Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1773

Search results for: solid solubility

1773 Solubility Enhancement of Poorly Soluble Anticancer Drug, Docetaxel Using a Novel Polymer, Soluplus via Solid Dispersion Technique

Authors: Adinarayana Gorajana, Venkata Srikanth Meka, Sanjay Garg, Lim Sue May

Abstract:

This study was designed to evaluate and enhance the solubility of poorly soluble drug, docetaxel through solid dispersion (SD) technique prepared using freeze drying method. Docetaxel solid dispersions were formulated with Soluplus in different weight ratios. Freeze drying method was used to prepare the solid dispersions. Solubility of the solid dispersions were evaluated respectively and the optimized of drug-solubilizers ratio systems were characterized with different analytical methods like Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to confirm the formation of complexes between drug and solubilizers. The solubility data revealed an overall improvement in solubility for all SD formulations. The ternary combination 1:5:2 gave the highest increase in solubility that is approximately 3 folds from the pure drug, suggesting the optimum drug-solubilizers ratio system. This data corresponds with the DSC and SEM analyses, which demonstrates presence of drug in amorphous state and the dispersion in the solubilizers in molecular level. The solubility of the poorly soluble drug, docetaxel was enhanced through preparation of solid dispersion formulations employing freeze drying method. Solid dispersion with multiple carrier system shows better solubility compared to single carrier system.

Keywords: docetaxel, freeze drying, soluplus, solid dispersion technique

Procedia PDF Downloads 373
1772 Solid Dispersions of Cefixime Using β-Cyclodextrin: Characterization and in vitro Evaluation

Authors: Nagasamy Venkatesh Dhandapani, Amged Awad El-Gied

Abstract:

Cefixime, a BCS class II drug, is insoluble in water but freely soluble in acetone and in alcohol. The aqueous solubility of cefixime in water is poor and exhibits exceptionally slow and intrinsic dissolution rate. In the present study, cefixime and β-Cyclodextrin (β-CD) solid dispersions were prepared with a view to study the effect and influence of β-CD on the solubility and dissolution rate of this poorly aqueous soluble drug. Phase solubility profile revealed that the solubility of cefixime was increased in the presence of β-CD and was classified as AL-type. Effect of variable, such as drug:carrier ratio, was studied. Physical characterization of the solid dispersion was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). These studies revealed that a distinct loss of drug crystallinity in the solid molecular dispersions is ostensibly accounting for enhancement of dissolution rate in distilled water. The drug release from the prepared solid dispersion exhibited a first order kinetics. Solid dispersions of cefixime showed a 6.77 times fold increase in dissolution rate over the pure drug.

Keywords: β-cyclodextrin, cefixime, dissolution, Kneading method, solid dispersions, release kinetics

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
1771 Enhancement of 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid Solubility via Solid Dispersion Technique

Authors: Tamer M. Shehata, Heba S. Elsewedy, Mashel Al Dosary, Alaa Elshehry, Mohamed A. Khedr, Maged E. Mohamed

Abstract:

Objective: 2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) is a well-known herbicide widely used as a weed killer. Recently, 2,4-D was rediscovered as a new anti-inflammatory agent through in silico as well as in-vivo experiments. However, poor solubility of 2,4-D could represent a problems during pharmaceutical development in addition to lower bioavailability. Solid dispersion (SD) refers to a group of solid products consisting of at least two different components, usually a hydrophobic drug and hydrophilic matrix. It is well known technique for enhancing drug solubility. Therefore, selecting SD as a tool for enhancing 2,4-D could be of great interest to the formulator. Method: In our project, several polymers were investigated (such as PEG, HPMC, citric acid and others) in addition to drug polymer ratios and its effect on solubility. Evaluation of drug polymer interaction was investigated through both Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). Finally, in-vivo evaluation was performed for the best selected preparation through inflammatory response of rat induce hind paw. Results: Results indicated that, citric acid 2,4-D and in ratio of 0.75 : 1 showed modified the dissolution profile of the drug. The FTIR resltes indicated no significant chemical interaction, however DSC showed shifting of the drug melting point. Finally, Carragenan induced rat hind paw edema showed significant reduction of the drug solid dispersion in comparison to the pure drug, indicating rapid and complete absorption of the drug in solid dispersion form. Conclusion: Solid dispersion technology can be utilized efficiently to enhance the solubility of 2,4-D.

Keywords: solid dispersion, 2, 4-D solubility, carragenan induced edema

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
1770 The Hansen Solubility Parameters of Some Lignosulfonates

Authors: Bernt O. Myrvold

Abstract:

Lignosulfonates (LS) find widespread use as dispersants, binders, anti-oxidants, and fillers. In most of these applications LS is used in formulation together with a number of other components. To better understand the interactions between LS and water and possibly other components in a formulation, the Hansen solubility parameters have been determined for some LS. The Hansen solubility parameter splits the total solubility parameter into three components, the dispersive, polar and hydrogen bonding part. The Hansen solubility parameter was determined by comparing the solubility in a number of solvents and solvent mixtures. We have found clear differences in the solubility parameters, with softwood LS being closer to water than hardwood LS.

Keywords: Hansen solubility parameter, lignosulfonate (LS), solubility, solvent

Procedia PDF Downloads 408
1769 Dissolution Kinetics of Chevreul’s Salt in Ammonium Cloride Solutions

Authors: Mustafa Sertçelik, Turan Çalban, Hacali Necefoğlu, Sabri Çolak

Abstract:

