Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 427

Search results for: multi-level resistive switching

427 Multi-Layer Mn-Doped SnO2 Thin Film for Multi-State Resistive Switching

Authors: Zhemi Xu, Dewei Chu, Sean Li

Abstract:

Well self-assembled pure and Mn-doped SnO2 nanocubes were synthesized by interface thermodynamic method, which is ideal for highly homogeneous large scale thin film deposition on flexible substrates for various electric devices. Mn-doped SnO2 shows very good resistive switching with high On/Off ratio (over 103), endurance and retention characteristics. More important, the resistive state can be tuned by multi-layer fabrication by alternate pure SnO2 and Mn-doped SnO2 nanocube layer, which improved the memory capacity of resistive switching effectively. Thus, such a method provides transparent, multi-level resistive switching for next generation non-volatile memory applications.

Keywords: Metal Oxides, self-assembly nanoparticles, multi-level resistive switching, multi-layer thin film

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
426 Resistive Switching in TaN/AlNx/TiN Cell

Authors: Shyankay Jou, Hsin-Ping Huang

Abstract:

Resistive switching of aluminum nitride (AlNx) thin film was demonstrated in a TaN/AlNx/TiN memory cell that was prepared by sputter deposition techniques. The memory cell showed bipolar switching of resistance between +3.5 V and –3.5 V. The resistance ratio of high resistance state (HRS) to low resistance state (HRS), RHRS/RLRS, was about 2 over 100 cycles of endurance test. Both the LRS and HRS of the memory cell exhibited ohmic conduction at low voltages and Poole-Frenkel emission at high voltages. The electrical conduction in the TaN/AlNx/TiN memory cell was possibly attributed to the interactions between charges and defects in the AlNx film.

Keywords: Thin Films, aluminum nitride, nonvolatile memory, resistive switching

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
425 Minimization of Switching Losses in Cascaded Multilevel Inverters Using Efficient Sequential Switching Hybrid-Modulation Techniques

Authors: P. Satish Kumar, K. Ramakrishna, Ch. Lokeshwar Reddy, G. Sridhar

Abstract:

This paper presents two different sequential switching hybrid-modulation strategies and implemented for cascaded multilevel inverters. Hybrid modulation strategies represent the combinations of Fundamental-Frequency Pulse Width Modulation (FFPWM) and Multilevel Sinusoidal-Modulation (MSPWM) strategies, and are designed for performance of the well-known Alternative Phase Opposition Disposition (APOD), Phase Shifted Carrier (PSC). The main characteristics of these modulations are the reduction of switching losses with good harmonic performance, balanced power loss dissipation among the devices with in a cell, and among the series-connected cells. The feasibility of these modulations is verified through spectral analysis, power loss analysis and simulation.

Keywords: cascaded multilevel inverters, hybrid modulation, power loss analysis, pulse width modulation

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424 Hybrid PWM Techniques for the Reduction of Switching Losses and Voltage Harmonics in Cascaded Multilevel Inverters

Authors: Venkata Reddy Kota

Abstract:

These days, the industrial trend is moving away from heavy and bulky passive components to power converter systems that use more and more semiconductor elements. Also, it is difficult to connect the traditional converters to the high and medium voltage. For these reasons, a new family of multilevel inverters has appeared as a solution for working with higher voltage levels. Different modulation topologies like Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (SPWM), Selective Harmonic Elimination Pulse Width Modulation (SHE-PWM) are available for multilevel inverters. In this work, different hybrid modulation techniques which are combination of fundamental frequency modulation and multilevel sinusoidal-modulation are compared. The main characteristic of these modulations are reduction of switching losses with good harmonic performance and balanced power loss dissipation among the device. The proposed hybrid modulation schemes are developed and simulated in Matlab/Simulink for cascaded H-bridge inverter. The results validate the applicability of the proposed schemes for cascaded multilevel inverter.

Keywords: cascaded multilevel inverters, hybrid PWM techniques, switching loss minimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 420
423 Effects of Voltage Pulse Characteristics on Some Performance Parameters of LiₓCoO₂-based Resistive Switching Memory Devices

Authors: Van Son Nguyen, Van Huy Mai, Alec Moradpour, Pascale Auban Senzier, Claude Pasquier, Kang Wang, Pierre-Antoine Albouy, Marcelo J. Rozenberg, John Giapintzakis, Christian N. Mihailescu, Charis M. Orfanidou, Thomas Maroutian, Philippe Lecoeur, Guillaume Agnus, Pascal Aubert, Sylvain Franger, Raphaël Salot, Nathalie Brun, Katia March, David Alamarguy, Pascal ChréTien, Olivier Schneegans

