Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 733

Search results for: mortality

733 Lee-Carter Mortality Forecasting Method with Dynamic Normal Inverse Gaussian Mortality Index

Authors: Funda Kul, İsmail Gür

Abstract:

Pension scheme providers have to price mortality risk by accurate mortality forecasting method. There are many mortality-forecasting methods constructed and used in literature. The Lee-Carter model is the first model to consider stochastic improvement trends in life expectancy. It is still precisely used. Mortality forecasting is done by mortality index in the Lee-Carter model. It is assumed that mortality index fits ARIMA time series model. In this paper, we propose and use dynamic normal inverse gaussian distribution to modeling mortality indes in the Lee-Carter model. Using population mortality data for Italy, France, and Turkey, the model is forecasting capability is investigated, and a comparative analysis with other models is ensured by some well-known benchmarking criterions.

Keywords: Forecasting, Mortality, lee-carter model, normal inverse gaussian distribution

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732 Association between Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emission and Under-Five Mortality: Panel Data Evidence from 100 Countries

Authors: Mahadev Bhise, Nabanita Majumder

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Recent studies have found association between air pollutants and mortality, particularly how concentration of air pollutant explains under-five mortality across the countries. Thus, the present study evaluates the relationship between Carbon dioxide (CO2) emission and under-five mortality, while controlling other well-being determinant of Under-five mortality in 100 countries using panel unbalanced cross sectional data. We have used PCSE and GMM model for the period 1990-2011 to meet our objectives. Our findings suggest that, the positive relationship between lagged periods of carbon dioxide and under-five mortality; the percentage of rural population with access of improved water is negatively associated with under-five mortality, while in case of urban population with access of improved water, is positively related to under-five mortality. Access of sanitation facility, food production index, GDP per capita, and concentration of urban population have significant negative impact on under-five mortality. Further, total fertility rate is significantly associated (positive) with under-five mortality which indicates relative change in fertility is related to relative change in under-five mortality.

Keywords: food production, Urban Population, gross domestic product (GDP), arbon dioxide (CO2), under-five mortality (0q5), panel corrected standard errors (PCSE), generalized method of moments (GMM)

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731 Bringing the Confidence Intervals into Choropleth Mortality Map: An Example of Tainan, Taiwan

Authors: Tsung-Hsueh Lu, Tzu-Jung Tseng, Pei-Hsuen Han

Abstract:

Background: Choropleth mortality map is commonly used to identify areas with higher mortality risk. However, the use of choropleth map alone might result in the misinterpretation of differences in mortality rates between areas. Two areas with different color shades might not actually have a significant difference in mortality rates. The mortality rates estimated for an area with a small population would be less stable. We suggest of bringing the 95% confidence intervals (CI) into the choropleth mortality map to help users interpret the areal mortality rate difference more properly. Method: In the first choropleth mortality map, we used only three color to indicate standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for each district in Tainan, Taiwan. The red color denotes that the SMR of that district was significantly higher than the Tainan average; on the contrary, the green color suggests that the SMR of that district was significantly lower than the Tainan average. The yellow color indicates that the SMR of that district was not statistically significantly different from the Tainan average. In the second choropleth mortality map, we used traditional sequential color scheme (color ramp) for different SMR in 37 districts in Tainan City with bar chart of each SMR with 95% CI in which the users could examine if the line of 95% CI of SMR of two districts overlapped (nonsignificant difference). Results: The all-causes SMR of each district in Tainan for 2008 to 2013 ranged from 0.77 (95% CI 0.75 to 0.80) in East District to 1.39 Beimen (95% CI 1.25 to 1.52). In the first choropleth mortality map, only 16 of 37 districts had red color and 8 districts had green color. For different causes of death, the number of districts with red color differed. In the first choropleth mortality map we added a bar chart with line of 95% CI of SMR in each district, in which the users could visualize the SMR differences between districts. Conclusion: Through the use of 95% CI the users could interpret the aral mortality differences more properly.

Keywords: Taiwan, choropleth map, small area variation, standardized mortality ratio (SMR)

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730 Model-Independent Price Bounds for the Swiss Re Mortality Bond 2003

Authors: Raj Kumari Bahl, Sotirios Sabanis

Abstract:

In this paper, we are concerned with the valuation of the first Catastrophic Mortality Bond that was launched in the market namely the Swiss Re Mortality Bond 2003. This bond encapsulates the behavior of a well-defined mortality index to generate payoffs for the bondholders. Pricing this bond is a challenging task. We adapt the payoff of the terminal principal of the bond in terms of the payoff of an Asian put option and present an approach to derive model-independent bounds exploiting comonotonic theory. We invoke Jensen’s inequality for the computation of lower bounds and employ Lagrange optimization technique to achieve the upper bound. The success of these bounds is based on the availability of compatible European mortality options in the market. We carry out Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the bond price and illustrate the strength of these bounds across a variety of models. The fact that our bounds are model-independent is a crucial breakthrough in the pricing of catastrophic mortality bonds.