In this study, Chevreul’s salt solubility and its dissolution kinetics in ammonium chloride solutions were investigated. Chevreul’s salt that we used in the studies was obtained by using the optimum conditions (ammonium sulphide concentration; 0,4 M, copper sulphate concentration; 0,25 M, temperature; 60°C, stirring speed; 600 rev/min, pH; 4 and reaction time; 15 mins) determined by T. Çalban et al. Chevreul’s salt solubility in ammonium chloride solutions and the kinetics of dissolution were investigated. The selected parameters that affect solubility were reaction temperature, concentration of ammonium chloride, stirring speed, and solid/liquid ratio. Correlation of experimental results had been achieved using linear regression implemented in the statistical package program statistica. The effect of parameters on Chevreul’s salt solubility was examined and integrated rate expression of dissolution rate was found using kinetic models in solid-liquid heterogeneous reactions. The results revealed that the dissolution rate of Chevreul’s salt was decreasing while temperature, concentration of ammonium chloride and stirring speed were increasing. On the other hand, dissolution rate was found to be decreasing with the increase of solid/liquid ratio. Based on result of the applications of the obtained experimental results to the kinetic models, we can deduce that Chevreul’s salt dissolution rate is controlled by diffusion through the ash (or product layer). Activation energy of the reaction of dissolution was found as 74.83 kJ/mol. The integrated rate expression along with the effects of parameters on Chevreul's salt solubility was found to be as follows: 1-3(1-X)2/3+2(1-X)= [2,96.1013.(CA)3,08 .(S/L)-038.(W)1,23 e-9001,2/T].t

Keywords: Chevreul's salt, copper, ammonium chloride, ammonium sulphide, dissolution kinetics

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
1768 Formulation and Evaluation of Solid Dispersion of an Anti-Epileptic Drug Carbamazepine

Authors: Sharmin Akhter, M. Salahuddin, Sukalyan Kumar Kundu, Mohammad Fahim Kadir

Abstract:

Relatively insoluble candidate drug like carbamazepine (CBZ) often exhibit incomplete or erratic absorption; and hence wide consideration is given to improve aqueous solubility of such compound. Solid dispersions were formulated with an aim of improving aqueous solubility, oral bioavailability and the rate of dissolution of Carbamazepine using different hydrophyllic polymer like Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) 6000, Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) 4000, kollidon 30, HPMC 6 cps, poloxamer 407 and povidone k 30. Solid dispersions were prepared with different drug to polymer weight ratio by the solvent evaporation method where methanol was used as solvent. Drug-polymer physical mixtures were also prepared to compare the rate of dissolution. Effects of different polymer were studied for solid dispersion formulation as well as physical mixtures. These formulations were characterized in the solid state by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Solid state characterization indicated CBZ was present as fine particles and entrapped in carrier matrix of PEG 6000 and PVP K30 solid dispersions. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic studies showed the stability of CBZ and absence of well-defined drug-polymer interactions. In contrast to the very slow dissolution rate of pure CBZ, dispersions of drug in polymers considerably improved the dissolution rate. This can be attributed to increased wettability and dispersibility, as well as decreased crystallinity and increase in amorphous fraction of drug. Solid dispersion formulations containing PEG 6000 and Povidone K 30 showed maximum drug release within one hour at the ratio of 1:1:1. Even physical mixtures of CBZ prepared with both carriers also showed better dissolution profiles than those of pure CBZ. In conclusions, solid dispersions could be a promising delivery of CBZ with improved oral bioavailability and immediate release profiles.

Keywords: carbamazepine, FTIR, kollidon 30, HPMC 6 CPS, PEG 6000, PEG 4000, poloxamer 407, water solubility, povidone k 30, SEM, solid dispersion

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
1767 Using Phase Equilibrium Theory to Calculate Solubility of γ-Oryzanol in Supercritical CO2

Authors: Boy Arief Fachri

Abstract:

Even its content is rich in antioxidants ϒ-oryzanol, rice bran is not used properly as functional food. This research aims to (1) extract ϒ-oryzanol; (2) determine the solubility of ϒ-oryzanol in supercritical CO2 based on phase equilibrium theory; and (3) study the effect of process variables on solubility. Extraction experiments were carried out for rice bran (5 g) at various extraction pressures, temperatures and reaction times. The flowrate of supercritical fluid through the extraction vessel was 25 g/min. The extracts were collected and analysed with high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The conclusion based on the experiments are as: (1) The highest experimental solubility was 0.303 mcg/mL RBO at T= 60°C, P= 90 atm, t= 30 min; (2) Solubility of ϒ-oryzanol was influenced by pressure and temperature. As the pressure and temperature increase, the solubility increases; (3) The solubility data of supercritical extraction can be successfully determined using phase equilibrium theory. Meanwhile, tocopherol was found and slightly investigated in this work.

Keywords: rice bran, solubility, supercritical CO2, ϒ-orizanol

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
1766 Solubility and Dissolution Enhancement of Poorly Soluble Drugs Using Biosericin

Authors: Namdeo Jadhav, Nitin Salunkhe

Abstract:

Currently, sericin is being treated as waste of sericulture industry, especially at reeling process. Looking at prospective physicochemical properties, an attempt has been made to explore pharmaceutical applications of sericin waste in fabrication of medicated solid dispersions. Solid dispersions (SDs) of poorly soluble drugs (Lornoxicam, Meloxicam & Felodipine) were prepared by spray drying, solvent evaporation, ball milling and physical kneading in mass ratio of drug: sericin (1:0.5, 1:1, 1:1.5, 1:2, 1:2.5 and 1:3 w/w) and were investigated by solubility, ATR-FTIR, XRD and DSC, micromeritics and tablettability, surface morphology and in-vitro dissolution. It has been observed that sericin improves solubility of drugs by 8 to 10 times compared to pure drugs. The presence of hydrogen bonding between drugs and sericin was confirmed from the ATR-FTIR spectra. Amongst these methods, spray dried (1:2 w/w) SDs showed fully amorphous state representing molecularly distributed drug as confirmed from XRD and DSC study. Spray dried meloxicam SDs showed better compressibility and compactibility. The microphotograph of spray dried batches of lornoxicam (SDLX) and meloxicam SDs (SDMX) showed bowl shaped, and bowl plus spherical particles respectively, while spray dried felodipine SDs (SDFL) showed spherical shape. The SDLX, SDMX and SDFL (1:2 w/w) displayed better dissolution performance than other methods. Conclusively, hydrophilic matrix of sericin can be used to deliver poor water soluble drugs and its aerodynamic shape may show a great potential for various drug deliveries. If established as pharmaceutical excipient, sericin holds a potential to revolutionise economics of pharmaceutical industry, and sericulture farming, especially of Asian countries.

