in increasing toxicity. Although a fair amount of research has been done on the toxicity of medicinal plants, there is very little done on the toxicity of medicinal plants in combination. The aim of the study was to assess the toxicity potential of 19 plant combinations which have been documented as treatments of hypertension in northern KwaZulu-Natal by lay people. The aqueous extracts were assessed using two assays; the Brine shrimp assay (Artemia franciscana) and the Ames test (Mutagenicity). Only one plant combination (Aloe marlothii with Hypoxis hemerocallidea) in the current study has been previously assessed for toxicity. With the Brine shrimp assay, the plant combinations were tested in two concentrations (2 and 4 mg/ml), while for mutagenicity tests, they were tested at 5 mg/ml. The results showed that in the Brine shrimp assay, six combinations were toxic at 4 mg/ml. The combinations were Albertisia delagoensis with Senecio serratuloides (57%), Aloe marlothii with Catharanthus roseus (98%), Catharanthus roseus with Hypoxis hemerocallidea (66%), Catharanthus roseus with Musa acuminata (89%), Catharanthus roseus with Momordica balsamina (99%) and Aloe marlothii with Trichilia emetica and Hyphaene coriacea (50%). However when the concentration was reduced to 2 mg/ml, only three combinations were toxic which were Aloe marlothii with Catharanthus roseus (76%), Catharanthus roseus with Musa acuminata (66%) and Catharanthus roseus with Momordica balsamina (73%). For the mutagenicity assay, only the combinations between Catharanthus roseus with Hypoxis hemerocallidea and Catharanthus roseus with Momordica balsamina were mutagenic towards the Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100. Most of the combinations which were toxic involve C. roseus which was also toxic when tested singularly. It is worth noting that C. roseus was one of the most frequently used plant species both to treat hypertension singularly and in combination and some of the individuals have been using this for the last 20 years. The mortality percentage of the Brine shrimp showed a significant correlation between dosage and toxicity thus toxicity was dosage dependant. A combination which is worth noting is the combination between A. delagoensis and S. serratuloides. Singularly these plants were non-toxic towards Brine shrimp, however their combination resulted in antagonism with the mortality rate of 57% at the total concentration of 4 mg/ml. Low toxicity was mostly observed, giving some validity to combined use, however the few combinations showing increased toxicity demonstrate the importance of analysing plant combinations.

Keywords: Toxicity, Hypertension, dosage, plant combinations

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612 Conjunctive Use of Shallow Groundwater for Irrigation Purpose: The Case of Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate, Ethiopia

Authors: Megersa Olumana Dinka, Kassahun Birhanu Tadesse

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Irrigation suitability of shallow groundwater (SGW) was investigated by taking thirty groundwater samples from piezometers and hand-dug wells in Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate (WSSE) (Ethiopia). Many physicochemical parameters (Mg²⁺, Na⁺, Ca²⁺, K⁺, CO₃-, SO4²⁻, HCO₃⁻, Cl⁻, TH, EC, TDS and pH) were analyzed following standard procedures. Different irrigation indices (MAR, SSP, SAR, RSC, KR, and PI) were also used for SGW suitability assessment. If all SGW are blended and used for irrigation, the salinity problem would be slight to moderate, and 100% of potential sugarcane yield could be obtained. The infiltration and sodium ion toxicity problems of the blended water would be none to moderate, and slight to moderate, respectively. As sugarcane is semi-tolerant to sodium toxicity, no significant sodium toxicity problem would be expected from the use of blended water. Blending SGW would also reduce each chloride and boron ion toxicity to none. In general, the rating of SGW was good to excellent for irrigation in terms of average EC (salinity), and excellent in terms of average SAR (infiltration). The SGW of the WSSE was categorized under C3S1 (high salinity and low sodium hazard). In conclusion, the conjunctive use of groundwater for irrigation would help to reduce the potential effect of waterlogging and salinization and their associated problems on soil and sugarcane production and productivity. However, a high value of SSP and RSC indicate a high possibility of infiltration problem. Hence, it is advisable to use the SGW for irrigation after blending with surface water. In this case, the optimum blending ratio of the surface to SGW sources has to be determined for sustainable sugarcane productivity.

