Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 45

Search results for: mushroom

45 Perception of Rural Dwellers on the Nutritional and Social Values of Mushroom in Oyo State, Nigeria

Authors: S. O. Odebode, O. E. Adelakun

Abstract:

The study assessed the perception of rural dwellers on the nutritional and social values of mushroom in Oyo state, Nigeria. One hundred and forty respondents were sampled and interviewed. Results showed that majority (84.9%) had below secondary education and 81.4 % were married, with fairly large (71.4%) household size (5–8). Also, 52.1% had favourable perception toward the nutritional values and 57.1% toward the social values of mushrooms in the study area. There was significant relationship between sex (X² = 4.673), educational level (X² = 11.969) and perception on the values of mushroom. The knowledge level of respondents on mushroom utilization and production is low in the study area. Farmers’ research field should be established to educate rural dwellers on mushroom farm practices and utilization.

Keywords: mushroom, nutritional value, rural dwellers, social value

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44 The Effect of Spent Mushroom Substrate on Blood Metabolites in Kurdish Male Lambs

Authors: Alireza Vakili, Shahab Ehtesham, Mohsen Danesh Mesgaran

Abstract:

The objective of this study was use different levels of spent mushroom substrate as a suitable substitute for wheat straw in the ration of male lambs. In this study 20 male lambs with the age of 90 days and initial average weight of 33± 1.7 kg were used. The animals were divided separately into single boxes with four treatments (control treatment, spent mushroom substrate 15%, spent mushroom substrate 25% and spent mushroom substrate 35%) and five replications. The experiment period was 114 days being 14 days adaptation and 90 days for breeding. On the days 36 and 94, blood samples were taken from the jugular vein. In order to carry out the trial, 20 male lambs received the four experimental diets in completely randomized design. The statistical analyses were carried out by using the GLM procedure of SAS 9.1. Means among treatments were compared by Tukey test. The results of the study showed that there was no significant differences between the serum biochemical and hematological contents of the lambs in the four treatments (p>0.05). It was concluded that spent mushroom substrate consumption has no harmful effect on the blood parameters of Kurdish male lambs.

Keywords: alternative food, nutrition, sheep performance, spent mushroom substrate

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
43 Structural Design and Environmental Analysis of Oyster Mushroom Cultivation House in Korea

Authors: Lee Sunghyoun, Yu Byeongkee, Kim Hyuckjoo, Yun Namkyu, Jung Jongcheon

Abstract:

Most of the recent on-sale oyster mushrooms are raised in a oyster mushroom house, in which the necessary adjustment of growing condition is feasible. The rationale for such artificial growing is the impossibility of successive cultivation in the case of a natural cultivation due to external weather conditions. A oyster mushroom house adopts an equipment called growing bed, laying one growing bed upon another in a multi-column fashion, growing and developing the mushrooms on the respective equipments. The indispensable environment management factors of mushroom cultivation are temperature, humidity, and CO2; on which an appropriate regulation of the three requisites is a necessitated condition for the sake of the total output’s increase. However, due to the multiple layers of growing bed’s disturbance on air circulation, a oyster mushroom house’s internal environmental uniformity meets with considerable instability. This research presents a technology which assures the facilitation of environment regulation over all the internal space of a oyster mushroom house, irrespective of its location. The research staff reinforced the oyster mushroom house’s insulation in order to minimize the external environment’s influence on the oyster mushroom house’s internal environment and installed circulation fan to improve the oyster mushroom house’s interior environmental uniformity. Also, the humidifier nozzle’s position was set to prevent dew condensation when humidifying. As a result, a highly sophisticated management over all the oyster mushroom house‘s internal space was realized with the temperature of 0.2~1.3℃, and the relative humidity of 2~7% at the cultivating stage of mushroom’s growth. Therefore, to maximize oyster mushroom house‘s internal environmental uniformity, it can be concluded that consideration of various factors such as insulation reinforcement, decision on the humidifier nozzle’s location, disposition of circulation fan’s installation and the direction of wind discharge is needed.

Keywords: mushroom growing facility, environmental uniformity, temperature, relative humidity, CO2 concentration

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42 Characterization of the Microorganisms Associated with Pleurotus ostractus and Pleurotus tuber-Regium Spent Mushroom Substrate

Authors: Samuel E. Okere, Anthony E. Ataga

Abstract:

Introduction: The microbial ecology of Pleurotus osteratus and Pleurotus tuber–regium spent mushroom substrate (SMS) were characterized to determine other ways of its utilization. Materials and Methods: The microbiological properties of the spent mushroom substrate were determined using standard methods. This study was carried out at the Microbiology Laboratory University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. Results: Quantitative microbiological analysis revealed that Pleurotus osteratus spent mushroom substrate (POSMS) contained 7.9x10⁵ and 1.2 x10³ cfu/g of total heterotrophic bacteria and total fungi count respectively while Pleurotus tuber-regium spent mushroom substrate (PTSMS) contained 1.38x10⁶ and 9.0 x10² cfu/g of total heterotrophic bacteria count and total fungi count respectively. The fungi species encountered from Pleurotus tuber-regium spent mushroom substrate (PTSMS) include Aspergillus and Cladosporum species, while Aspergillus and Penicillium species were encountered from Pleurotus osteratus spent mushroom substrate (POSMS). However, the bacteria species encountered from Pleurotus tuber-regium spent mushroom substrate include Bacillus, Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Actinobacter, and Pseudomonas species while Bacillus, Actinobacteria, Aeromonas, Lactobacillus and Aerococcus species were encountered from Pleurotus osteratus spent mushroom substrate (POSMS). Conclusion: Therefore based on the findings from this study, it can be concluded that spent mushroom substrate contain microorganisms that can be utilized both in bioremediation of oil-polluted soils as they contain important hydrocarbon utilizing microorganisms such as Penicillium, Aspergillus and Bacillus species and also as sources of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) such as Pseudomonas and Bacillus species which can induce resistance on plants. However, further studies are recommended, especially to molecularly characterize these microorganisms.