Keywords: biosericin, poorly soluble drugs, solid dispersion, solubility and dissolution improvement

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
1765 Formulation and Evaluation of Glimepiride (GMP)-Solid Nanodispersion and Nanodispersed Tablets

Authors: Ahmed. Abdel Bary, Omneya. Khowessah, Mojahed. al-jamrah

Abstract:

Introduction: The major challenge with the design of oral dosage forms lies with their poor bioavailability. The most frequent causes of low oral bioavailability are attributed to poor solubility and low permeability. The aim of this study was to develop solid nanodispersed tablet formulation of Glimepiride for the enhancement of the solubility and bioavailability. Methodology: Solid nanodispersions of Glimepiride (GMP) were prepared using two different ratios of 2 different carriers, namely; PEG6000, pluronic F127, and by adopting two different techniques, namely; solvent evaporation technique and fusion technique. A full factorial design of 2 3 was adopted to investigate the influence of formulation variables on the prepared nanodispersion properties. The best chosen formula of nanodispersed powder was formulated into tablets by direct compression. The Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) analysis and Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) analysis were conducted for the thermal behavior and surface structure characterization, respectively. The zeta potential and particle size analysis of the prepared glimepiride nanodispersions was determined. The prepared solid nanodispersions and solid nanodispersed tablets of GMP were evaluated in terms of pre-compression and post-compression parameters, respectively. Results: The DSC and FTIR studies revealed that there was no interaction between GMP and all the excipients used. Based on the resulted values of different pre-compression parameters, the prepared solid nanodispersions powder blends showed poor to excellent flow properties. The resulted values of the other evaluated pre-compression parameters of the prepared solid nanodispersion were within the limits of pharmacopoeia. The drug content of the prepared nanodispersions ranged from 89.6 ± 0.3 % to 99.9± 0.5% with particle size ranged from 111.5 nm to 492.3 nm and the resulted zeta potential (ζ ) values of the prepared GMP-solid nanodispersion formulae (F1-F8) ranged from -8.28±3.62 mV to -78±11.4 mV. The in-vitro dissolution studies of the prepared solid nanodispersed tablets of GMP concluded that GMP- pluronic F127 combinations (F8), exhibited the best extent of drug release, compared to other formulations, and to the marketed product. One way ANOVA for the percent of drug released from the prepared GMP-nanodispersion formulae (F1- F8) after 20 and 60 minutes showed significant differences between the percent of drug released from different GMP-nanodispersed tablet formulae (F1- F8), (P<0.05). Conclusion: Preparation of glimepiride as nanodispersed particles proven to be a promising tool for enhancing the poor solubility of glimepiride.

Keywords: glimepiride, solid Nanodispersion, nanodispersed tablets, poorly water soluble drugs

Procedia PDF Downloads 393
1764 Improved Wetting for Improved Solubility and Dissolution of Candesartan Cilexetil

Authors: Shilpa Bhilegaonkar, Ram Gaud

Abstract:

Candesartan cilexetil is a poorly soluble antihypertensive agent with solubility limited bioavailability (15%). To initiate process of solubilisation, it is very much necessary to displace the air at the surface and wet the drug surface with a solvent, with which drug is compatible. Present research adopts the same principle to improve solubility and dissolution of candesartan cilexetil. Solvents used here are surfactant and modified surfactant in different drug: solvent (1:1-1:9) ratio’s for preparation of adsorbates. Adsorbates were then converted into free flowing powders as liquisolid compacts and compressed to form tablets. Liquisolid compacts were evaluated for improvement in saturation solubility and dissolution of candesartan cilexetil. All systems were evaluated for improvement in saturation solubility and dissolution in different medias such as water, 0.1 N HCl, Phosphate buffer pH 6.8 and media given by office of generic drugs along with other physicochemical testing. All systems exhibited a promising advantage in terms of solubility and dissolution without affecting the drug structure as confirmed by IR and XRD. No considerable advantage was seen of increasing solvent ratio with drug.

Keywords: candesartan cilexetil, improved dissolution, solubility, liquisolid

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
1763 Water Soluble Chitosan Derivatives via the Freeze Concentration Technique

Authors: Senem Avaz, Alpay Taralp

Abstract:

Chitosan has been an attractive biopolymer for decades, but its processibility is lowered by its poor solubility, especially in physiological pH values. Freeze concentrated reactions of Chitosan with several organic acids including acrylic, citraconic, itaconic, and maleic acid revealed improved solubility and morphological properties. Solubility traits were assessed with a modified ninhydrin test. Chitosan derivatives were characterized by ATR-FTIR and morphological characteristics were determined by SEM. This study is a unique approach to chemically modify Chitosan to enhance water solubility.

Keywords: chitosan, freeze concentration, frozen reactions, ninhydrin test, water soluble chitosan

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
1762 CO2 Gas Solubility and Foam Generation

Authors: Chanmoly Or, Kyuro Sasaki, Yuichi Sugai, Masanori Nakano, Motonao Imai

Abstract:

Cold drainage mechanism of oil production is a complicated process which involves with solubility and foaming processes. Laboratory experiments were carried out to investigate the CO2 gas solubility in hexadecane (as light oil) and the effect of depressurization processes on microbubble generation. The experimental study of sensitivity parameters of temperature and pressure on CO2 gas solubility in hexadecane was conducted at temperature of 20 °C and 50 °C and pressure ranged 2.0–7.0 MPa by using PVT (RUSKA Model 2370) apparatus. The experiments of foamy hexadecane were also prepared by depressurizing from saturated pressure of 6.4 MPa and temperature of 50 °C. The experimental results show the CO2 gas solubility in hexadecane linearly increases with increasing pressure. At pressure 4.5 MPa, CO2 gas dissolved in hexadecane 2.5 mmol.g-1 for temperature of 50 °C and 3.5 mmol.g-1 for temperature of 20 °C. The bubbles of foamy hexadecane were observed that most of large bubbles were coalesced shortly whereas the small one keeps presence. The experimental result of foamy hexadecane indicated large depressurization step (∆P) produces high quality of foam with high microbubble distribution.