Keywords: Toxicity, Salinity, sugarcane, infiltration, blending, sodicity

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611 Toxicity of Bisphenol-A: Effects on Health and Regulations

Authors: Tuğba Özdal, Neşe Şahin Yeşilçubuk

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Bisphenol-A (BPA) is one of the highest volume chemicals produced worldwide in the plastic industry. This compound is mostly used in producing polycarbonate plastics that are often used for food and beverage storage, and BPA is also a component of epoxy resins that are used to line food and beverage containers. Studies performed in this area indicated that BPA could be extracted from such products while they are in contact with food. Therefore, BPA exposure is presumed. In this paper, the chemical structure of BPA, factors affecting BPA migration to food and beverages, effects on health, and recent regulations will be reviewed.

Keywords: Toxicity, Health, Regulations, BPA

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610 Effect of Arsenic Treatment on Element Contents of Sunflower, Growing in Nutrient Solution

Authors: Szilvia Várallyay, Szilvia Veres, Éva Bódi, Farzaneh Garousi, Béla Kovács

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The agricultural environment is contaminated with heavy metals and other toxic elements, which means more and more threats. One of the most important toxic element is the arsenic. Consequences of arsenic toxicity in the plant organism is decreases the weight of the roots, and causes discoloration and necrosis of leaves. The toxicity of arsenic depends on the quality and quantity of the arsenic specialization. The arsenic in the soil and in the plant presents as a most hazardous specialization. A dicotyledon plant were chosen for the experiment, namely sunflower. The sunflower plants were grown in nutrient solution in different As(III) levels. The content of As, P, Fe were measured from experimental plants, using by ICP-MS.Negative correlation was observed between the higher concentration of As(V) and As(III) in the nutrition solution and the content of P in the sunflower tissue. The amount of Fe was decreasing if we used a higher concentration of arsenic (30 mg kg-1). We can tell the conclusion that the arsenic had a negative effect on the sunflower tissue P and Fe content.

Keywords: Toxicity, Arsenic, Sunflower, ICP-MS

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609 Response of Lepidium Sativum to Ionic Toxicity

Authors: M. F. El-Barghathi, R. El-Tajouri

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The effect of different concentrations of cadmium sulfate "CdSO4" (0.0, 10, 50, 100, 500 ppm) was tested on seed germination, seedling elongation and growth of Lepidium sativum (garden cress) plants. Results indicated that seed germination and seedling elongation were not inhibited by different concentrations of CdSO4. This could suggest that, Lepidium sativum may be used as a phyto remediation tool of soils contaminated with cadmium.

Keywords: Heavy Metals, Phytoremediation, Lepidium sativum, ionic toxicity

Procedia PDF Downloads 444
608 Copper Related Toxicity of 1-Hydroxy-2-Thiopyridines

Authors: Elena G. Salina, Vadim A. Makarov

Abstract:

With the emergence of primary resistance to the current drugs and wide distribution of latent tuberculosis infection, a need for new compounds with a novel mode of action is growing steadily. Copper-mediated innate immunity and antibacterial toxicity propose novel strategies in TB drug discovery and development. Transcriptome of M. tuberculosis was obtained by RNA-seq, intracellular copper content was measured by ISP MS and complexes of 1-hydroxy-2-thiopyridines with copper were detected by HPLC.1-hydroxy-2-thiopyridine derivatives were found to be highly active in vitro against both actively growing and dormant non-culturable M. tuberculosis. Transcriptome response to 1-hydroxy-2-thiopyridines revealed signs of copper toxicity in M. tuberculosis bacilli. Indeed, Cu was found to accumulate inside cells treated with 1-hydroxy-2-thiopyridines. These compounds were found to form stable charged lipophylic complexes with Cu²⁺ ions which transport into mycobacterial cell. Subsequent metabolic destruction of the complex led to transformation of 1-hydroxy-2-thiopyridines into 2-methylmercapto-2-ethoxycarbonylpyridines, which did not possess antitubercular activity and releasing of free Cu²⁺ in the cytoplasm. 1-hydroxy-2-thiopyridines are a potent class of Cu-dependent inhibitors of M. tuberculosis which may control M. tuberculosis infection by impairment of copper homeostasis. Acknowledgment: This work was financially supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of the RussianFederation (Agreement No 14.616.21.0065; unique identifier RFMEFI61616X0065).