Abstract:

In the field of Nanoelectronics, a major research activity is being developed towards non-volatile memories. To face the limitations of existing Flash memory cells (endurance, downscaling, rapidity…), new approaches are emerging, among them resistive switching memories (Re-RAM). In this work, we analysed the behaviour of LixCoO2 oxide thin films in electrode/film/electrode devices. Preliminary results have been obtained concerning the influence of bias pulses characteristics (duration, value) on some performance parameters, such as endurance and resistance ratio (ROFF/RON). Besides, Conducting Probe Atomic Force Microscopy (CP-AFM) characterizations of the devices have been carried out to better understand some causes of performance failure, and thus help optimizing the switching performance of such devices.

Keywords: Endurance, Thin Films, resistive switching, non volatile resistive memories

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
422 An Improved Modular Multilevel Converter Voltage Balancing Approach for Grid Connected PV System

Authors: Safia Bashir, Zulfiqar Memon

Abstract:

During the last decade, renewable energy sources in particular solar photovoltaic (PV) has gained increased attention. Therefore, various PV converters topologies have emerged. Among this topology, the modular multilevel converter (MMC) is considered as one of the most promising topologies for the grid-connected PV system due to its modularity and transformerless features. When it comes to the safe operation of MMC, the balancing of the Submodules Voltages (SMs) plays a critical role. This paper proposes a balancing approach based on space vector PWM (SVPWM). Unlike the existing techniques, this method generates the switching vectors for the MMC by using only one SVPWM for the upper arm. The lower arm switching vectors are obtained by finding the complement of the upper arm switching vectors. The use of one SVPWM not only simplifies the calculation but also helped in reducing the circulating current in the MMC. The proposed method is varied through simulation using Matlab/Simulink and compared with other available modulation methods. The results validate the ability of the suggested method in balancing the SMs capacitors voltages and reducing the circulating current which will help in reducing the power loss of the PV system.

Keywords: PV system, capacitor voltage balancing, circulating current, modular multilevel converter

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421 Modelling and Simulation of Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Single Source Inverter Using PSIM

Authors: Gaddafi Sani Shehu, Tankut Yalcınoz, Abdullahi Bala Kunya

Abstract:

Multilevel inverters such as flying capacitor, diode-clamped, and cascaded H-bridge inverters are very popular particularly in medium and high power applications. This paper focuses on a cascaded H-bridge module using a single direct current (DC) source in order to generate an 11-level output voltage. The noble approach reduces the number of switches and gate drivers, in comparison with a conventional method. The anticipated topology produces more accurate result with an isolation transformer at high switching frequency. Different modulation techniques can be used for the multilevel inverter, but this work features modulation techniques known as selective harmonic elimination (SHE).This modulation approach reduces the number of carriers with reduction in Switching Losses, Total Harmonic Distortion (THD), and thereby increasing Power Quality (PQ). Based on the simulation result obtained, it appears SHE has the ability to eliminate selected harmonics by chopping off the fundamental output component. The performance evaluation of the proposed cascaded multilevel inverter is performed using PSIM simulation package and THD of 0.94% is obtained.

Keywords: Power Quality, cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverter, selective harmonic elimination

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
420 Incorporation of Copper for Performance Enhancement in Metal-Oxides Resistive Switching Device and Its Potential Electronic Application

Authors: Souvik Kundu, B. Pavan Kumar Reddy, P. Michael Preetam Raj, Souri Banerjee

Abstract:

In this work, the fabrication and characterization of copper-doped zinc oxide (Cu:ZnO) based memristor devices with aluminum (Al) and indium tin oxide (ITO) metal electrodes are reported. The thin films of Cu:ZnO was synthesized using low-cost and low-temperature chemical process. The Cu:ZnO was then deposited onto ITO bottom electrodes using spin-coater technique, whereas the top electrode Al was deposited utilizing physical vapor evaporation technique. Ellipsometer was employed in order to measure the Cu:ZnO thickness and it was found to be 50 nm. Several surface and materials characterization techniques were used to study the thin-film properties of Cu:ZnO. To ascertain the efficacy of Cu:ZnO for memristor applications, electrical characterizations such as current-voltage (I-V), data retention and endurance were obtained, all being the critical parameters for next-generation memory. The I-V characteristic exhibits switching behavior with asymmetrical hysteresis loops. This work imputes the resistance switching to the positional drift of oxygen vacancies associated with respect to the Al/Cu:ZnO junction. Further, a non-linear curve fitting regression techniques were utilized to determine the equivalent circuit for the fabricated Cu:ZnO memristors. Efforts were also devoted in order to establish its potentiality for different electronic applications.