Keywords: CO2 gas solubility, depressurization process, foamy hexadecane, microbubble distribution

Procedia PDF Downloads 330
1761 Preparation, Solid State Characterization of Etraverine Co-Crystals with Improved Solubility for the Treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus

Authors: B. S. Muddukrishna, Karthik Aithal, Aravind Pai

Abstract:

Introduction: Preparation of binary cocrystals of Etraverine (ETR) by using Tartaric Acid (TAR) as a conformer was the main focus of this study. Etravirine is a Class IV drug, as per the BCS classification system. Methods: Cocrystals were prepared by slow evaporation technique. A mixture of total 500mg of ETR: TAR was weighed in molar ratios of 1:1 (371.72mg of ETR and 128.27mg of TAR). Saturated solution of Etravirine was prepared in Acetone: Methanol (50:50) mixture in which tartaric acid is dissolved by sonication and then this solution was stirred using a magnetic stirrer until the solvent got evaporated. Shimadzu FTIR – 8300 system was used to acquire the FTIR spectra of the cocrystals prepared. Shimadzu thermal analyzer was used to achieve DSC measurements. X-ray diffractometer was used to obtain the X-ray powder diffraction pattern. Shake flask method was used to determine the equilibrium dynamic solubility of pure, physical mixture and cocrystals of ETR. USP buffer (pH 6.8) containing 1% of Tween 80 was used as the medium. The pure, physical mixture and the optimized cocrystal of ETR were accurately weighed sufficient to maintain the sink condition and were filled in hard gelatine capsules (size 4). Electrolab-Tablet Dissolution tester using basket apparatus at a rotational speed of 50 rpm and USP phosphate buffer (900 mL, pH = 6.8, 37 ˚C) + 1% Tween80 as a media, was used to carry out dissolution. Shimadzu LC-10 series chromatographic system was used to perform the analysis with PDA detector. An Hypersil BDS C18 (150mm ×4.6 mm ×5 µm) column was used for separation with mobile phase comprising of a mixture of ace¬tonitrile and phosphate buffer 20mM, pH 3.2 in the ratio 60:40 v/v. The flow rate was 1.0mL/min and column temperature was set to 30°C. The detection was carried out at 304 nm for ETR. Results and discussions: The cocrystals were subjected to various solid state characterization and the results confirmed the formation of cocrystals. The C=O stretching vibration (1741cm-1) in tartaric acid was disappeared in the cocrystal and the peak broadening of primary amine indicates hydrogen bond formation. The difference in the melting point of cocrystals when compared to pure Etravirine (265 °C) indicates interaction between the drug and the coformer which proves that first ordered transformation i.e. melting endotherm has disappeared. The difference in 2θ values of pure drug and cocrystals indicates the interaction between the drug and the coformer. Dynamic solubility and dissolution studies were also conducted by shake flask method and USP apparatus one respectively and 3.6 fold increase in the dynamic solubility were observed and in-vitro dissolution study shows four fold increase in the solubility for the ETR: TAR (1:1) cocrystals. The ETR: TAR (1:1) cocrystals shows improved solubility and dissolution as compared to the pure drug which was clearly showed by solid state characterization and dissolution studies.

Keywords: dynamic solubility, Etraverine, in vitro dissolution, slurry method

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
1760 Prediction of the Solubility of Benzoic Acid in Supercritical CO2 Using the PC-SAFT EoS

Authors: Hamidreza Bagheri, Alireza Shariati

Abstract:

There are many difficulties in the purification of raw components and products. However, researchers are seeking better ways for purification. One of the recent methods is extraction using supercritical fluids. In this study, the phase equilibria of benzoic acid-supercritical carbon dioxide system were investigated. Regarding the phase equilibria of this system, the modeling of solid-supercritical fluid behavior was performed using the Perturbed-Chain Statistical Association Fluid Theory (PC-SAFT) and Peng-Robinson equations of state (PR EoS). For this purpose, five PC-SAFT EoS parameters for pure benzoic acid were obtained using its experimental vapor pressure. Benzoic acid has association sites and the behavior of the benzoic acid-supercritical fluid system was well-predicted using both equations of state, while the binary interaction parameter values for PR EoS were negative. Genetic algorithm, which is one of the most accurate global optimization algorithms, was also used to optimize the pure benzoic acid parameters and the binary interaction parameters. The AAD% value for the PC-SAFT EoS, were 0.22 for the carbon dioxide-benzoic acid system.

Keywords: supercritical fluids, solubility, solid, PC-SAFT EoS, genetic algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 340
1759 Enhanced Kinetic Solubility Profile of Epiisopiloturine Solid Solution in Hipromellose Phthalate

Authors: Amanda C. Q. M. Vieira, Cybelly M. Melo, Camila B. M. Figueirêdo, Giovanna C. R. M. Schver, Salvana P. M. Costa, Magaly A. M. de Lyra, Ping I. Lee, José L. Soares-Sobrinho, Pedro J. Rolim-Neto, Mônica F. R. Soares

Abstract:

Epiisopiloturine (EPI) is a drug candidate that is extracted from Pilocarpus microphyllus and isolated from the waste of Pilocarpine. EPI has demonstrated promising schistosomicidal, leishmanicide, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities, according to in vitro studies that have been carried out since 2009. However, this molecule shows poor aqueous solubility, which represents a problem for the release of the drug candidate and its absorption by the organism. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the extent of enhancement of kinetic solubility of a solid solution (SS) of EPI in hipromellose phthalate HP-55 (HPMCP), an enteric polymer carrier. SS was obtained by the solvent evaporation methodology, using acetone/methanol (60:40) as solvent system. Both EPI and polymer (drug loading 10%) were dissolved in this solvent until a clear solution was obtained, and then dried in oven at 60ºC during 12 hours, followed by drying in a vacuum oven for 4 h. The results show a considerable modification in the crystalline structure of the drug candidate. For instance, X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows a crystalline behavior for the EPI, which becomes amorphous for the SS. Polarized light microscopy, a more sensitive technique than XRD, also shows completely absence of crystals in SS sample. Differential Scanning Calorimetric (DSC) curves show no signal of EPI melting point in SS curve, indicating, once more, no presence of crystal in this system. Interaction between the drug candidate and the polymer were found in Infrared microscopy, which shows a carbonyl 43.3 cm-1 band shift, indicating a moderate-strong interaction between them, probably one of the reasons to the SS formation. Under sink conditions (pH 6.8), EPI SS had its dissolution performance increased in 2.8 times when compared with the isolated drug candidate. EPI SS sample provided a release of more than 95% of the drug candidate in 15 min, whereas only 45% of EPI (alone) could be dissolved in 15 min and 70% in 90 min. Thus, HPMCP demonstrates to have a good potential to enhance the kinetic solubility profile of EPI. Future studies to evaluate the stability of SS are required to conclude the benefits of this system.