Keywords: characterization, microorganisms, mushroom, spent substrate

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41 Characteristics of Oak Mushroom Cultivar, Bambithyang Developed by Golden Seed Project

Authors: Yeongseon Jang, Rhim Ryoo, Young-Ae Park, Kang-Hyeon Ka, Donha Choi, Sung-Suk Lee

Abstract:

Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler, oak mushroom, is one of the most largely produced mushrooms in the world. To increase the competitiveness of Korean oak mushroom, golden seed project is ongoing. In this project, we develop new oak mushroom varieties to increase its productivity, quality, disease resistance, and so on. Through the project, new oak mushroom cultivar, Bambithyang was developed by mono-mono hybridization method. The optimum temperature for mycelial growth was at 25°C on potato dextrose agar (PDA) media. For the mass production test, it was cultivated using sawdust media with sawdust block type for 100 days. The temperature for primordia formation and fruit body production was broad (between 11°C and 20°C) which is good for spring and fall. Each flush period lasted for 6-7 days and the highest fruit body production was recorded in the first flush. The fruiting is sporadic. The pileus was deep brown. Its diameter was 69.2 mm and width was 17.8 mm. The stipe was ivory. It was 14.7 mm thick and 54.7 mm long. We would continue to develop new varieties while increasing the market share of domestic spawn with this variety.

Keywords: Lentinula edodes, mono-mono hybridization, new cultivar, oak mushroom

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
40 Study on Ratio of Binder Compounds in Thai Northern Style Sausages

Authors: Wipharat Saimo, Benjawan Thumthanaruk, Panida Banjongsinsiri, Nowwapan Noojuy

Abstract:

Thai northern style sausage (sai-ou) is originally cuisine made of chili paste, pork, and lard. It always serves with curry paste, vegetable, and rice. The meat and lard ingredients used can be substituted by Shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) and King oyster (Pleurotus eryngii) mushroom (50:50 w/w) which is suitable for all people, especially vegetarians. However, the texture of mushroom type sai-ou had no homogenous texture due to no adhesiveness property of mushroom. Therefore, this research aimed to study the ratio of hydrocolloids (konjac flour (0-100%), konjac gel (0-100%) and Citri-fi®100 FG (0-2%)) on the physicochemical properties mushroom type sai-ou. The mixture design was applied by using Minitab 16 software. Nine formula were designed for the test. The values of moisture content and water activity of nine formula were ranged from 66.25-72.17% and 0.96-0.97. The pH values were 5.44-5.89. The optimal ratio of konjac flour, konjac gel and Citri-fi®100 FG (74.75:24.75:0.5 (w/w)) yielded the highest texture profiles (hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness) as well as color parameters (L*, a* and b*). Sensory results showed had higher acceptability scores in term of overall liking with the level of ‘like moderately’ (5.9 on 7 pointed scale). The mushroom type sai-ou sausage could be an alternative food for health-conscious consumers.

Keywords: Citri-fi® 100 FG, konjac flour, konjac gel, Thai northern style sausages

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
39 Application of UV-C Irradiation on Quality and Textural Properties of Button Mushrooms

Authors: M. Ghasemi-Varnamkhasti, S. H. Yoosefian. A. Mohammad- Razdari

Abstract:

The effect of 1.0 kJ/m2 Ultraviolet-C (UV-C) light on pH, weight loss, color, and firmness of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) tissues during 21-days storage at 4 ºC was studied. UV-C irradiation enhanced pH, weight, color parameters, and firmness of mushroom during storage compared to control treatment. However, application of 1.0 kJ/m2 UV-C treatment could effectively induce the increase of weight loss, firmness, and pH to 14.53%, 49.82%, and 10.39%, respectively. These results suggest that the application of UV-C irradiation could be an effective method to maintain the postharvest quality of mushrooms.

Keywords: mushroom, polyethylene film, quality, UV-c irradiation

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
38 Useful Characteristics of Pleurotus Mushroom Hybrids

Authors: Suvalux Chaichuchote, Ratchadaporn Thonghem

Abstract:

Pleurotus mushroom is one of popular edible mushrooms in Thailand. It is much favored by consumers due to its delicious taste and high nutrition. It is commonly used as an ingredient in several dishes. The commercially cultivated strain grown in most farms is the Pleurotus sp., Hed Bhutan, that is widely distributed to mushroom farms throughout the country and can be cultivated almost all year round. However, it demands different cultivated strains from mushroom growers, therefore, the improving mushroom strains should be done to their benefits. In this study, we used a di-mon mating method to hybrid production from Hed Bhutan (P-3) as dikaryon material and monokaryotic mycelium were isolated from basidiospores of other three Pleurotus sp. by single spore isolation. The 3 hybrids: P-3XSA-6, P-3XSB-24 and P-3XSE-5 were recognized from the 12 hybridized successfully. They were appropriate hybridized in terms of fruiting body performance in the three time cycles of cultivation such as the number of days until growing, time for pinning, color and shape of fruiting bodies and yield. For genetic study, genomic DNAs of both Hed Bhutan (P-3) and three hybrids were extracted. A couple of primer ITS1 and ITS4 were used to amplify the gene coding for ITS1, ITS2 and 5.8S rRNA. The similarities between these amplified genes and databases of DNA revealed that Hed Bhutan (P-3) was the Pleurotus pulmonarius as well as P-3XSA-6, P-3XSB-24 and P-3XSE-5 hybrids. Furthermore, Hed Bhutan (P3) and three hybrids were distributed to 3 small-scale farms, with mushroom farming experience, in the countryside. To address this, one hundred and twenty mushroom bags of each strain were supplied to them. The findings, by interview, indicated two mushroom farmers were satisfied with P-3XSA-6 hybrid and P-3XSB-24 hybrid, thanks to their simultaneous fruiting time and good yield. While the other was satisfied with P-3XSB-24 hybrid due to its good yield and P-3XSE-5 hybrids thanks to its gradually fruiting body, benefiting in frequent harvest. Overall, farmers adopted all hybrids to grow as commercially cultivated strains as well as Hed Bhutan (P-3) strain.