Keywords: Drug discovery, copper toxicity, M. tuberculosis inhibitors

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607 Analysis of Human Toxicity Potential of Major Building Material Production Stage Using Life Cycle Assessment

Authors: Rakhyun Kim, Sungho Tae

Abstract:

Global environmental issues such as abnormal weathers due to global warming, resource depletion, and ecosystem distortions have been escalating due to rapid increase of population growth, and expansion of industrial and economic development. Accordingly, initiatives have been implemented by many countries to protect the environment through indirect regulation methods such as Environmental Product Declaration (EPD), in addition to direct regulations such as various emission standards. Following this trend, life cycle assessment (LCA) techniques that provide quantitative environmental information, such as Human Toxicity Potential (HTP), for buildings are being developed in the construction industry. However, at present, the studies on the environmental database of building materials are not sufficient to provide this support adequately. The purpose of this study is to analysis human toxicity potential of major building material production stage using life cycle assessment. For this purpose, the theoretical consideration of the life cycle assessment and environmental impact category was performed and the direction of the study was set up. That is, the major material in the global warming potential view was drawn against the building and life cycle inventory database was selected. The classification was performed about 17 kinds of substance and impact index, such as human toxicity potential, that it specifies in CML2001. The environmental impact of analysis human toxicity potential for the building material production stage was calculated through the characterization. Meanwhile, the environmental impact of building material in the same category was analyze based on the characterization impact which was calculated in this study. In this study, establishment of environmental impact coefficients of major building material by complying with ISO 14040. Through this, it is believed to effectively support the decisions of stakeholders to improve the environmental performance of buildings and provide a basis for voluntary participation of architects in environment consideration activities.

Keywords: Life Cycle Assessment, human toxicity potential, major building material, production stage

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606 Establishing a Drug Discovery Platform to Progress Compounds into the Clinic

Authors: Sheraz Gul

Abstract:

The requirements for progressing a compound to clinical trials is well established and relies on the results from in-vitro and in-vivo animal tests to indicate that it is likely to be safe and efficacious when testing in humans. The typical data package required will include demonstrating compound safety, toxicity, bioavailability, pharmacodynamics (potential effects of the compound on body systems) and pharmacokinetics (how the compound is potentially absorbed, distributed, metabolised and eliminated after dosing in humans). If the desired criteria are met and the compound meets the clinical Candidate criteria and is deemed worthy of further development, a submission to regulatory bodies such as the US Food & Drug Administration for an exploratory Investigational New Drug Study can be made. The purpose of this study is to collect data to establish that the compound will not expose humans to unreasonable risks when used in limited, early-stage clinical studies in patients or normal volunteer subjects (Phase I). These studies are also designed to determine the metabolism and pharmacologic actions of the drug in humans, the side effects associated with increasing doses, and, if possible, to gain early evidence on their effectiveness. In order to reach the above goals, we have developed a pre-clinical high throughput Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion–Toxicity (ADME–Toxicity) panel of assays to identify compounds that are likely to meet the Lead and Candidate compound acceptance criteria. This panel includes solubility studies in a range of biological fluids, cell viability studies in cancer and primary cell-lines, mitochondrial toxicity, off-target effects (across the kinase, protease, histone deacetylase, phosphodiesterase and GPCR protein families), CYP450 inhibition (5 different CYP450 enzymes), CYP450 induction, cardio-toxicity (hERG) and gene-toxicity. This panel of assays has been applied to multiple compound series developed in a number of projects delivering Lead and clinical Candidates and examples from these will be presented.