Keywords: resistive switching, copper doped, metal-oxides, oxygen vacancies

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
419 Oxide Based Memristor and Its Potential Application in Analog-Digital Electronics

Authors: Souvik Kundu, P. Michael Preetam Raj, Souri Banerjee

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Oxide based memristors were fabricated in order to establish its potential applications in analog/digital electronics. BaTiO₃-BiFeO₃ (BT-BFO) was employed as an active material, whereas platinum (Pt) and Nb-doped SrTiO₃ (Nb:STO) were served as a top and bottom electrodes, respectively. Piezoelectric force microscopy (PFM) was utilized to present the ferroelectricity and repeatable polarization inversion in the BT-BFO, demonstrating its effectiveness for resistive switching. The fabricated memristors exhibited excellent electrical characteristics, such as hysteresis current-voltage (I-V), high on/off ratio, high retention time, cyclic endurance, and low operating voltages. The band-alignment between the active material BT-BFO and the substrate Nb:STO was experimentally investigated using X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and it attributed to staggered heterojunction alignment. An energy band diagram was proposed in order to understand the electrical transport in BT-BFO/Nb:STO heterojunction. It was identified that the I-V curves of these memristors have several discontinuities. Curve fitting technique was utilized to analyse the I-V characteristic, and the obtained I-V equations were found to be parabolic. Utilizing this analysis, a non-linear BT-BFO memristors equivalent circuit model was developed. Interestingly, the obtained equivalent circuit of the BT-BFO memristors mimics the identical electrical performance, those obtained in the fabricated devices. Based on the developed equivalent circuit, a finite state machine (FSM) design was proposed. Efforts were devoted to fabricate the same FSM, and the results were well matched with those in the simulated FSM devices. Its multilevel noise filtering and immunity to external noise characteristics were also studied. Further, the feature of variable negative resistance was established by controlling the current through the memristor.

Keywords: Finite State Machine, resistive switching, band alignment, polarization inversion

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418 A Multilevel-Synthesis Approach with Reduced Number of Switches for 99-Level Inverter

Authors: P. Satish Kumar, K. Ramakrishna, V. Ramu

Abstract:

In this paper, an efficient multilevel wave form synthesis technique is proposed and applied to a 99-level inverter. The basic principle of the proposed scheme is that the continuous output voltage levels can be synthesized by the addition or subtraction of the instantaneous voltages generated from different voltage levels. This synthesis technique can be realized by an array of switching devices composing full-bridge inverter modules and proper mixing of each bi-directional switch modules. The most different aspect, compared to the conventional approach, in the synthesis of the multilevel output waveform is the utilization of a combination of bidirectional switches and full bridge inverter modules with reduced number of components. A 99-level inverter consists of three full-bridge modules and six bi-directional switch modules. The validity of the proposed scheme is verified by the simulation.

Keywords: Synthesis, Multilevel Inverter, total harmonic distortion, cascaded connection

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
417 Design and Advancement of Hybrid Multilevel Inverter Interface with PhotoVoltaic

Authors: K. Ramani, P.Kiruthika

Abstract:

This paper presented the design and advancement of a single-phase 27-level Hybrid Multilevel DC-AC Converter interfacing with Photo Voltaic. In this context, the Multicarrier Pulse Width Modulation method can be implemented in 27-level Hybrid Multilevel Inverter for generating a switching pulse. Perturb & Observer algorithm can be used in the Maximum Power Point Tracking method for the Photo Voltaic system. By implementing Maximum Power Point Tracking with three separate solar panels as an input source to the 27-level Hybrid Multilevel Inverter. This proposed method can be simulated by using MATLAB/simulink. The result shown that the proposed method can achieve silky output wave forms, more flexibility in voltage range, and to reduce Total Harmonic Distortion in medium-voltage drives.

Keywords: maximum power point tracking (mppt), Multi Carrier Pulse Width Modulation Technique (MCPWM), Multi Level Inverter (MLI), Perturb and Observer (P&O)

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416 Resistive Switching Characteristics of Resistive Random Access Memory Devices after Furnace Annealing Processes

Authors: Chi-Yan Chu, Kai-Chi Chuang, Huang-Chung Cheng

Abstract:

In this study, the RRAM devices with the TiN/Ti/HfOx/TiN structure were fabricated, then the electrical characteristics of the devices without annealing and after 400 °C and 500 °C of the furnace annealing (FA) temperature processes were compared. The RRAM devices after the FA’s 400 °C showed the lower forming, set and reset voltages than the other devices without annealing. However, the RRAM devices after the FA’s 500 °C did not show any electrical characteristics because the TiN/Ti/HfOx/TiN device was oxidized, as shown in the XPS analysis. From these results, the RRAM devices after the FA’s 400 °C showed the best electrical characteristics.