Keywords: dikaryon, monokaryon, pleurotus, strain improvement

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37 Solid Waste Management through Mushroom Cultivation: An Eco Friendly Approach

Authors: Mary Josephine

Abstract:

Waste of certain process can be the input source of other sectors in order to reduce environmental pollution. Today there are more and more solid wastes are generated, but only very small amount of those are recycled. So, the threatening of environmental pressure to public health is very serious. The methods considered for the treatment of solid waste are biogas tanks or processing to make animal feed and fertilizer, however, they did not perform well. An alternative approach is growing mushrooms on waste residues. This is regarded as an environmental friendly solution with potential economic benefit. The substrate producers do their best to produce quality substrate at low cost. Apart from other methods, this can be achieved by employing biologically degradable wastes used as the resource material component of the substrate. Mushroom growing is a significant tool for the restoration, replenishment and remediation of Earth’s overburdened ecosphere. One of the rational methods of waste utilization involves locally available wastes. The present study aims to find out the yield of mushroom grown on locally available waste for free and to conserve our environment by recycling wastes.

Keywords: biodegradable, environment, mushroom, remediation

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
36 The Study on Enhanced Micro Climate of the Oyster Mushroom Cultivation House with Multi-Layered Shelves by Using Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis in Winter

Authors: Sunghyoun Lee, Byeongkee Yu, Chanjung Lee, Yeongtaek Lim

Abstract:

Oyster mushrooms are one of the ingredients that Koreans prefer. The oyster mushroom cultivation house has multiple layers in order to increase the mushroom production per unit area. However, the growing shelves in the house act as obstacles and hinder the circulation of the interior air, which leads to the difference of cultivation environment between the upper part and lower part of the growing shelves. Due to this difference of environments, growth distinction occurs according to the area of the growing shelves. It is known that minute air circulation around the mushroom cap facilitates the metabolism of mushrooms and improves its quality. This study has utilized the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program, that is, FLUENT R16, in order to analyze the improvement of the internal environment uniformity of the oyster mushroom cultivation house. The analyzed factors are velocity distribution, temperature distribution, and humidity distribution. In order to maintain the internal environment uniformity of the oyster mushroom cultivation house, it appeared that installing circulation fan at the upper part of the working passage towards the ceiling is effective. When all the environmental control equipment – unit cooler, inlet fan, outlet fan, air circulation fan, and humidifier - operated simultaneously, the RMS figure on the growing shelves appeared as follows: velocity 28.23%, temperature 30.47%, humidity 7.88%. However, when only unit cooler and air circulation fan operated, the RMS figure on the growing shelves appeared as follows: velocity 22.28%, temperature 0.87%, humidity 0.82%. Therefore, in order to maintain the internal environment uniformity of the mushroom cultivation house, reducing the overall operating time of inlet fan, outlet fan, and humidifier is needed, and managing the internal environment with unit cooler and air circulation fan appropriately is essential.

Keywords: air circulation fan, computational fluid dynamics, multi-layered shelves cultivation, oyster mushroom cultivation house

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35 Anticancer Activity of Edible Coprinus Mushroom (Coprinus comatus) on Human Glioblastoma Cell Lines and Interaction with Temozolomide

Authors: Maria Borawska, Patryk Nowakowski, Sylwia K. Naliwajko, Renata Markiewicz-Zukowska, Anna Puscion-Jakubik, Krystyna Gromkowska-Kepka, Justyna Moskwa

Abstract:

Coprinus comatus (O. F. Müll.) Pers.) should not be confused with the common Ink Cap, which contains coprine and can induce coprine poisoning. We study the possibility of applying coprinus mushroom (Coprinus comatus), available in Poland, as food product supporting the treatment of human glioblastoma cells. The U87MG and T98 glioblastoma cell lines were exposed to water (CW) or ethanol 95° (CE) Cantharellus extracts (50-500 μg/ml), with or without temozolomide (TMZ) during 24, 48 or 72 hours. The cell division was examined by the H³-thymidine incorporation. The statistical analysis was performed using Statistica v. 13.0 software. Significant differences were assumed for p < 0.05. We found that both, CW and CE, administrated alone, had inhibitory effect on cell lines growth, but the CE extract had a higher degree of growth inhibition. The anti-tumor effect of TMZ (50 μM) on U87MG was enhanced by mushroom extracts, and the effect was lower to the effect after using Coprinus comatus extracts (CW and CE) alone. A significant decrease (p < 0.05) in pro-MMP2 (82.61 ± 6.3% of control) secretion in U87MG cells was observed after treated with CE (250 μg/ml). We conclude that extracts of Coprinus comatus, edible mushroom, present cytotoxic properties on U87MG and T98 cell lines and may cooperate with TMZ synergistically enhancing its growth inhibiting activity against glioblastoma U87MG cell line.

Keywords: anticancer, glioma, mushroom, temozolomide

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34 The Effects of Agricultural Waste Compost Applications on Soil Properties

Authors: Ilker Sönmez, Mustafa Kaplan

Abstract:

The wastes that come out as a result of agricultural productions are disposed randomly and always by burning. Agricultural wastes have a great volume and agricultural wastes cause environmental pollution. Spent mushroom compost and cut flower carnation wastes have a serious potential in Turkey and especially in Antalya. One of the best evaluation methods of agricultural wastes is composting methods and so agricultural wastes transformed for a new product. In this study, agricultural wastes were evaluated the effects of compost and organic material on soil pH, EC, soil organic matter, and macro-micro nutrient contents of soil that it growth carnation. The effects of compost applications on soils were found to be statistically significant. Organic material applications have caused an increase in all physical and chemical parameters except for pH that pH decreased with compost added in soils. The best results among the compost applications were determined R1 compost that R1 compost included %75 Carnation Wastes + %25 Spent Mushroom Compost. The structural properties of soils can be improved with reusing of agricultural wastes by composting so it can be provided that decreasing the harmful effects of organic wastes on the environment.

Keywords: agricultural wastes, carnation wastes, composting, organic material, spent mushroom compost

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33 Organization of the Olfactory System and the Mushroom Body of the Weaver Ant, Oecophylla smaragdina

Authors: Rajashekhar K. Patil, Martin J. Babu

Abstract:

Weaver ants-Oecophylla smaragdina live in colonies that have polymorphic castes. The females which include the queen, major and minor workers are haploid. The individuals of castes are dependent on olfactory cues for carrying out caste-specific behaviour. In an effort to understand whether organizational differences exist to support these behavioural differences, we studied the olfactory system at the level of the sensilla on the antennae, olfactory glomeruli and the Kenyon cells in the mushroom bodies (MB). The MB differ in major and minor workers in terms of their size, with the major workers having relatively larger calyces and peduncle. The morphology of different types of Kenyon cells as revealed by Golgi-rapid staining was studied and the major workers had more dendritic arbors than minor workers. This suggests a greater degree of olfactory processing in major workers. Differences in caste-specific arrangement of sensilla, olfactory glomeruli and celluar architecture of MB indicate a developmental programme that forms basis of differential behaviour.