Keywords: Drug discovery, Distribution, Pharmacodynamics, Absorption, metabolism and excretion–toxicity, food and drug administration

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605 Ecotoxicological Safety of Wastewater Treated with Lignocellulosic Adsorbents

Authors: Luísa P. Cruz-Lopes, Artur Figueirinha, Isabel Brás, Bruno Esteves

Abstract:

Portugal is an important wine and olive oil producer, activities which generate a high quantity of residues commonly called grape stalks and olive cake, respectively. In this work grape stalks and olive cake were used as lignocellulosic adsorbents for wastewater containing lead treatment. To attain a better knowledge of the factors that could influence the quality of the treated wastewater, a chemical characterization of the materials used in the treatment was done. To access the ecotoxicological safety of the treated wastewater, several tests were performed. The results of the toxicity test show that the samples leachate has a mild effect on the living models tested. The tests performed in lemna and bacteria were the most sensible to toxicity effects of the samples. The results obtained in this work evidenced the importance of use of simple and fast toxicity tests to predict impacts in the environment.

Keywords: wastewater, Chemical Composition, lignocellulosic residues, ecotoxicological safety

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604 Camel Thorn Has Hepatoprotective Activity Against Carbon Tetrachloride or Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity but Enhances the Cardiac Toxicity of Adriamycin in Rodents

Authors: Awad G. Abdellatif, Huda M. Gargoum, Abdelkader A. Debani, Mudafara Bengleil, Salmin Alshalmani, N. El Zuki, Omran El Fitouri

Abstract:

In this study, the administration of 660 mg/kg of the ethanolic extract of the Alhgigraecorum (camel thorn) to mice, showed a significant decrease in the level of transaminases in animals treated with a combination of CTE plus carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) or acetaminophen as compared to animals receiving CCl4 or acetaminophen alone. The histopathological investigation also confirmed that camel thorn extract protects the liver against damage-induced either by carbon tetrachloride or acetaminophen. On the other hand, the cardiac toxicity produced by adriamycin was significantly increased in the presence of the ethanolic extract of camel thorn. Our study suggested that camel thorn can protect the liver against the injury produced by carbon tetrachloride or acetaminophen, with an unexpected increase in the cardiac toxicity–induced by adriamycin in rodents.

Keywords: ethanolic, alhgigraecorum, tetrachloride, acetaminophen

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603 Preparation and Evaluation of Citrus hystrix Nanoemulsion Formulation against Rice Weevil, Sitophilus oryzae

Authors: Elsayed Elmiligy, Dzolkhifili Omar, Norhayu Asib

Abstract:

Sitophilus oryzae is a primary destructive insect pest. A study on nanoemulsion formulation of C. hystrix peel oil and evaluation of its insecticidal effect on the adults of S. oryzae was held in toxicology laboratory at Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM). Three nanoemulsion formulations (F1, F2, and F3) were prepared using C. hystrix peel oil (a.i), Tween 80 (surfactant), AMD 810 (carrier) and deionized water. The selected formulations have undergone stability tests, surface tension, zeta potential and particle size measurements. The formulations were tested for their contact and fumigant activity against the adults of S. oryzae. LC₅₀ values were obtained from Probit regressions using the Polo-PC program. All the formulations showed stability under storage temperature and centrifugation. They were characterized as nanoemulsions as they remained in the range of nanoscale 200 nm. The formulations revealed lower surface tension in the range of 29.5 to 30.4 mN/m. They showed stable of zeta potential values. The formulations showed the highest toxicity against the adults of S. oryzae. The order of decreasing toxicity was F1 > F2 > F3 with LC₅₀ values of 52.1, 58.5, and 61.7 µl/l for contact toxicity, and 71, 75.5, and 76.7 µl/l air for fumigant bioassay after 72 hours. Formulation of C. hystrix peel oil in a nanoemulsion enhance its effectiveness and reduce the amount of applied essential oil.