Keywords: comonotonicity, mortality bond, Swiss Re Bond, mortality index

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729 Assessment of Toxic Impact of Metals on Different Instars of Silkworm, Bombyx Mori

Authors: Muhammad Arshad, Ahmad Nawaz, Waleed Afzal Naveed, Muhammad Junaid Nisar, Muhammad Dildar Gogi, Mubashir Iqbal, Muhammad Ahsan Khan, M. Sufian

Abstract:

Larvae of silkworm (Bombyx mori) exhibit very high mortality when reared on mulberry leaves collected from mulberry orchards which get contaminated with metallic/nonmetallic compounds through either drift-deposition or chemigation. There is need to screen out such metallic compound for their toxicity at their various concentrations. The present study was carried out to assess toxicity of metals in different instars of silkworm. Aqueous solutions of nine heavy-metal based salts were prepared by dissolving 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350 and 400 mg of each salt in one liter of water and were applied on the mulberry leaves by leaf-dip methods. The results reveal that mortality in 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th instar larvae caused by each heavy metal salts increased with an increase in their concentrations. The 1st instar larvae were found more susceptible to metal salts followed by 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th instar larvae of silkworm. Overall, Nickel chloride proved more toxic for all larval instar as it demonstrated approximately 40-99% mortality. On the basis of LC2 and larval mortality, the order of toxicity of heavy metals against all five larval instar was Nickel chloride (LC₂ = 1.9-13.9 mg/L; & 15.0±1.2-69.2±1.7% mortality) followed by Chromium nitrate (LC₂ = 3.3-14.8 mg/L; & 13.3±1.4-62.4±2.8% mortality), Cobalt nitrate (LC₂ = 4.3-30.9; &11.4±0.07-54.9±2.0% mortality), Lead acetate (LC₂ =8.8-53.3 mg/L; & 9.5±1.3-46.4±2.9% mortality), Aluminum sulfate (LC₂ = 15.5-76.6 mg/L; & 8.4±0.08-42.1±2.8% mortality), Barium sulfide (LC₂ = 20.9-105.9; & 7.7±1.1-39.2±2.5% mortality), Copper sulfate (LC2 = 28.5-12.4 mg/L; & 7.3±0.06-37.1±2.4% mortality), Manganese chloride (LC₂ = 29.9-136.9 mg/L; & 6.8±0.09-35.3±1.6% mortality) and Zinc nitrate (LC₂ = 36.3-15 mg/L; & 6.2±1.2-32.1±1.9% mortality). Zinc nitrate @ 50 and 100 mg/L, Barium sulfide @ 50 mg/L, Manganese chloride @ 50 and 100 mg/L and Copper sulfate @ 50 mg/L proved safe for 5th instar larvae as these interaction attributed no mortality. All the heavy metal salts at a concentration of 50 mg/L demonstrated less than 10% mortality.

Keywords: Silkworm, Mortality, heavy-metals, larval-instars, lethal-concentration

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728 A Case Comparative Study of Infant Mortality Rate in North-West Nigeria

Authors: A. Danbaba, G. I. Onwuka, S. U. Gulumbe

Abstract:

This study investigated of Infant Mortality Rate as observed at a general hospital in Kaduna-South, Kaduna State, North West Nigeria. The causes of infant Mortality were examined. The data used for this analysis were collected at the statistics unit of the Hospital. The analysis was carried out on the data using Multiple Linear regression Technique and this showed that there is linear relationship between the dependent variable (death) and the independent variables (malaria, measles, anaemia, and coronary heart disease). The resultant model also revealed that a unit increment in each of these diseases would result to a unit increment in death recorded, 98.7% of the total variation in mortality is explained by the given model. The highest number of mortality was recorded in July, 2005 and the lowest mortality recorded in October, 2009.Recommendations were however made based on the results of the study.