Keywords: ant, oecophylla, caste, mushroom body

Procedia PDF Downloads 343
32 Feeding Value Improvement of Rice Straw Fermented by Spent Mushroom Substrate on Growth and Lactating Performance of Dairy Goat

Authors: G. J. Fan, T. T. Lee, M. H. Chen, T. F. Shiao, B. Yu, C. F. Lee

Abstract:

Rice straw with poor feed quality and spent mushroom substrate are both the most abundant agricultural residues in Taiwan. Edible mushrooms from white rot fungi possess lignocellulase activity. It was expected to improve the feeding value of rice straw for ruminant by solid-state fermentation pretreatment using spent mushroom substrate. Six varieties or subspecies of spent edible mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus (blue or white color), P. sajor-caju, P. citrinopileatus, P. eryngii and Ganoderma lucidium) substrate were evaluated in solid-state fermentation process with rice straw for 8 wks. Quality improvement of fermented rice straw was determined by its in vitro digestibility, lignocellulose degradability, and cell wall breakdown checked by scanning electron microscope. Results turned out that Pleurotus ostreatus (white color) and P. sajor-caju had the better lignocellulose degradation effect than the others and was chosen for advance in vivo study. Rice straw fermented with spent Pleurotus ostreatus or Pleurotus sajor-caju mushroom substrate 8 wks was prepared for growing and lactating feeding trials of dairy goat, respectively. Pangolagrass hay at 15% diet dry matter was the control diet. Fermented or original rice straw was added to substitute pangolagrass hay in both feeding trials. A total of 30 head of Alpine castrated ram were assigned into three groups for 11 weeks, 5 pens (2 head/pen) each group. A total of 21 head of Saanen and Alpine goats were assigned into three treatments and individually fed in two repeat lactating trials with 28-d each. In castrated ram study, results showed that fermented rice straw by spent Pleurotus ostreatus mushroom substrate attributed the higher daily dry matter intakes (DMI, 1.53 vs. 1.20 kg) and body weight gain (138 vs. 101 g) than goats fed original rice straw. DMI (2.25 vs. 1.81 kg) and milk yield (3.31 vs. 3.02 kg) of lactating goats fed control pangolagrass diet and fermented rice straw by spent Pleurotus sajor-caju mushroom substrate were also higher than those fed original rice straw diet (P < 0.05). Milk compositions, milk fat, protein, total solid and lactose, were similar among treatments. In conclusion, solid-state fermentation by spent Pleurotus ostreatus or Pleurotus sajor-caju mushroom substrate could effectively improve the feeding value of rice straw. Fermented rice straw is a good alternative fiber feed resource for growing and lactating dairy goats and 15% in diet dry matter is recommended.

Keywords: feeding value, fermented rice straw, growing and lactating dairy goat, spent Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus sajor-caju mushroom substrate

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31 Efficacy of Plant and Mushroom Based Bio-Products against the Red Poultry Mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (Mesostigmata: Dermanyssidae)

Authors: Muhammad Asif Qayyoum, Bilal Saeed Khan

Abstract:

Poultry red mites (Dermanyssus gallinae De Geer) are economically deleterious parasite of hens in poultry industry in all over the world. Due to lack of proper control managements and result of poor application of commercial products, D. gallinae get resistance and severe infestation in poultry birds. Laboratory experiment was planned for the control of D. gallinae by using different mushroom and plant extracts. We used control treatment (100 ml distilled water) and nine treatments (10 gr Lentinula adobas, Ganoderma lucidum and Pleurotus aryngii with 100 ml methanol, 1% and 2% Neemazal, 1.5% Gamma-T-ol, Echinacea Leaf , 1.5% Fungatol with neem spray and Methanol) with five replication having five mites each. Data collected after 12 and 24 hours every day till mites found dead in every treatment. The significant differences among the mean values were compared with the DUNCAN multiple range test. The efficacy (%) of each treatment was determined with the Abbott formula. All statistical analyses were conducted with the SPSS Version 12 program. Lentinula edodes (80%), Ganoderma lucidum (76%) and Fungatol+Neem spray (1.5%) (80%) were significant against D. gallinae within 3 days.

Keywords: mushroom extracts, plant extracts, D. gallinae, control

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
30 Comparison of Allelopathic Activity of Some Edible Mushroom and Wild Mushroom in Japan

Authors: Asma Osivand, Hossein Mardani, Hiroshi Araya, Yoshiharu Fujii

Abstract:

Wild mushrooms have always been considered as valuable source of bioactive compounds, while edible mushrooms have been known for their importance as food source. However, their interaction with plants through chemicals that could lead to find new biochemical have not been well undertaken. A special bioassay method (Sandwich method) was applied to compare eight common edible mushrooms (Pleurotus eryngii, Pleurotus citrinopileatus, Pleurotus ostreatus, Lentinula edodes, Grifola frondosa, Flammulina velutipes, Hypsizygus tessellatus and Pholiota namako) with some wild species (Ganoderma appelanatum, Amanita pantherina, Artomyces pyxidatus, Morchella conica, Tricholosporum porphyrophyllum, Trametes hirsuta) for their phytotoxicity against lettuce. Among all tested edible mushrooms, application of 5 mg of P. ostreatus showed stronger allelopathic activity by inhibiting the growth of radicle and hypocotyl of lettuce by 84% and 63% respectively. Moreover, same amount of T. porphyrophyllum exerted 77% and 67% growth inhibition on radicle and hypocotyl of lettuce. In general, biochemicals contributed in tested mushrooms could be the main cause for their inhibitory activity and could lead to find new allelochemicals.