Keywords: Nanoemulsion, Sitophilus oryzae, contact toxicity, Citrus hystrix peel oil, Fumigant bioassay

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602 Sub-Acute Toxicity Studies on Aqueous Leaf Extract of Acalypha wilkesiana in Albino Rats

Authors: G. E. Forcados, M. L. Shu, C. N. Chinyere

Abstract:

Acalypha wilkesiana is a medicinal plant commonly used in most parts of West Africa as a decoction in treating several human diseases. Existing literature on its toxicity is predominantly on the organic extracts in contrast to the routine use of hot aqueous extracts as decoction. The aim of this study was to examine the phytochemical profile and sub-acute toxicity of A. wilkesiana leaf extracts in albino rats. Three groups of 8 experimental rats each were administered 300 mg/kg, 600 mg/kg and 1200 mg/kg body weight per day for 14 days while a fourth (control) group took tap-water. On day 15, the rats were sacrificed, and blood collected. Biochemical and hematological parameters were analysed and histopathological examination of liver and kidney were performed. There was significant increase (p<0.05) in the levels of some biochemical parameters (AST, ALT, creatinine, urea) in all the test groups compared to control. Histopathological examination of the liver revealed centrilobular degeneration and necrosis with sinusoidal dilatation as well as polymorphonuclear and mononuclear infiltration, likewise severe glomerular and tubular degeneration and necrosis with hemorrhage in the kidney at all dose levels. The results from this study suggest that aqueous leaf extract of A. wilkesiana is hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic at dose levels of 300 mg/kg and above. Therefore, precautionary measures are necessary for home use of the leaf extract of A. wilkesiana.

Keywords: acute toxicity, albino rats, histopathological examination, A. wilkesiana, aqeous extract, biochemical and haematological parameters

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601 The Retrospective Investigation of the Impacts of Alien Taxa on Human Health: A Case Study of Two Poison Information Centers

Authors: Moleseng Claude Moshobane

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Alien species cause considerable negative impacts on biodiversity, economy and public health. Impacts of alien species on public health have received a degree of attention worldwide, largely in developed countries, but scarce in developing countries. Here, we provide a review of human exposures and poisonings cases from native and alien plant species reported to poison information centers. A retrospective review of the Tygerberg Poison Information Centre (TPIC) and Poisons Information Centre (PIC) at Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital (RCWMCH) was conducted over approximately 2-year period (1 June 2015 through to 06 March 2017). Combined, TPIC and PIC handled 626 cases during the 2-year period. Toxicity cases were more abundant in Gauteng (47.1%), followed by Western Cape (29.4%). The primary mechanism of injury was ingestion (96.7%), and all cases were predominantly accidental. Most reported cases involved infants (20.6%), with few fully-grown adults related cases (5.8%). Adults presented minor to moderate toxicity, while infants none to minor toxicity. We conclude that reported toxicity cases on human health are biased towards few alien species and that several cases relate to unknown species of mushrooms. Public awareness is essential to reducing the poisoning incidences.

Keywords: Public Health, Invasive Species, poisoning, alien species

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600 Identifying Knowledge Gaps in Incorporating Toxicity of Particulate Matter Constituents for Developing Regulatory Limits on Particulate Matter

Authors: Ananya Das, Arun Kumar, Gazala Habib, Vivekanandan Perumal

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Regulatory bodies has proposed limits on Particulate Matter (PM) concentration in air; however, it does not explicitly indicate the incorporation of effects of toxicities of constituents of PM in developing regulatory limits. This study aimed to provide a structured approach to incorporate toxic effects of components in developing regulatory limits on PM. A four-step human health risk assessment framework consists of - (1) hazard identification (parameters: PM and its constituents and their associated toxic effects on health), (2) exposure assessment (parameters: concentrations of PM and constituents, information on size and shape of PM; fate and transport of PM and constituents in respiratory system), (3) dose-response assessment (parameters: reference dose or target toxicity dose of PM and its constituents), and (4) risk estimation (metric: hazard quotient and/or lifetime incremental risk of cancer as applicable). Then parameters required at every step were obtained from literature. Using this information, an attempt has been made to determine limits on PM using component-specific information. An example calculation was conducted for exposures of PM2.5 and its metal constituents from Indian ambient environment to determine limit on PM values. Identified data gaps were: (1) concentrations of PM and its constituents and their relationship with sampling regions, (2) relationship of toxicity of PM with its components.

Keywords: Air, Particulate Matter, component-specific toxicity, human health risks

Procedia PDF Downloads 200