Keywords: epiisopiloturine, hipromellose phthalate HP-55, pharmaceuticaltechnology, solubility

Procedia PDF Downloads 384
1758 High Dissolution of ATC by pH Control and Its Enzymatic Conversion to L-Cysteine

Authors: Deokyeong Choe, Sung Hun Youn, Younggon Kim, Chul Soo Shin

Abstract:

L-Cysteine is extensively used as a supplement of pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, food and feed additives. It has obtained industrially by hydrolysis of human hair and poultry feathers. However, there are some problems such as the restriction of using materials from animals and the intractable waste pollution. The enzymatic conversion has been regarded as an environmental-friendly method. Currently, the biggest bottle-neck of enzymatic conversion is the low yield of L-cysteine due to the low substrate solubility. In this study, the method of enhancing the solubility of the substrate D,L-2-amino-Δ2-thiazoline-4-carboxylicacid (ATC) was developed and the enzymatic reaction at high concentration levels was performed. A large amount of substrate in aqueous solutions was dissolved by pH control using salts. As the pH of the solution increased, the solubility of ATC increased. It was thought that a shift of ATC from acid form (-COOH) to dissociated carboxylic group (-COO-) would improve its hydrophilicity leading to solubility increase. The highest solubility of ATC was 610 mM at pH 10.5, whereas the maximum reaction rate was obtained at pH 8.3. As a result, a high L-cysteine yield of 250 mM was achieved at pH 9.1, which was obtained from a combination of optimum pH conditions for ATC solubility and enzymatic conversion. This yield corresponds to approximately 18 times of that in previous reports.

Keywords: D, L-2-amino-Δ2-thiazoline-4-carboxylicacid, enzymatic conversion, high-substrate solubilization, L-Cysteine

Procedia PDF Downloads 301
1757 The Use of Polar Substituent Groups for Promoting Azo Disperse Dye Solubility and Reactivity for More Economic and Environmental Benign Applications: A Computational Study

Authors: Olaide O. Wahab, Lukman O. Olasunkanmi, Krishna K. Govender, Penny P. Govender

Abstract:

The economic and environmental challenges associated with azo disperse dyes applications are due to poor aqueous solubility and low degradation tendency which stems from low chemical reactivity. Poor aqueous solubility property of this group of dyes necessitates the use of dispersing agents which increase operational costs and also release toxic chemical components into the environment, while their low degradation tendency is due to the high stability of the azo functional group (-N=N-) in their chemical structures. To address these problems, this study investigated theoretically the effects of some polar substituents on the aqueous solubility and reactivity properties of disperse yellow (DY) 119 dye with a view to theoretically develop new azo disperse dyes with improved solubility in water and higher degradation tendency in the environment using DMol³ computational code. All calculations were carried out using the Becke and Perdew version of Volsko-Wilk-Nusair (VWN-BP) level of density functional theory in conjunction with double numerical basis set containing polarization function (DNP). The aqueous solubility determination was achieved with conductor-like screening model for realistic solvation (COSMO-RS) in conjunction with known empirical solubility model, while the reactivity was predicted using frontier molecular orbital calculations. Most of the new derivatives studied showed evidence of higher aqueous solubility and degradation tendency compared to the parent dye. We conclude that these derivatives are promising alternative dyes for more economic and environmental benign dyeing practice and therefore recommend them for synthesis.

Keywords: aqueous solubility, azo disperse dye, degradation, disperse yellow 119, DMol³, reactivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
1756 Thermo-Physical Properties and Solubility of CO2 in Piperazine Activated Aqueous Solutions of β-Alanine

Authors: Ghulam Murshid

Abstract:

Carbon dioxide is one of the major greenhouse gas (GHG) contributors. It is an obligation of the industry to reduce the amount of carbon dioxide emission to the acceptable limits. Tremendous research and studies are reported in the past and still the quest to find the suitable and economical solution of this problem needed to be explored in order to develop the most plausible absorber for carbon dioxide removal. Amino acids are reported by the researchers as a potential solvent for absorption of carbon dioxide to replace alkanolamines due to its ability to resist oxidative degradation, low volatility due to its ionic structure and higher surface tension. In addition, the introduction of promoter-like piperazine to amino acid helps to further enhance the solubility. In this work, the effect of piperazine on thermophysical properties and solubility of β-Alanine aqueous solutions were studied for various concentrations. The measured physicochemical properties data was correlated as a function of temperature using least-squares method and the correlation parameters are reported together with it respective standard deviations. The effect of activator piperazine on the CO2 loading performance of selected amino acid under high-pressure conditions (1bar to 10bar) at temperature range of (30 to 60)oC was also studied. Solubility of CO2 decreases with increasing temperature and increases with increasing pressure. Quadratic representation of solubility using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) shows that the most important parameter to optimize solubility is system pressure. The addition of promoter increases the solubility effect of the solvent.

Keywords: amino acids, co2, global warming, solubility

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
1755 Solubility Measurements in the Context of Nanoregulation

Authors: Ratna Tantra

Abstract:

From a risk assessment point of view, solubility is a property that has been identified as being important. If nanomaterial is completely soluble, then its disposal can be treated much in the same way as ‘ordinary’ chemicals, which subsequently will simplify testing and characterization regimes. The measurement of solubility has been highlighted as important in a pan-European project, Framework Programme (FP) 7 NANoREG. Some of the project outputs surrounding this topic will be presented here, in which there are two parts. First, a review on existing methods capable of measuring nanomaterial solubility will be discussed. Second, a case study will be presented based on using colorimetry methods to quantify dissolve zinc from ZnO nanomaterial upon exposure to digestive juices. The main findings are as follows: a) there is no universal method for nanomaterial solubility testing. The method chosen will be dependent on sample type and nano-specific application/scenario. b) The colorimetry results show a positive correlation between particle concentration and amount of [Zn2+] released; this was expected c) results indicate complete dissolution of the ZnO nanomaterial, as a result of the digestion protocol but only a fraction existing as free ions. Finally, what differentiates the F7 NANoREG project over other projects is the need for participating research laboratories to follow a set of defined protocols, necessary to establish quality control and assurance. The methods and results associated with mandatory testing that carried out by all partners in NANoREG will be discussed.