Keywords: allelopathy, interaction, mushroom, phytotoxicity, Pleurotus sp., sandwich method

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
29 Anti-Proliferative Effect of Chanterelle (Cantharellus) Mushroom Extracts on Glioblastoma Multiforme Cell Line U87MG

Authors: Justyna Moskwa, Patryk Nowakowski, Sylwia K. Naliwajko, Renata Markiewicz-Zukowska, Krystyna Gromkowska-Kepka, Anna Puscion-Jakubik, Konrad Mielcarek, Maria H. Borawska

Abstract:

For centuries, mushrooms have been used in folk medicine; however, knowledge of the composition and properties of fungi comes from the last twenty years. Mushrooms show antibacterial, antioxidant, antitumor and immune-stimulating properties; however, there is a lack of reports, on anticancer treatment of brain gliomas. The aim of this study was to examine influence of Chanterelle mushroom (Cantharellus Adans. ex Fr.) ethanolic (CHE) and water (CHW) extracts, on glioblastoma multiforme cell line (U87MG). Anti-proliferative activity of CHE and CHW in concentration (50-1000 µg/mL) was determined by a cytotoxicity test and DNA binding by [³H]-thymidine incorporation after 24, 48 and 72h of incubation with U87MG glioblastoma cell line. The statistical analysis was performed using Statistica v. 13.0 software. Significant differences were assumed for p < 0.05. We examined that CHE extracts in all the tested concentrations (50, 100, 250, 500, 1000 µg/mL) after all hours of incubation significantly decreased cell viability (p < 0.05) on U87MG cell line, which was confirmed by the significant (p < 0.05) reduction of DNA synthesis. Our results suggest that only CHE extract a cytotoxic and anti-proliferation activities on U87MG cell line.

Keywords: anticancer, food, glioblastoma, mushroom

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28 Calcium Uptake and Yield of Pleurotus ostreatus Cultivated in Rice Straw-Based Substrate Enriched with Natural Sources

Authors: Arianne V. Julian, Michael R. Umagat, Renato G. Reyes

Abstract:

Pleurotus ostreatus, which is one of the most widely cultivated mushrooms, is an excellent source of protein and other minerals but inherently contains low calcium level. Calcium plays several vital functions in human health; therefore, adequate daily intake is necessary. Supplementation of growth substrate is a significant approach in mushroom production to improve nutritional content and yield. This study focused on the influence of varying concentrations of Ca supplementation derived from natural sources including agricultural lime, eggshell and oyster shell in rice straw-based formulation for the production of P. ostreatus. The effect of Ca supplementation on the total yield and Ca content were obtained. Results revealed that these natural sources increased both the yield and Ca of P. ostreatus. Mushroom grown in substrate with 8-10% agricultural lime and 6% eggshell powder produced the highest yields while using oyster shell powder did not vary with the control. Meanwhile, substrate supplementation using agricultural lime and eggshell powder in all concentrations have increased Ca in fruiting bodies. However, Ca was not absorbed in the oyster shell powder-supplemented substrate. These findings imply the potential of agricultural lime and eggshell powder in the production of Ca-enriched mushrooms resulting in higher yield.

Keywords: calcium fortification, mushroom production, natural sources, Pleurotus ostreatus

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27 Sequential Pulsed Electric Field and Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of Bioactive Enriched Fractions from Button Mushroom Stalks

Authors: Bibha Kumari, Nigel P. Brunton, Dilip K. Rai, Brijesh K. Tiwari

Abstract:

Edible mushrooms possess numerous functional components like homo- and hetero- β-glucans [β(1→3), β(1→4) and β(1→6) glucosidic linkages], chitins, ergosterols, bioactive polysaccharides and peptides imparting health beneficial properties to mushrooms. Some of the proven biological activities of mushroom extracts are antioxidant, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, cholesterol lowering activity by inhibiting a key cholesterol metabolism enzyme i.e. 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl CoA reductase (HMGCR), angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition. Application of novel extraction technologies like pulsed electric field (PEF) and high power ultrasound offers clean, green, faster and efficient extraction alternatives with enhanced and good quality extracts. Sequential PEF followed by ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) were applied to recover bioactive enriched fractions from industrial white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) stalk waste using environmentally friendly and GRAS solvents i.e. water and water/ethanol combinations. The PEF treatment was carried out at 60% output voltage, 2 Hz frequency for 500 pulses of 20 microseconds pulse width, using KCl salt solution of 0.6 mS/cm conductivity by the placing 35g of chopped fresh mushroom stalks and 25g of salt solution in the 4x4x4cm3 treatment chamber. Sequential UAE was carried out on the PEF pre-treated samples using ultrasonic-water-bath (USB) of three frequencies (25 KHz, 35 KHz and 45 KHz) for various treatment times (15-120 min) at 80°C. Individual treatment using either PEF or UAE were also investigation to compare the effect of each treatment along with the combined effect on the recovery and bioactivity of the crude extracts. The freeze dried mushroom stalk powder was characterised for proximate compositional parameters (dry weight basis) showing 64.11% total carbohydrate, 19.12% total protein, 7.21% total fat, 31.2% total dietary fiber, 7.9% chitin (as glucosamine equivalent) and 1.02% β-glucan content. The total phenolic contents (TPC) were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and expressed as gallic-acid-equivalents (GAE). The antioxidant properties were ascertained using DPPH and FRAP assays and expressed as trolox-equivalents (TE). HMGCR activity and molecular mass of β-glucans will be measured using the commercial HMG-CoA Reductase Assay kit (Sigma-Aldrich) and size exclusion chromatography (HPLC-SEC), respectively. Effects of PEF, UAE and their combination on the antioxidant capacity, HMGCR inhibition and β-glucans content will be presented.

Keywords: β-glucan, mushroom stalks, pulsed electric field (PEF), ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE)

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26 The Sawdust Cultivation of Lentinula edodes with Broussonetia kazinoki

Authors: Yeun Sug Jeong, Yeongseon Jang, Rhim Ryoo, Donha Choi, Sung-Suk Lee, Kang-Hyeon Ka

Abstract:

Broussonetia kazinoki (paper mulberry) is a plant native to Asia, and it grows at the foot of a mountain. Its bark is used as a raw material of Hanji, traditional Korean paper, and fruit is used as a medicinal material. However, inside the bark (woody part) is not used and discarded. We tried to use it for Lentinula edodes (oak mushroom) cultivation. It is commonly cultivated using oak trees and sawdust, but it could be grown with other trees. The woody part of paper mulberry was ground and mixed with oak sawdust by five different ratios. The 1.2 kg cylindrical bag media were prepared and water contents were adjusted to 65%. The media were autoclaved at 100℃ for 60 min and 121℃ for 90 min. Two strains of oak mushroom, NIFoS 2462 and NIFoS 2778 were inoculated and cultivated for 90 days in dark condition, and 40 days in light condition. Compared to the control, the mycelial growth period was long and the hardness of the media was low when paper mulberry sawdust was added. After incubation period, fruiting was stimulated at 18℃ and more than 85% humidity. After each flush, there was a resting period of 2 weeks. In the first flush, mushrooms were small, and a lot of small mushrooms were harvested. On the other hand, no mushrooms of 5 g or less were harvested in the secondary flush. The highest productivity was obtained in a 3:1 ratio of paper mulberry and oak sawdust. The size of NIFoS 2778 was uniform in each condition. On the other hand, NIFoS 2462 had smaller mushrooms in the media containing paper mulberry sawdust, but the appearance was not significantly different. This study showed that paper mulberry wood could be used to grow oak mushrooms and some oak sawdust could be substituted.