Keywords: Diseases, serial correlation, infant mortality rate, multiple linear regression

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727 Transportation Accidents Mortality Modeling in Thailand

Authors: W. Sriwattanapongse, S. Prasitwattanaseree, S. Wongtrangan

Abstract:

The transportation accidents mortality is a major problem that leads to loss of human lives, and economic. The objective was to identify patterns of statistical modeling for estimating mortality rates due to transportation accidents in Thailand by using data from 2000 to 2009. The data was taken from the death certificate, vital registration database. The number of deaths and mortality rates were computed classifying by gender, age, year and region. There were 114,790 cases of transportation accidents deaths. The highest average age-specific transport accident mortality rate is 3.11 per 100,000 per year in males, Southern region and the lowest average age-specific transport accident mortality rate is 1.79 per 100,000 per year in females, North-East region. Linear, poisson and negative binomial models were chosen for fitting statistical model. Among the models fitted, the best was chosen based on the analysis of deviance and AIC. The negative binomial model was clearly appropriate fitted.

Keywords: Modeling, Mortality, transportation accidents, analysis of deviance

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726 Organizational Mortality of Insurance Organizations under the Conditions of Environmental Changes

Authors: Erdem Kirkbesoglu, A. Bugra Soylu, E. Deniz Kahraman

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to examine the effects of some variables on organizational mortality of the Turkish insurance industry and calculate the carrying capacities of Turkish insurance industry according to cities and regions. In the study, organizational mortality was tested with the level of reaching the population's carrying capacity. The findings of this study show that the insurance sales potentials can be calculated according to the provinces and regions of Turkey. It has also been proven that the organizations that feed on the same source will have a carrying capacity in the evolutionary process.

Keywords: Insurance, Organization, Carrying Capacity, organizational mortality

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725 Infant and Child Mortality among the Low Socio-Economic Households in India

Authors: NARENDRA KUMAR

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This study uses data from the ‘National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) 2005-06’ to investigate the predictors of infant and child mortality among low economic households in East and Northeast region. The cross tabulation, life table survival estimates and Cox proportional hazard model techniques have been used to estimate the predictors of infant and child mortality. The life table survival estimates for infant and child mortality shows that infant mortality in female child is lower in comparison to male child but with child mortality, the rates are higher for female in comparison to male child and the Cox proportional hazard model also give highly significant in female in comparison to male child. The infant and child mortality rates among poor households highest in the Central region followed by North and Northeast region and the lowest in South region in comparison to all regions of India. Education of respondent has been found a significant characteristics in both analyzes, further birth interval, respondent occupation, caste/tribe and place of delivery has substantial impact on infant and child mortality among low economic households in East and Northeast region. Finally these findings specified that an increase in parents’ education, improve health care services and improve socioeconomic conditions of low economic households which should in turn raise infant and child survival and should decrease child mortality among low economic households in India.

Keywords: Child, India, Mortality, socio-economic, infant

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724 Forecasting Age-Specific Mortality Rates and Life Expectancy at Births for Malaysian Sub-Populations

Authors: Syazreen N. Shair, Saiful A. Ishak, Aida Y. Yusof, Azizah Murad

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In this paper, we forecast age-specific Malaysian mortality rates and life expectancy at births by gender and ethnic groups including Malay, Chinese and Indian. Two mortality forecasting models are adopted the original Lee-Carter model and its recent modified version, the product ratio coherent model. While the first forecasts the mortality rates for each subpopulation independently, the latter accounts for the relationship between sub-populations. The evaluation of both models is performed using the out-of-sample forecast errors which are mean absolute percentage errors (MAPE) for mortality rates and mean forecast errors (MFE) for life expectancy at births. The best model is then used to perform the long-term forecasts up to the year 2030, the year when Malaysia is expected to become an aged nation. Results suggest that in terms of overall accuracy, the product ratio model performs better than the original Lee-Carter model. The association of lower mortality group (Chinese) in the subpopulation model can improve the forecasts of high mortality groups (Malay and Indian).

Keywords: lee-carter model, coherent forecasts, life expectancy at births, product-ratio model, mortality rates

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723 Performance the SOFA and APACHEII Scoring System to Predicate the Mortality of the ICU Cases