Keywords: nanomaterials, nanotoxicology, solubility, zinc oxide

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
1754 Solubility of Water in CO2 Mixtures at Pipeline Operation Conditions

Authors: Mohammad Ahmad, Sander Gersen, Erwin Wilbers

Abstract:

Carbon capture, transport and underground storage have become a major solution to reduce CO2 emissions from power plants and other large CO2 sources. A big part of this captured CO2 stream is transported at high pressure dense phase conditions and stored in offshore underground depleted oil and gas fields. CO2 is also transported in offshore pipelines to be used for enhanced oil and gas recovery. The captured CO2 stream with impurities may contain water that causes severe corrosion problems, flow assurance failure and might damage valves and instrumentations. Thus, free water formation should be strictly prevented. The purpose of this work is to study the solubility of water in pure CO2 and in CO2 mixtures under real pipeline pressure (90-150 bar) and temperature operation conditions (5-35°C). A set up was constructed to generate experimental data. The results show the solubility of water in CO2 mixtures increasing with the increase of the temperature or/and with the increase in pressure. A drop in water solubility in CO2 is observed in the presence of impurities. The data generated were then used to assess the capabilities of two mixture models: the GERG-2008 model and the EOS-CG model. By generating the solubility data, this study contributes to determine the maximum allowable water content in CO2 pipelines.

Keywords: carbon capture and storage, water solubility, equation of states, fluids engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
1753 Importance of Solubility and Bubble Pressure Models to Predict Pressure of Nitrified Oil Based Drilling Fluid in Dual Gradient Drilling

Authors: Sajjad Negahban, Ruihe Wang, Baojiang Sun

Abstract:

Gas-lift dual gradient drilling is a solution for deepwater drilling challenges. As well, Continuous development of drilling technology leads to increase employment of mineral oil based drilling fluids and synthetic-based drilling fluids, which have adequate characteristics such as: high rate of penetration, lubricity, shale inhibition and low toxicity. The paper discusses utilization of nitrified mineral oil base drilling for deepwater drilling and for more accurate prediction of pressure in DGD at marine riser, solubility and bubble pressure were considered in steady state hydraulic model. The Standing bubble pressure and solubility correlations, and two models which were acquired from experimental determination were applied in hydraulic model. The effect of the black oil correlations, and new solubility and bubble pressure models was evaluated on the PVT parameters such as oil formation volume factor, density, viscosity, volumetric flow rate. Eventually, the consequent simulated pressure profile due to these models was presented.

Keywords: solubility, bubble pressure, gas-lift dual gradient drilling, steady state hydraulic model

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
1752 Induced Thermo-Osmotic Convection for Heat and Mass Transfer

Authors: Francisco J. Arias

Abstract:

Consideration is given to a mechanism of heat and mass transport in solutions similar than that of natural convection but with one important difference. Here the mechanism is not promoted by density differences in the fluid occurring due to temperature gradients (coefficient of thermal expansion) but rather by solubility differences due to the thermal dependence of the solubility (coefficient of thermal solubility). Utilizing a simplified physical model, it is shown that by the proper choice of the concentration of a given solution, convection might be induced by the alternating precipitation of the solute -when the solution becomes supersaturated, and its posterior recombination when changes in temperature occurs. The spontaneous change in the Gibbs free energy during the mixing is the driven force for the mechanism. The maximum extractable energy from this new type of thermal convection was derived. Experimental data from a closed-loop circuit was obtained demonstrating the feasibility for continuous separation and recombination of the solution. This type of heat and mass transport -which doesn’t depend on gravity, might potentially be interesting for heat and mass transport downwards (as in solar-roof collectors to inside homes), horizontal (e.g., microelectronic applications), and in microgravity (space technology). Also, because the coefficient of thermal solubility could be positive or negative, the investigated thermo-osmosis convection can be used either for heating or cooling.

Keywords: natural convection, thermal gradient, solubility, osmotic pressure

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
1751 Forecasting Solid Waste Generation in Turkey

Authors: Yeliz Ekinci, Melis Koyuncu

Abstract:

Successful planning of solid waste management systems requires successful prediction of the amount of solid waste generated in an area. Waste management planning can protect the environment and human health, hence it is tremendously important for countries. The lack of information in waste generation can cause many environmental and health problems. Turkey is a country that plans to join European Union, hence, solid waste management is one of the most significant criteria that should be handled in order to be a part of this community. Solid waste management system requires a good forecast of solid waste generation. Thus, this study aims to forecast solid waste generation in Turkey. Artificial Neural Network and Linear Regression models will be used for this aim. Many models will be run and the best one will be selected based on some predetermined performance measures.

Keywords: forecast, solid waste generation, solid waste management, Turkey

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
1750 Lipid Nanoparticles for Spironolactone Delivery: Physicochemical Characteristics, Stability and Invitro Release

Authors: H. R. Kelidari, M. Saeedi, J. Akbari, K. Morteza-Semnani, H. Valizadeh

Abstract:

Spironolactoe (SP) a synthetic steroid diuretic is a poorly water-soluble drug with a low and variable oral bioavailability. Regarding to the good solubility of SP in lipid materials, SP loaded Solid lipid nanoparticles (SP-SLNs) and nanostructured lipid carrier (SP-SLNs) were thus prepared in this work for accelerating dissolution of this drug. The SP loaded NLC with stearic acid (SA) as solid lipid and different Oleic Acid (OA) as liquid lipid content and SLN without OA were prepared by probe ultrasonication method. With increasing the percentage of OA from 0 to 30 wt% in SLN/NLC, the average size and zeta potential of nanoparticles felled down and entrapment efficiency (EE %) rose dramatically. The obtained micrograph particles showed pronounced spherical shape. Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) measurements indicated that the presence of OA reduced the melting temperature and melting enthalpy of solid lipid in NLC structure. The results reflected good long-term stability of the nanoparticles and the measurements show that the particle size remains lower in NLC compare to SLN formulations, 6 months after production. Dissolution of SP-SLN and SP-NLC was about 5.1 and 7.2 times faster than raw drugs in 120 min respectively. These results indicated that the SP loaded NLC containing 70:30 solid lipid to liquid lipid ratio is a suitable carrier of SP with improved drug EE and steady drug release properties.