Keywords: Broussonetia kazinoki, cultivation, Lentinula edodes, oak mushroom

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25 Bioactive, Nutritional and Heavy Metal Constituents of Some Edible Mushrooms Found in Abia State of Nigeria

Authors: I. C. Okwulehie, J. A. Ogoke

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The phytocemical, mineral, proximate and heavy metals compositions of six edible and non-edible species of mushrooms were investigated. Fully fleshy mushrooms were used for the analysis. On the averagely, the bioactive constituents of the mushrooms were as follows Alkaloids 0.12 ± 0.02 – 1.01 ± 03 %, Tannins 0.44 ± 0.09 – 1.38 ± 0.6,). Phenols,(0.13 ± 0.01 – 0.26± 0.00, Saponins 0.14 ± 0.03 – 0.32 ± 0.04%, Flavonoids 0.08 ± 0.02 – 0.34 ± 0.02%. The result of proximate composition indicated that the mushroom contained (5.17 ± 0.06 – 12.28 ± 0.16% protein, 0.16 ± 0.02 – 0.67 ± 0.02% fats, 1.06 ± 0.03 – 8.49 ± 0.03 % fibre, (62.06 ± 0.52 – 80.01 ± 4.71% and carbohydrate. The mineral composition of the mushrooms were as follows, calcium 81.49 ± 2.32 - .914 ± 2.32mg/100g, Magnesium(8 ± 1.39-24 ± 2.40mg/100g, Potassium 64.54 ± 0.43 – 164.54 ± 1.23 mg/100g, sodium 9.47 ± 0.12 – 30.97 ± 0.16 mg/100g, and Phosphorus 22.19 ± 0.57-53.2± 0.44 mg/100g. Heavy metals concentration indicated Cadmium 0.7-0.94ppm. Zinc 27.82 – 70.98 ppm. Lead 0.66 – 2.86ppm and Copper 1.8-22.32ppm. The result obtained indicates that the mushrooms are of good sources of phytochemicals, proximate and minerals needed for maintenance of good health and can also be exploited in manufacture of drugs. Heavy metals obtained indicate that when consume intentionally in high content may cause liver, kidney damage and even death.

Keywords: bioactive, heavy metals, mushroom, nutritive

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24 The Increase in Functionalities of King Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii) Mycelia Depending on the Increase in Nutritional Components

Authors: Hye-Sung Park, Eun-Ji Lee, Chan-Jung Lee, Won-Sik Kong

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This study was conducted to research king oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii) mycelia with reinforced functionalities. 0 to 4% of saccharide components, such as glucose (glu), lactose (lac), mannitol (man), xylose (xyl), and fructose (fru) and 0 to 0.04% of amino acid components, such as aspartic acid (asp). Cysteine (cys), threonine (thr), glutamine (gln), and serine (ser) were added to liquid media, and antioxidant activities, nitrite scavenging activities, and total polyphenol contents of the cultured mycelia were measured. In the saccharide-added group, 4 strains except ASI 2887 had high antioxidant activities when 1% of xyl was added and especially, the antioxidant activity of ASI 2839 was 73.9%, which was the highest value. In the amino acid-added group, the antioxidant activity of ASI 2839 was 66.3% that was the highest value when 0.2% of ser was added. But all the 5 strains had lower antioxidant activities than the saccharide-added group overall. In the saccharide-added group, 4 strains except ASI 2887 had higher nitrite scavenging activities than other group when 1% of xyl was added and especially, the nitrite scavenging activity of ASI 2824 was 57.8% that was the highest value. It was revealed that the saccharide-added group and the amino acid-added group had a similar efficiency of nitrite scavenging activity. Although the same component-added group did not show a certain increase or decrease in total polyphenol contents, ASI 2839 with the highest antioxidant activity had 6.8mg/g, which was the highest content when 1% of xyl was added. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that when 1% of xyl was added, functionalities of Pleurotus eryngii mycelia, including antioxidant activities, nitrite scavenging activities, and total polyphenol contents improved.

Keywords: king oyster mushroom, saccharide, amino acid, mycelia

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23 Antibacterial and Antityrosinase Activity of Isolated Compounds from Stem Bark of Ficus platyphylla Del

Authors: Aminu Muhammad, Mustapha Ya’u, Hasnah Mohd Sirat

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An investigation of the chemical constituents into the stem bark of Ficus platyphylla (Moraceae) has resulted in the isolation of hordenine, epicatechin, lupeol, lupeol acetate and α-amyrin acetate. Their structures were determined using spectroscopic data as well as comparison with literature data. The antibacterial assay has been tested against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, while the tyrosinase inhibition assay was examined using L-Dopa as a substrate of mushroom tyrosinase enzyme. hordenine, epicatechin, lupeol, lupeol acetate and α-amyrin acetate showed minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) values in the range of 225-900 µg/mL against the bacterial strains. Lupeol, lupeol acetate and α-amyrin acetate showed significant antityrosinase activity against mushroom tyrosinase enzyme with percent inhibition of 67.7%, 66.2% and 62.2%, respectively.