Authors: Yu-Chuan Huang

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Introduction: There is a higher mortality rate for unplanned transfer to intensive care units. It also needs a longer length of stay and makes the intensive care unit beds cannot be effectively used. It affects the immediate medical treatment of critically ill patients, resulting in a drop in the quality of medical care. Purpose: The purpose of this study was using SOFA and APACHEII score to analyze the mortality rate of the cases transferred from ED to ICU. According to the score that should be provide an appropriate care as early as possible. Methods: This study was a descriptive experimental design. The sample size was estimated at 220 to reach a power of 0.8 for detecting a medium effect size of 0.30, with a 0.05 significance level, using G-power. Considering an estimated follow-up loss, the required sample size was estimated as 242 participants. Data were calculated by medical system of SOFA and APACHEII score that cases transferred from ED to ICU in 2016. Results: There were 233 participants meet the study. The medical records showed 33 participants’ mortality. Age and sex with QSOFA , SOFA and sex with APACHEII showed p>0.05. Age with APCHHII in ED and ICU showed r=0.150, 0,268 (p < 0.001**). The score with mortality risk showed: ED QSOFA is r=0.235 (p < 0.001**), exp(B)=1.685(p = 0.007); ICU SOFA 0.78 (p < 0.001**), exp(B)=1.205(p < 0.001). APACHII in ED and ICU showed r= 0.253, 0.286 (p < 0.001**), exp(B) = 1.041,1.073(p = 0.017,0.001). For SOFA, a cutoff score of above 15 points was identified as a predictor of the 95% mortality risk. Conclusions: The SOFA and APACHE II were calculated based on initial laboratory data in the Emergency Department, and during the first 24 hours of ICU admission. In conclusion, the SOFA and APACHII score is significantly associated with mortality and strongly predicting mortality. Early predictors of morbidity and mortality, which we can according the predicting score, and provide patients with a detail assessment and proper care, thereby reducing mortality and length of stay.

Keywords: Mortality, ICU, SOFA, APACHEII

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722 Socioeconomic Status and Mortality in Older People with Angina: A Population-Based Cohort Study in China

Authors: Weiju Zhou, Alex Hopkins, Ruoling Chen

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Background: China has increased the gap in income between richer and poorer over the past 40 years, and the number of deaths from people with angina has been rising. It is unclear whether socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with increased mortality in older people with angina. Methods: Data from a cohort study of 2,380 participants aged ≥ 65 years, who were randomly recruited from 5-province urban communities were examined in China. The cohort members were interviewed to record socio-demographic and risk factors and document doctor-diagnosed angina at baseline and were followed them up in 3-10 years, including monitoring vital status. Multivariate Cox regression models were employed to examine all-cause mortality in relation to low SES. Results: The cohort follow-up identified 373 deaths occurred; 41 deaths in 208 angina patients. Compared to participants without angina (n=2,172), patients with angina had increased mortality (multivariate adjusted hazard ratio (HR) was 1.41, 95% CI 1.01-1.97). Within angina patients, the risk of mortality increased with low satisfactory income (2.51, 1.08-5.85) and having financial problem (4.00, 1.07-15.00), but significantly with levels of education and occupation. In non-angina participants, none of these four SES indicators were associated with mortality. There was a significant interaction effect between angina and low satisfactory income on mortality. Conclusions: In China, having low income and financial problem increase mortality in older people with angina. Strategies to improve economic circumstances in older people could help reduce inequality in angina survival.

Keywords: socio-economic status, Mortality, Older People, angina

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721 Canine Neonatal Mortality at the São Paulo State University Veterinary Hospital, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil – Preliminary Data

Authors: Maria L. G. Lourenço, Keylla H. N. P. Pereira, Viviane Y. Hibaru, Fabiana F. Souza, João C. P. Ferreira, Simone B. Chiacchio, Luiz H. A. Machado

Abstract:

The neonatal mortality rates in dogs are considered high, varying between 5.7 and 21.2% around the world, and the causes of the deaths are often unknown. Data regarding canine neonatal mortality are scarce in Brazil. This study aims at describing the neonatal mortality rates in dogs, as well as the main causes of death. The study included 152 litters and 669 neonates admitted to the São Paulo State University (UNESP) Veterinary Hospital, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil between January 2018 and September 2019. The overall mortality rate was 16.7% (112/669), with 40% (61/152) of the litters presenting at least one case of stillbirth or neonatal mortality. The rate of stillbirths was 7.7% (51/669), while the neonatal mortality rate was 9% (61/669). The early mortality rate (0 to 2 days) was 13.7% (92/669), accounting for 82.1% (92/112) of all deaths. The late mortality rate (3 to 30 days) was 2.7% (18/669), accounting for 16% (18/112) of all deaths. Infection was the causa mortis in 51.8% (58/112) of the newborns, of which 30.3% (34/112) were caused by bacterial sepsis, and 21.4% (24/112) were caused by other bacterial, viral or parasite infections. Other causes of death included congenital malformations (15.2%, 17/112), of which 5.3% (6/112) happened through euthanasia due to malformations incompatible with life; asphyxia/hypoxia by dystocia (9.8%, 11/112); wasting syndrome in debilitated newborns (6.2%, 7/112); aspiration pneumonia (3.6%, 4/112); agalactia (2.7%, 3/112); trauma (1.8%, 2/112); administration of contraceptives to the mother (1.8%, 2/112) and unknown causes (7.1%, 8/112). The neonatal mortality rate was considered high, but they may be even higher in locations without adequate care for the mothers and neonates. Therefore, prenatal examinations and early neonatal care are of utmost importance for the survival of these patients.