Keywords: drug release, lipid nanoparticles, spironolactone, stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
1749 Cocrystal of Mesalamine for Enhancement of Its Biopharmaceutical Properties, Utilizing Supramolecular Chemistry Approach

Authors: Akshita Jindal, Renu Chadha, Maninder Karan

Abstract:

Supramolecular chemistry has gained recent eminence in a flurry of research documents demonstrating the formation of new crystalline forms with potentially advantageous characteristics. Mesalamine (5-amino salicylic acid) belongs to anti-inflammatory class of drugs, is used to treat ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. Unfortunately, mesalamine suffer from poor solubility and therefore very low bioavailability. This work is focused on preparation and characterization of cocrystal of mesalamine with nicotinamide (MNIC) a coformer of GRAS status. Cocrystallisation was achieved by solvent drop grinding in stoichiometric ratio of 1:1 using acetonitrile as solvent and was characterized by various techniques including DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry), PXRD (X-ray Powder Diffraction), and FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer). The co-crystal depicted single endothermic transitions (254°C) which were different from the melting peaks of both drug (288°C) and coformer (128°C) indicating the formation of a new solid phase. Different XRPD patterns and FTIR spectrums for the co-crystals from those of individual components confirms the formation of new phase. Enhancement in apparent solubility study and intrinsic dissolution study showed effectiveness of this cocrystal. Further improvement in pharmacokinetic profile has also been observed with 2 folds increase in bioavailability. To conclude, our results show that application of nicotinamide as a coformer is a viable approach towards the preparation of cocrystals of potential drug molecule having limited solubility.

Keywords: cocrystal, mesalamine, nicotinamide, solvent drop grinding

Procedia PDF Downloads 4
1748 Physicochemical Properties of Soy Protein Isolate (SPI): Starch Conjugates Treated by Sonication

Authors: Gulcin Yildiz, Hao Feng

Abstract:

In recent years there is growing interested in using soy protein because of several advantages compared to other protein sources, such as high nutritional value, steady supply, and low cost. Soy protein isolate (SPI) is the most refined soy protein product. It contains 90% protein in a moisture-free form and has some desirable functionalities. Creating a protein-polysaccharide conjugate to be the emulsifying agent rather than the protein alone can markedly enhance its stability. This study was undertaken to examine the effects of ultrasound treatments on the physicochemical properties of SPI-starch conjugates. The soy protein isolate (SPI, Pro-Fam® 955) samples were obtained from the Archer Daniels Midland Company. Protein concentrations were analyzed by the Bardford method using BSA as the standard. The volume-weighted mean diameters D [4,3] of protein–polysaccharide conjugates were measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS). Surface hydrophobicity of the conjugates was measured by using 1-anilino-8-naphthalenesulfonate (ANS) (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA). Increasing the pH from 2 to 12 resulted in increased protein solubility. The highest solubility was 69.2% for the sample treated with ultrasonication at pH 12, while the lowest (9.13%) was observed in the Control. For the other pH conditions, the protein solubility values ranged from 40.53 to 49.65%. The ultrasound treatment significantly decreased the particle sizes of the SPI-modified starch conjugates. While the D [4,3] for the Control was 731.6 nm, it was 293.7 nm for the samples treated by sonication at pH 12. The surface hydrophobicity (H0) of SPI-starch at all pH conditions were significantly higher than those in the Control. Ultrasonication was proven to be effective in improving the solubility and emulsifying properties of soy protein isolate-starch conjugates.

Keywords: particle size, solubility, soy protein isolate, ultrasonication

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
1747 A Unified Ghost Solid Method for the Elastic Solid-Solid Interface

Authors: Abouzar Kaboudian, Boo Cheong Khoo

Abstract:

The Ghost Solid Method (GSM) based algorithms have been extensively used for numerical calculation of wave propagation in the limit of abrupt changes in materials. In this work, we present a unified version of the GSMs that can be successfully applied to both abrupt as well as smooth changes of the material properties in a medium. The application of this method enables us to use the previously-matured numerical algorithms which were developed to be applied to homogeneous mediums, with only minor modifications. This method is developed for one-dimensional settings and its extension to multi-dimensions is briefly discussed. Various numerical experiments are presented to show the applicability of this unified GSM to wave propagation problems in sharply as well as smoothly varying mediums.

Keywords: elastic solid, functionally graded material, ghost solid method, solid-solid interaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
1746 Pickering Dry Emulsion System for Dissolution Enhancement of Poorly Water Soluble Drug (Fenofibrate)

Authors: Nitin Jadhav, Pradeep R. Vavia

Abstract:

Poor water soluble drugs are difficult to promote for oral drug delivery as they demonstrate poor and variable bioavailability because of its poor solubility and dissolution in GIT fluid. Nowadays lipid based formulations especially self microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) is found as the most effective technique. With all the impressive advantages, the need of high amount of surfactant (50% - 80%) is the major drawback of SMEDDS. High concentration of synthetic surfactant is known for irritation in GIT and also interference with the function of intestinal transporters causes changes in drug absorption. Surfactant may also reduce drug activity and subsequently bioavailability due to the enhanced entrapment of drug in micelles. In chronic treatment these issues are very conspicuous due to the long exposure. In addition the liquid self microemulsifying system also suffers from stability issues. Recently one novel approach of solid stabilized micro and nano emulsion (Pickering emulsion) has very admirable properties such as high stability, absence or very less concentration of surfactant and easily converts into the dry form. So here we are exploring pickering dry emulsion system for dissolution enhancement of anti-lipemic, extremely poorly water soluble drug (Fenofibrate). Oil moiety for emulsion preparation was selected mainly on the basis of higher solubility of drug. Captex 300 was showed higher solubility for fenofibrate, hence selected as oil for emulsion. With Silica (solid stabilizer); Span 20 was selected to improve the wetting property of it. Emulsion formed by Silica and Span20 as stabilizer at the ratio 2.5:1 (silica: span 20) was found very stable at the particle size 410 nm. The prepared emulsion was further preceded for spray drying and formed microcapsule evaluated for in-vitro dissolution study, in-vivo pharmacodynamic study and characterized for DSC, XRD, FTIR, SEM, optical microscopy etc. The in vitro study exhibits significant dissolution enhancement of formulation (85 % in 45 minutes) as compared to plain drug (14 % in 45 minutes). In-vivo study (Triton based hyperlipidaemia model) exhibits significant reduction in triglyceride and cholesterol with formulation as compared to plain drug indicating increasing in fenofibrate bioavailability. DSC and XRD study exhibit loss of crystallinity of drug in microcapsule form. FTIR study exhibit chemical stability of fenofibrate. SEM and optical microscopy study exhibit spherical structure of globule coated with solid particles.