Keywords: antibacterial, antityrosinase, chemical constituents, Ficus platyphylla

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
22 Characterization of Minerals, Elicitors in Spent Mushroom Substrate Extract and Effects on Growth, Yield and the Management of Massava Mosaic Diseases

Authors: Samuel E. Okere, Anthony E. Ataga

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Introduction: This paper evaluated the mineral compositions, disease resistance elicitors in Pleurotus ostratus (POWESMS), and Pleurotus tuber-regium water extract spent mushroom substrate (PTWESMS) on the growth, yield, and management of cassava mosaic disease. Materials and Methods: The cassava plantlet (tms 98/0505) were generated through meristem tip culture at the Tissue Culture Laboratory, National Root Crop Research Institute, Umudike before they were transferred to the screen house, University of Port Harcourt Research Farm. The minerals and elicitors contained in the two spent mushroom substrates were evaluated using standard procedures. The treatments for this investigation comprised cassava plants treated with POWESMS, PTWESMS, and untreated cassava as control, which were inoculated with viral inoculum seven days after treatment application. The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized block design with 3 replicates. The data generated were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA). Means were separated using Fishers Least Significant Difference at p=0.05. Results: The results obtained revealed that POWESMS contained 19.3, 0.52, and 0.1g/200g substrate of carbohydrate polymers, glycoproteins, and lipid molecules elicitors respectively while it also contained 3.17, 212.1, 17.9,21.8, 58.8 and 111.0 mg/100g substrate for N, P, K, Na, Mg and Ca respectively. Further, PTWESMS contain 1.6, 0.04, and 0.2g/200g of the substrate as carbohydrate polymers, glycoprotein, and lipid respectively; the minerals contained in this substrate were 3.4, 204.8, 8.9, 24.2, 32.2 and 105.5 mg respectively for N, P, K, Na, and Ca. There were also significant differences in the mean values of the number of storage roots, root length, fresh root weight, fresh weight plant biomass, root girth, and whole plant dry biomass, but no significant difference was recorded for harvest index. The result also revealed significant differences in mean values of disease severity index evaluated at 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, and 28 weeks after inoculation (WAI). Conclusion: The aqueous extract of these spent mushrooms substrate have shown outstanding prospect in managing cassava mosaic disease and also improvement in growth and yield of cassava due to the high level of the minerals and elicitors they contain when compared with the control. However, more work is recommended, especially in understanding the mechanism of this induced resistance.

Keywords: characterization, elicitors, mosaic, mushroom

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21 Change of Flavor Characteristics of Flavor Oil Made Using Sarcodon aspratus (Sarcodon aspratus Berk. S. Ito) According to Extraction Temperature and Extraction Time

Authors: Gyeong-Suk Jo, Soo-Hyun Ji, You-Seok Lee, Jeong-Hwa Kang

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To develop an flavor oil using Sarcodon aspratus (Sarcodon aspratus Berk. S. Ito), infiltration extraction method was used to add dried mushroom flavor of Sarcodon aspratus to base olive oil. Edible base oil used during infiltration extraction was pressed olive oil, and infiltration extraction was done while varying extraction temperature to 20, 30, 40 and 50(℃) extraction time to 24 hours, 48 hours and 72 hours. Amount of Sarcodon aspratus added to base oil was 20% compared to 100% of base oil. Production yield of Sarcodon aspratus flavor oil decreased with increasing extraction frequency. Aroma intensity was 2195~2447 (A.U./1㎖), and it increased with increasing extraction temperature and extraction time. Chromaticity of Sarcodon aspratus flavor oil was bright pale yellow with pH of 4.5, sugar content of 71~72 (°Brix), and highest average turbidity of 16.74 (Haze %) shown by the 40℃ group. In the aromatic evaluation, increasing extraction temperature and extraction time resulted in increase of cheese aroma, savory sweet aroma and beef jerky aroma, as well as spicy taste comprised of slight bitter taste, savory taste and slight acrid taste, to make aromatic oil with unique flavor.

Keywords: Flavor Characteristics, Flavor Oil, Infiltration extraction method, mushroom, Sarcodon aspratus (Sarcodon aspratus Berk. S. Ito)

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20 Interventions to Control Listeria Monocytogenes on Sliced Mushrooms

Authors: Alanna Goodman, Kayla Murray, Keith Warriner

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The following reports on a comparative study on the efficacy of different decontamination technologies to decrease Listeria monocytogenes inoculated onto white sliced mushrooms and assesses the fate of residual levels during posttreatment storage under aerobic conditions at 8uC. The treatments were chemical (hydrogen peroxide, peroxyacetic acid, ozonated water, electrolyzed water, chitosan, lactic acid), biological (Listeria bacteriophages), and physical (UV-C, UV:hydrogen peroxide). None of the treatments achieved .1.2 log CFU reduction in L. monocytogenes levels; bacteriophages at a multiplicity of infection of 100 and 3% (vol/vol) hydrogen peroxide were the most effective of the treatments tested. However, growth of residual L. monocytogenes during posttreatment storage attained levels equal to or greater than levels in the nontreated controls. The growth of L. monocytogenes was inhibited on mushrooms treated with chitosan, electrolyzed water, peroxyacetic acid, or UV. Yet, L. monocytogenes inoculated onto mushrooms and treated with UV:hydrogen peroxide decreased during posttreatment storage, through a combination of sublethal injury and dehydration of the mushroom surface. Although mushrooms treated with UV:hydrogen peroxide became darker during storage, the samples were visually acceptable relative to controls. In conclusion, of the treatments evaluated, UV:hydrogen peroxide holds promise to control L. monocytogenes on mushroom surfaces.

Keywords: listeria monocytogenes, sliced mushrooms, bacteriophages, UV, sanitizers

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
19 Sesamol Decreases Melanin Biosynthesis via Melanogenesis-Related Gene Expressions in Melan-a Cells

Authors: Seung-Hwa Baek, In-Jung Nam, Sang-Han Lee

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The development of anti-melanogenic agents is important for the prevention of serious esthetic problem like a melasma, freckle, age spots, and chloasma. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-melanogenic effect of sesamol, an active lignan isolated from sesame seed, by mushroom and cellular tyrosinase assay, melanin content and the analysis of melanogensis-related mRNA expressions in melana cells. Sesamol showed strong inhibitory activity against the mushroom tyrosinase in a dose-dependent manner. Intracellular tyrosinase inhibition activity was also confirmed by zymography. At a concentration of 50 μM, sesamol inhibited melanin production in melan-a cells with no cytoxicity while those of phenylthiourea (PTU) as a positive control were the same condition. Sesamol significantly inhibited the expression of melanogensis-related genes, such as tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1), dopachrome tautomerase (Dct), microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R). These findings indicate that sesamol could reduce melanin biosynthesis via the downregulation of tyrosinase activity and melanin production via subsequent gene expression of melanogenesis-related proteins. Together, these results suggest that the sesamol have strong potential in inhibiting melanin biosynthesis, in that the substance may be used as a new skin-whitening agent of cosmetic materials.