Keywords: Forming, XPS, RRAM, furnace annealing (FA), set and reset voltages

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415 Reducing Total Harmonic Content of 9-Level Inverter by Use of Cuckoo Algorithm

Authors: Mahmoud Enayati, Sirous Mohammadi

Abstract:

In this paper, a novel procedure to find the firing angles of the multilevel inverters of supply voltage and, consequently, to decline the total harmonic distortion (THD), has been presented. In order to eliminate more harmonics in the multilevel inverters, its number of levels can be lessened or pulse width modulation waveform, in which more than one switching occur in each level, be used. Both cases complicate the non-algebraic equations and their solution cannot be performed by the conventional methods for the numerical solution of nonlinear equations such as Newton-Raphson method. In this paper, Cuckoo algorithm is used to compute the optimal firing angle of the pulse width modulation voltage waveform in the multilevel inverter. These angles should be calculated in such a way that the voltage amplitude of the fundamental frequency be generated while the total harmonic distortion of the output voltage be small. The simulation and theoretical results for the 9-levels inverter offer the high applicability of the proposed algorithm to identify the suitable firing angles for declining the low order harmonics and generate a waveform whose total harmonic distortion is very small and it is almost a sinusoidal waveform.

Keywords: Evolutionary Algorithms, multilevel inverters, Cuckoo algorithm, total harmonic content

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414 Domain Switching Characteristics of Lead Zirconate Titanate Piezoelectric Ceramic

Authors: Mitsuhiro Okayasu

Abstract:

To better understand the lattice characteristics of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics, the lattice orientations and domain-switching characteristics have been directly examined during loading and unloading using various experimental techniques. Upon loading, the PZT ceramics are fractured linear and nonlinearly during the compressive loading process. The strain characteristics of the PZT ceramic were directly affected by both the lattice and domain switching strain. Due to the piezoelectric ceramic, electrical activity of lightning-like behavior occurs in the PZT ceramics, which attributed to the severe domain-switching leading to weak piezoelectric property. The characteristics of domain-switching and reverse switching are detected during the loading and unloading processes. The amount of domain-switching depends on the grain, due to different stress levels. In addition, two patterns of 90˚ domain-switching systems are characterized, namely (i) 90˚ turn about the tetragonal c-axis and (ii) 90˚ rotation of the tetragonal a-axis. In this case, PZT ceramic was loaded by the thermal stress at 80°C. Extent of domain switching is related to the direction of c-axis of the tetragonal structure, e.g., that axis, orientated close to the loading direction, makes severe domain switching. It is considered that there is 90˚ domain switching, but in actual, the angle of domain switching is less than 90˚, e.g., 85.4° ~ 90.0°. In situ TEM observation of the domain switching characteristics of PZT ceramic has been conducted with increasing the sample temperature from 25°C to 300°C, and the domain switching like behavior is directly observed from the lattice image, where the severe domain switching occurs less than 100°C.

Keywords: PZT, lead zirconate titanate, piezoelectric ceramic, domain switching, material property

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413 Switching Losses in Power Electronic Converter of Switched Reluctance Motor

Authors: Ali Asghar Memon

Abstract:

A cautious and astute selection of switching devices used in power electronic converters of a switched reluctance (SR) motor is required. It is a matter of choice of best switching devices with respect to their switching ability rather than fulfilling the number of switches. This paper highlights the computational determination of switching losses comprising of switch-on, switch-off and conduction losses respectively by using experimental data in simulation model of a SR machine. The finding of this research is helpful for proper selection of electronic switches and suitable converter topology for switched reluctance motor.