Keywords: captex 300, fenofibrate, pickering dry emulsion, silica, span20, stability, surfactant

Procedia PDF Downloads 350
1745 4-Allylpyrocatechol Loaded Polymeric Micelles for Solubility Enhancing and Effects on Streptococcus mutans Biofilms

Authors: Siriporn Okonogi, Pimpak Phumat, Sakornrat Khongkhunthian

Abstract:

Piper betle has been extensively reported for various pharmacological effects including antimicrobial activity. 4-Allylpyrocatechol (AC) is a principle active compound found in P. betle. However, AC has a problem of solubility in water. The aims of the present study were to prepare AC loaded polymeric micelles for enhancing its water solubility and to evaluate its anti-biofilm activity against oral phathogenic bacteria. AC was loaded in polymeric micelles (PM) of Pluronic F127 by using thin film hydration method to obtain AC loaded PM (PMAC). The results revealed that AC in the form of PMAC possessed high water solubility. PMAC particles were characterized using a transmission electron microscope and photon correlation spectroscopy. Determination of entrapment efficiency (EE) and loading capacity (LC) of PMAC was done by using high-performance liquid chromatography. The highest EE (86.33 ± 14.27 %) and LC (19.25 ± 3.18 %) of PMAC were found when the weight ratio of polymer to AC was 4 to 1. At this ratio, the particles showed spherical in shape with the size of 38.83 ± 1.36 nm and polydispersity index of 0.28 ± 0.10. Zeta potential of the particles is negative with the value of 16.43 ± 0.55 mV. Crystal violet assay and confocal microscopy were applied to evaluate the effects of PMAC on Streptococcus mutans biofilms using chlorhexidine (CHX) as a positive control. PMAC contained 1.5 mg/mL AC could potentially inhibit (102.01 ± 9.18%) and significantly eradicate (85.05 ± 2.03 %) these biofilms (p < 0.05). Comparison with CHX, PMAC showed slightly similar biofilm inhibition but significantly stronger biofilm eradication (p < 0.05) than CHX. It is concluded that PMAC can enhance water solubility and anti-biofilm activity of AC.

Keywords: pluronic, polymeric micelles, solubility, 4-allylpyrocathecol, Streptococcus mutans, anti-biofilm

Procedia PDF Downloads 10
1744 Ionic Liquids-Polymer Nanoparticle Systems as Breakthrough Tools to Improve the Leprosy Treatment

Authors: A. Julio, R. Caparica, S. Costa Lima, S. Reis, J. G. Costa, P. Fonte, T. Santos De Almeida

Abstract:

The Mycobacterium leprae causes a chronic and infectious disease called leprosy, which the most common symptoms are peripheral neuropathy and deformation of several parts of the body. The pharmacological treatment of leprosy is a combined therapy with three different drugs, rifampicin, clofazimine, and dapsone. However, clofazimine and dapsone have poor solubility in water and also low bioavailability. Thus, it is crucial to develop strategies to overcome such drawbacks. The use of ionic liquids (ILs) may be a strategy to overcome the low solubility since they have been used as solubility promoters. ILs are salts, liquid below 100 ºC or even at room temperature, that may be placed in water, oils or hydroalcoholic solutions. Another approach may be the encapsulation of drugs into polymeric nanoparticles, which improves their bioavailability. In this study, two different classes of ILs were used, the imidazole- and the choline-based ionic liquids, as solubility enhancers of the poorly soluble antileprotic drugs. Thus, after the solubility studies, it was developed IL-PLGA nanoparticles hybrid systems to deliver such drugs. First of all, the solubility studies of clofazimine and dapsone were performed in water and in water: IL mixtures, at ILs concentrations where cell viability is maintained, at room temperature for 72 hours. For both drugs, it was observed an improvement on the drug solubility and [Cho][Phe] showed to be the best solubility enhancer, especially for clofazimine, where it was observed a 10-fold improvement. Later, it was produced nanoparticles, with a polymeric matrix of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) 75:25, by a modified solvent-evaporation W/O/W double emulsion technique in the presence of [Cho][Phe]. Thus, the inner phase was an aqueous solution of 0.2 % (v/v) of the above IL with each drug to its maximum solubility determined on the previous study. After the production, the nanosystem hybrid was physicochemically characterized. The produced nanoparticles had a diameter of around 580 nm and 640 nm, for clofazimine and dapsone, respectively. Regarding the polydispersity index, it was in agreement of the recommended value of this parameter for drug delivery systems (around 0.3). The association efficiency (AE) of the developed hybrid nanosystems demonstrated promising AE values for both drugs, given their low solubility (64.0 ± 4.0 % for clofazimine and 58.6 ± 10.0 % for dapsone), that prospects the capacity of these delivery systems to enhance the bioavailability and loading of clofazimine and dapsone. Overall, the study achievement may signify an upgrading of the patient’s quality of life, since it may mean a change in the therapeutic scheme, not requiring doses of drug so high to obtain a therapeutic effect. The authors would like to thank Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal (FCT/MCTES (PIDDAC), UID/DTP/04567/2016-CBIOS/PRUID/BI2/2018).

Keywords: ionic liquids, ionic liquids-PLGA nanoparticles hybrid systems, leprosy treatment, solubility

Procedia PDF Downloads 10