Keywords: sesamol, sesame seed, melanin biosynthesis, melanogenesis-related gene, skin-whitening agent

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18 Effect of UV-B Light Treatment on Nutraceutical Potential of an Indigenous Mushroom Calocybe Indica

Authors: Himanshi Rathore, Shalinee Prasad, Satyawati Sharma, Ajay Singh Yadav

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Medicinal mushrooms are acceptable all over the world not only because they have a unique flavour and texture but also due to the presence of great nutritional, nutraceutical and functional properties. High content of physiologically active substances like ergosterol, vitamin D, phenolic compounds, triterpenoids and steroids make these medicinal mushrooms a key source of nutraceuticals. Calocybe indica is a popular medicinal mushroom of India which is known to possess high amount of secondary metabolites including ergosterol (vitamin D2). The ergosterol gets converted to vitamin D in the presence of UV rays by a photochemical reaction. In lieu of the above facts the present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of UV-B light treatment on the vitamin D2 concentration, phenolic content and non volatile compounds in Calocybe indica. For this study, UV-B light source of intensity 5.3w/m2 was used to expose mushrooms for the time period of 0min, 30min, 60min and 90 min. It was found that the vitamin D2 concentration increased with the time duration i.e. 85±0.15 (0 min), 182±1.6 (30 min), 187±0.4 (60 min) and 182 ±0.8 (90 min) μg/g (dry weight). Highest concentration of vitamin D2 was found at 60 min duration. No discoloration in sliced mushrooms was observed during the exposure time. The results revealed that the exposure of mushrooms for a minimum of 30 min duration under UVB source can be a novel, convenient and cheapest way to increase the vitamin D content in mushrooms. This can be one of richest source to fulfil the recommended dietary allowances of vitamin D in our daily diets. The paper provides information on the enhancement of vitamin D content by UV lights and its effects on the non volatile (soluble sugars, free amino acids, 5′-nucleotides and phenolics) compounds will also be presented.

Keywords: Calocybe indica, ergosterol, nutraceutical, phenolics

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
17 Hydrogen Production from Solid Waste of Sago Processing Industries in Indonesia: Effect of Chemical and Biological Pretreatment

Authors: Pratikno Hidayat, Khamdan Cahyari

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Hydrogen is the ultimate choice of energy carriers in future. It contents high energy density (42 kJ/g), emits only water vapor during combustion and has high energy conversion up to 50% in fuel cell application. One of the promising methods to produce hydrogen is from organic waste through dark fermentation method. It utilizes sugar-rich organic waste as substrate and hydrogen-producing microorganisms to generate the hydrogen. Solid waste of sago processing industries in Indonesia is one of the promising raw materials for both producing biofuel hydrogen and mitigating the environmental impact due to the waste disposal. This research was meant to investigate the effect of chemical and biological pretreatment i.e. acid treatment and mushroom cultivation toward lignocellulosic waste of these sago industries. Chemical pretreatment was conducted through exposing the waste into acid condition using sulfuric acid (H2SO4) (various molar i.e. 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 M and various duration of exposure i.e. 30, 60 and 90 minutes). Meanwhile, biological treatment was conducted through utilization of the solid waste as growth media of mushroom (Oyster and Ling-zhi) for 3 months. Dark fermentation was conducted at pH 5.0, temperature 27℃ and atmospheric pressure. It was noticed that chemical and biological pretreatment could improve hydrogen yield with the highest yield at 3.8 ml/g VS (31%v H2). The hydrogen production was successfully performed to generate high percentage of hydrogen, although the yield was still low. This result indicated that the explosion of acid chemical and biological method might need to be extended to improve degradability of the solid waste. However, high percentage of hydrogen was resulted from proper pretreatment of residual sludge of biogas plant to generate hydrogen-producing inoculum.

Keywords: hydrogen, sago waste, chemical, biological, dark fermentation, Indonesia

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
16 Immunomodulatory Activity of Polysaccharide-Protein Complex Isolated from the Sclerotia of Polyporus Rhinocerus in Murine Macrophages

Authors: Chaoran Liu

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Bioactive polysaccharides and polysaccharide-protein complex derived from mushrooms and fungi have a wide range of immunomodulatory activity with low side-effects and have therefore the potential to be developed as an adjuvant in cancer therapies. Mushrooms sclerotium is rich in polysaccharides and the polysaccharides isolated from the sclerotium of Polyporus rhinocerus have shown potent in vivo and in vitro immunomodulatory effects. Macrophages are considered to be an important component of the innate immune response against bacterial infection and cancer. To better understanding the immunomodulatory effects and its underlying mechanisms of sclerotial water-soluble polysaccharides extracted from P. rhinocerus on macrophages, the objectives of this study are to purify the water-soluble novel sclerotial polysaccharides and to characterize the structure and properties as well as to study the detailed molecular mechanisms of the in vitro immunomodulating effects in murine macrophages. The hot water-soluble fraction PRW from the sclerotium of P. rhinocerus was obtained using solvent extraction. PRW was further fractionated by membrane ultrafiltration to a give a fraction (PRW1) with molecular mass less than 50 kDa. PRW1 was characterized to be a polysaccharide-protein complex composed of 45.7% polysaccharide and 44.2% protein. The chemical structure of the carbohydrate moiety of PRW1 was elucidated by GC and FTIR to be mainly beta-D-glucan with trace amount of galactose and mannose. The immunomodulatory effects of PRW1 on murine RAW 264.7 macrophages were demonstrated in terms of the increase in nitric oxide production and cytokine production. Mechanistically, PRW1 initiates ERK phosphorylation to activate macrophages within 15 min and significantly improves the expression level of inducible NOS (iNOS) from 6 h after treatment. In summary, this study indicates that PRW1 is a potent immunomodulatory agent for macrophages and suggests that mushroom sclerotia from Polyporus rhinocerus requires for further investigation in cancer research.

Keywords: Polyporus rhinocerus, mushroom sclerotia, Polysaccharide-Protein Complex, macrophage activation

Procedia PDF Downloads 111