Keywords: switched reluctance motor, converter, operating modes, switching losses

Procedia PDF Downloads 360
412 Photo Electrical Response in Graphene Based Resistive Sensor

Authors: F. Bouanis, H. C. Woo, C. S. Cojocaur

Abstract:

Graphene, which consists of a single layer of carbon atoms in a honeycomb lattice, is an interesting potential optoelectronic material because of graphene’s high carrier mobility, zero bandgap, and electron–hole symmetry. Graphene can absorb light and convert it into a photocurrent over a wide range of the electromagnetic spectrum, from the ultraviolet to visible and infrared regimes. Over the last several years, a variety of graphene-based photodetectors have been reported, such as graphene transistors, graphene-semiconductor heterojunction photodetectors, graphene based bolometers. It is also reported that there are several physical mechanisms enabling photodetection: photovoltaic effect, photo-thermoelectric effect, bolometric effect, photogating effect, and so on. In this work, we report a simple approach for the realization of graphene based resistive photo-detection devices and the measurements of their photoelectrical response. The graphene were synthesized directly on the glass substrate by novel growth method patented in our lab. Then, the metal electrodes were deposited by thermal evaporation on it, with an electrode length and width of 1.5 mm and 300 μm respectively, using Co to fabricate simple graphene based resistive photosensor. The measurements show that the graphene resistive devices exhibit a photoresponse to the illumination of visible light. The observed re-sistance response was reproducible and similar after many cycles of on and off operations. This photoelectrical response may be attributed not only to the direct photocurrent process but also to the desorption of oxygen. Our work shows that the simple graphene resistive devices have potential in photodetection applications.

Keywords: Optoelectronics, Graphene, resistive sensor, photoresponse

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
411 Relaxing Convergence Constraints in Local Priority Hysteresis Switching Logic

Authors: Mubarak Alhajri

Abstract:

This paper addresses certain inherent limitations of local priority hysteresis switching logic. Our main result establishes that under persistent excitation assumption, it is possible to relax constraints requiring strict positivity of local priority and hysteresis switching constants. Relaxing these constraints allows the adaptive system to reach optimality which implies the performance improvement. The unconstrained local priority hysteresis switching logic is examined and conditions for global convergence are derived.

Keywords: Adaptive Control, Convergence, hysteresis constant, hysteresis switching

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410 High-Voltage Resonant Converter with Extreme Load Variation: Design Criteria and Applications

Authors: Jose A. Pomilio, Olavo Bet, Mateus P. Vieira

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The power converter that feeds high-frequency, high-voltage transformers must be carefully designed due to parasitic components, mainly the secondary winding capacitance and the leakage inductance, that introduces resonances in relatively low-frequency range, next to the switching frequency. This paper considers applications in which the load (resistive) has an unpredictable behavior, changing from open to short-circuit condition faster than the output voltage control loop could react. In this context, to avoid over voltage and over current situations, that could damage the converter, the transformer or the load, it is necessary to find an operation point that assure the desired output voltage in spite of the load condition. This can done adjusting the frequency response of the transformer adding an external inductance, together with selecting the switching frequency to get stable output voltage independently of the load.

Keywords: high-voltage transformer, resonant converter, soft-commutation, external inductance

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409 Implementation of a Novel Modified Multilevel Inverter Topology for Grid Connected PV System

Authors: Dhivya Balakrishnan, Dhamodharan Shanmugam

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Multilevel converters offer high power capability, associated with lower output harmonics and lower commutation losses. Their main disadvantage is their complexity requiring a great number of power devices and passive components, and a rather complex control circuitry. This paper proposes a single-phase seven-level inverter for grid connected PV systems, With a novel pulse width-modulated (PWM) control scheme. Three reference signals that are identical to each other with an offset that is equivalent to the amplitude of the triangular carrier signal were used to generate the PWM signals. The inverter is capable of producing seven levels of output-voltage levels from the dc supply voltage. This paper proposes a new multilevel inverter topology using an H-bridge output stage with two bidirectional auxiliary switches. The new topology produces a significant reduction in the number of power devices and capacitors required to implement a multilevel output using the asymmetric cascade configuration.

Keywords: Multilevel Inverter, asymmetric cascade configuration, H-Bridge, Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)

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408 Use Multiphysics Simulations and Resistive Pulse Sensing to Study the Effect of Metal and Non-Metal Nanoparticles in Different Salt Concentration

Authors: Chun-Lin Chiang, Che-Yen Lee, Yu-Shan Yeh, Jiunn-Haur Shaw

Abstract:

Wafer fabrication is a critical part of the semiconductor process, when the finest linewidth with the improvement of technology continues to decline and the structure development from 2D towards to 3D. The nanoparticles contained in the slurry or in the ultrapure water which used for cleaning have a large influence on the manufacturing process. Therefore, semiconductor industry is hoping to find a viable method for on-line detection the nanoparticles size and concentration. The resistive pulse sensing technology is one of the methods that may cover this question. As we know that nanoparticles properties of material differ significantly from their properties at larger length scales. So, we want to clear that the metal and non-metal nanoparticles translocation dynamic when we use the resistive pulse sensing technology. In this study we try to use the finite element method that contains three governing equations to do multiphysics coupling simulations. The Navier-Stokes equation describes the laminar motion, the Nernst-Planck equation describes the ion transport, and the Poisson equation describes the potential distribution in the flow channel. To explore that the metal nanoparticles and the non-metal nanoparticles in different concentration electrolytes, through the nanochannel caused by ion current changes. Then the reliability of the simulation results was verified by resistive pulse sensing test. The existing results show that the lower ion concentration, the greater effect of nanoparticles on the ion concentration in the nanochannel. The conductive spikes are correlated with nanoparticles surface charge. Then we can be concluded that in the resistive pulse sensing technique, the ion concentration in the nanochannel and nanoparticle properties are important for the translocation dynamic, and they have the interactions.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, nanochannel, multiphysics simulations, resistive pulse sensing

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
407 Code-Switching in Facebook Chatting Among Maldivian Teenagers

Authors: Aaidha Hammad

Abstract:

This study examines the phenomenon of code switching among teenagers in the Maldives while they carry out conversations through Facebook in the form of “Facebook Chatting”. The current study aims at evaluating the frequency of code-switching and it investigates between what languages code-switching occurs. Besides the study identifies the types of words that are often codeswitched and the triggers for code switching. The methodology used in this study is mixed method of qualitative and quantitative approach. In this regard, the chat log of a group conversation between 10 teenagers was collected and analyzed. A questionnaire was also administered through online to 24 different teenagers from different corners of the Maldives. The age of teenagers ranged between 16 and 19 years. The findings of the current study revealed that while Maldivian teenagers chat in Facebook they very often code switch and these switches are most commonly between Dhivehi and English, but some other languages are also used to some extent. It also identified the different types of words that are being often code switched among the teenagers. Most importantly it explored different reasons behind code switching among the Maldivian teenagers in Facebook chatting.

Keywords: Code-switching, Facebook, Facebook chatting Maldivian teenagers

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
406 A Comprehensive Evaluation of IGBTs Performance under Zero Current Switching

Authors: Ly. Benbahouche

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Currently, several soft switching topologies have been studied to achieve high power switching efficiency, reduced cost, improved reliability and reduced parasites. It is well known that improvement in power electronics systems always depend on advanced in power devices. The IGBT has been successfully used in a variety of switching applications such as motor drives and appliance control because of its superior characteristics. The aim of this paper is focuses on simulation and explication of the internal dynamics of IGBTs behaviour under the most popular soft switching schemas that is Zero Current Switching (ZCS) environments. The main purpose of this paper is to point out some mechanisms relating to current tail during the turn-off and examination of the response at turn-off with variation of temperature, inductance L, snubber capacitors Cs, and bus voltage in order to achieve an improved understanding of internal carrier dynamics. It is shown that the snubber capacitor, the inductance and even the temperature controls the magnitude and extent of the tail current, hence the turn-off time (switching speed of the device). Moreover, it has also been demonstrated that the ZCS switching can be utilized efficiently to improve and reduce the power losses as well as the turn-off time. Furthermore, the turn-off loss in ZCS was found to depend on the time of switching of the device.

Keywords: PT-IGBT, ZCS, turn-off losses, dV/dt

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405 Analysis and Comparison of Asymmetric H-Bridge Multilevel Inverter Topologies

Authors: Manel Hammami, Gabriele Grandi

Abstract:

In recent years, multilevel inverters have become more attractive for single-phase photovoltaic (PV) systems, due to their known advantages over conventional H-bridge pulse width-modulated (PWM) inverters. They offer improved output waveforms, smaller filter size, lower total harmonic distortion (THD), higher output voltages and others. The most common multilevel converter topologies, presented in literature, are the neutral-point-clamped (NPC), flying capacitor (FC) and Cascaded H-Bridge (CHB) converters. In both NPC and FC configurations, the number of components drastically increases with the number of levels what leads to complexity of the control strategy, high volume, and cost. Whereas, increasing the number of levels in case of the cascaded H-bridge configuration is a flexible solution. However, it needs isolated power sources for each stage, and it can be applied to PV systems only in case of PV sub-fields. In order to improve the ratio between the number of output voltage levels and the number of components, several hybrids and asymmetric topologies of multilevel inverters have been proposed in the literature such as the FC asymmetric H-bridge (FCAH) and the NPC asymmetric H-bridge (NPCAH) topologies. Another asymmetric multilevel inverter configuration that could have interesting applications is the cascaded asymmetric H-bridge (CAH), which is based on a modular half-bridge (two switches and one capacitor, also called level doubling network, LDN) cascaded to a full H-bridge in order to double the output voltage level. This solution has the same number of switches as the above mentioned AH configurations (i.e., six), and just one capacitor (as the FCAH). CAH is becoming popular, due to its simple, modular and reliable structure, and it can be considered as a retrofit which can be added in series to an existing H-Bridge configuration in order to double the output voltage levels. In this paper, an original and effective method for the analysis of the DC-link voltage ripple is given for single-phase asymmetric H-bridge multilevel inverters based on level doubling network (LDN). Different possible configurations of the asymmetric H-Bridge multilevel inverters have been considered and the analysis of input voltage and current are analytically determined and numerically verified by Matlab/Simulink for the case of cascaded asymmetric H-bridge multilevel inverters. A comparison between FCAH and the CAH configurations is done on the basis of the analysis of the DC and voltage ripple for the DC source (i.e., the PV system). The peak-to-peak DC and voltage ripple amplitudes are analytically calculated over the fundamental period as a function of the modulation index. On the basis of the maximum peak-to-peak values of low frequency and switching ripple voltage components, the DC capacitors can be designed. Reference is made to unity output power factor, as in case of most of the grid-connected PV generation systems. Simulation results will be presented in the full paper in order to prove the effectiveness of the proposed developments in all the operating conditions.

Keywords: asymmetric inverters, dc-link voltage, level doubling network, single-phase multilevel inverter

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404 Ant Colony Optimization Control for Multilevel STATCOM

Authors: H. Tédjini, Y. Meslem, B. Guesbaoui, A. Safa

Abstract:

Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) are potentially becoming more flexible and more economical local controllers in the power system; and because of the high MVA ratings, it would be expensive to provide independent, equal, regulated DC voltage sources to power the multilevel converters which are presently proposed for STATCOMs. DC voltage sources can be derived from the DC link capacitances which are charged by the rectified ac power. In this paper a new stronger control combined of nonlinear control based Lyapunov’s theorem and Ant Colony Algorithm (ACA) to maintain stability of multilevel STATCOM and the utility.

Keywords: ant colony optimization (ACO), Static Compensator (STATCOM), lyapunov control theory, Decoupled power control, neutral point clamped (NPC)

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403 Relationship between Response of the Resistive Sensors on the Chosen Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and Their Concentration

Authors: Robert Rusinek, Marek Gancarz, Agnieszka Nawrocka, Marcin Tadla

Abstract:

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are the fungi metabolites in the gaseous form produced during improper storage of agricultural commodities (e.g. grain, food). The spoilt commodities produce a wide range of VOCs including alcohols, esters, aldehydes, ketones, alkanes, alkenes, furans, phenols etc. The characteristic VOCs and odours can be determined by using electronic nose (e-Nose) which contains a matrix of different kinds of sensors e.g. resistive sensors. The aim of the present studies was to determine relationship between response of the resistive sensors on the chosen volatiles and their concentration. According to the literature, it was chosen volatiles characteristic for the cereals: ethanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol and hexanal. Analysis of the sensor signals shows that a signal shape is different for the different substances. Moreover, each VOC signal gives information about a maximum of the normalized sensor response (R/Rmax), an impregnation time (tIM) and a cleaning time at half maximum of R/Rmax (tCL). These three parameters can be regarded as a ‘VOC fingerprint’. Seven resistive sensors (TGS2600-B00, TGS2602-B00, TGS2610-C00, TGS2611-C00, TGS2611-E00, TGS2612-D00, TGS2620-C00) produced by Figaro USA Inc., and one (AS-MLV-P2) produced by AMS AG, Austria were used. Two out of seven sensors (TGS2611-E00, TGS2612-D00) did not react to the chosen VOCs. The most responsive sensor was AS-MLV-P2. The research was supported by the National Centre for Research and Development (NCBR), Grant No. PBS2/A8/22/2013.

Keywords: Organic Compounds, Resistive Sensors, agricultural commodities, volatile

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402 Effect of Personality on Consumer Switching: Moderating Role of Involvement and Value of Services

Authors: Anjali Sharma, R. R. K. Sharma

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to examine relationships between personality factors and customer switching for services. Earlier research was directed towards establishing relationship between individual personality traits and customer switching variables considering five-factors model comprised of five personality dimensions (OCEAN), in which personality was not the only influencing factor. Moreover, these works were found to be focused on products and not services. In contrast, the current study is aimed at investigating role of personality using Myer Briggs Type indicator (MBTI) as well as Five-Big Factors, on customer switching and building the conceptual framework on services rather than products. MBTI also known as four opposite pairs or dichotomies of personality dimensions are studied using different levels Involvement (High, Low) of consumer and Value of service-offering (Value for money and Premium) as moderators associated with Consumer Switching. The study is unique in sense that consequences of these indicators of personality on switching behavior has never been studied using considering moderating effect of involvement and value of services. According to our prepositions for a more Extrovert, Intuitive Personality the switching is going to be high whereas the switching is going to be less for an Introvert, Judgmental kind of personality. Similarly, for a consumer with high Neuroticism and Agreeableness the switching would be less as compared to an Open and Conscious Personality type. These level differs with level of a consumer’s involvement and type of a service being offered based on its value.

Keywords: Personality, involvement, consumer switching, Myer Briggs personality type indicators, value of service

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
401 A New PWM Command for Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Increasing the Quality and Reducing Harmonics

Authors: Youssef Babkrani, S. Hiyani, A. Naddami, K. Choukri, M. Hilal

Abstract:

Power Quality has been a problem ever since electrical power was invented and in recent years, it has become the main interest of researchers who are still concerned about finding ways to reduce its negative influence on electrical devices. In this paper we aim to improve the power quality output for H- bridge multilevel inverter used with solar Photovoltaic (PV) panels, we propose a new switching technique that uses a pulse width modulation method (PWM) aiming to reduce the harmonics. This new method introduces a sinusoidal wave compared with modified trapezoidal carriers used to generate the pulses. This new trapezoid carrier waveform is being implemented with different sinusoidal PWM dispositions such as phase disposition (PWM PD), phase opposition disposition (PWM POD), and (PWM APOD) alternative phase opposition disposition and compared with the conventional ones. Using Matlab Simulink R2014a the line voltage and total harmonic distortions (THD) simulated and the quality are increased in spite of variations of DC introduced.

Keywords: carrier waveform, phase disposition (PD), phase opposition disposition (POD), alternative phase opposition disposition (APOD), total harmonics distortion (THD)

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
400 Multi-Level Pulse Width Modulation to Boost the Power Efficiency of Switching Amplifiers for Analog Signals with Very High Crest Factor

Authors: Jan Doutreloigne

Abstract:

The main goal of this paper is to develop a switching amplifier with optimized power efficiency for analog signals with a very high crest factor such as audio or DSL signals. Theoretical calculations show that a switching amplifier architecture based on multi-level pulse width modulation outperforms all other types of linear or switching amplifiers in that respect. Simulations on a 2 W multi-level switching audio amplifier, designed in a 50 V 0.35 mm IC technology, confirm its superior performance in terms of power efficiency. A real silicon implementation of this audio amplifier design is currently underway to provide experimental validation.

Keywords: Power Efficiency, PWM, pulse width modulation, audio amplifier, multi-level switching amplifier, self-oscillating amplifier

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
399 Investigating Effective Factors on the Customer Switching Behaviour in the Saipa Emdad Khodro Company of Iran

Authors: Rohollah Asadian Kohestani, Mustafa Hashemzadeh

Abstract:

The present paper is the outcome of a field research that was conducted with the study objective of influencing factor's effect on the behavior of customers switching in the Saipa Emdad Khodro Company. To achieve this goal, six factors of service quality, service cost, waiting time to receive services, reputation of organization, costs of switching and the way to respond the needs of customers as the independent variables of research and their effect on the customer switching was studied as the variable related to the research. The statistical society of this research included all customers of the Saipa Emdad Khodro company that possess the vehicles of automobile manufacturing group of Saipa throughout the country and the statistical sample included 150 persons of such customers. The results of this research indicated that all under study factors excluding the reputation factor effect on the behavior of customer switching.

Keywords: Customer Services, switching cost, service price, customer switching behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
398 [Keynote Talk]: Implementation of 5 Level and 7 Level Multilevel Inverter in Local Trains of Mumbai

Authors: Swati Sharma, Sharvari Sane, Sanjay K. Prasad

Abstract:

Local trains are the lifelines of Mumbai city. Earlier 1500 Volt D.C. supply, is now completely and successfully converted into 25 KV A.C. in central, western and harbour routes. This task is the outcome of the advancement in the area of power electronics. Author has already done the comparative study between D.C. and A.C. supply of traction and predicted the serious problem regarding the harmonics. In this paper, the simulation for 5 level as well as 7 level multilevel inverter has been done which is the substitute for the present cascade type inverter. This paper also showed the reduced level of Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) in the traction system.

Keywords: Harmonics, Multilevel Inverter, total harmonic distortion (THD), traction sub station (TSS)

Procedia PDF Downloads 242