Keywords: neonate dogs, puppies, mortality rate, neonatal death

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720 Modeling Heat-Related Mortality Based on Greenhouse Emissions in OECD Countries

Authors: John Olukuru, Anderson Ngowa Chembe

Abstract:

Greenhouse emissions by human activities are known to irreversibly increase global temperatures through the greenhouse effect. This study seeks to propose a mortality model with sensitivity to heat-change effects as one of the underlying parameters in the model. As such, the study sought to establish the relationship between greenhouse emissions and mortality indices in five OECD countries (USA, UK, Japan, Canada & Germany). Upon the establishment of the relationship using correlation analysis, an additional parameter that accounts for the sensitivity of heat-changes to mortality rates was incorporated in the Lee-Carter model. Based on the proposed model, new parameter estimates were calculated using iterative algorithms for optimization. Finally, the goodness of fit for the original Lee-Carter model and the proposed model were compared using deviance comparison. The proposed model provides a better fit to mortality rates especially in USA, UK and Germany where the mortality indices have a strong positive correlation with the level of greenhouse emissions. The results of this study are of particular importance to actuaries, demographers and climate-risk experts who seek to use better mortality-modeling techniques in the wake of heat effects caused by increased greenhouse emissions.

Keywords: climate risk, OECD, lee-carter model, greenhouse emissions

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719 A Spatial Approach to Model Mortality Rates

Authors: Yin-Yee Leong, Jack C. Yue, Hsin-Chung Wang

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Human longevity has been experiencing its largest increase since the end of World War II, and modeling the mortality rates is therefore often the focus of many studies. Among all mortality models, the Lee–Carter model is the most popular approach since it is fairly easy to use and has good accuracy in predicting mortality rates (e.g., for Japan and the USA). However, empirical studies from several countries have shown that the age parameters of the Lee–Carter model are not constant in time. Many modifications of the Lee–Carter model have been proposed to deal with this problem, including adding an extra cohort effect and adding another period effect. In this study, we propose a spatial modification and use clusters to explain why the age parameters of the Lee–Carter model are not constant. In spatial analysis, clusters are areas with unusually high or low mortality rates than their neighbors, where the “location” of mortality rates is measured by age and time, that is, a 2-dimensional coordinate. We use a popular cluster detection method—Spatial scan statistics, a local statistical test based on the likelihood ratio test to evaluate where there are locations with mortality rates that cannot be described well by the Lee–Carter model. We first use computer simulation to demonstrate that the cluster effect is a possible source causing the problem of the age parameters not being constant. Next, we show that adding the cluster effect can solve the non-constant problem. We also apply the proposed approach to mortality data from Japan, France, the USA, and Taiwan. The empirical results show that our approach has better-fitting results and smaller mean absolute percentage errors than the Lee–Carter model.

Keywords: Spatial statistics, mortality improvement, Lee–Carter model, cluster detection

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718 Outcome of Obstetric Admission to General Intensive Care over a Period of 3 Years

Authors: Kamel Abdelaziz Mohamed

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Intoduction:Inadequate knowledge about obstetric admission and infrequent dealing with the obstetric patients in ICU results in high mortality and morbidity. Aim of the work:To evaluate the indications, course, severity of illness, and outcome of obstetric patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Patients and Methods: We collected baseline data and acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) scores. ICU mortality was the primary outcome. Results: Seventy obstetric patients were admitted to the ICU over 3 years, 36 of these patients (51.4 %) were admitted during the antepartum period. The primary obstetric indication for ICU admission was pregnancy-induced hypertension (22 patients, 31.4%), followed by sepsis (8 patients, 11.4%) as the leading non-obstetric admission. The mean APACHE II score was 19.6. The predicted mortality rate based on the APACHE II score was 22%, however, only 4 maternal deaths (5.7%) were among the obstetric patients admitted to the ICU. Conclusion: Evaluation of obstetric patients by (APACHE II) scores showed higher predicted mortality rate, however the overall mortality was lower. Regular follow up, together with early detection of complications and prompt ICU admission necessitating proper management by specialized team can improve mortality.

Keywords: sepsis, obstetric, Postpartum, complication

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717 Brevicoryne brassicae Compatibility with Maize in Multiple Cropping System

Authors: Zunnu Raen Akhtar

Abstract:

Brevicoryne brassicae, aphid feeds on cabbage and Brassica sp. as preferred host. Brassica plants usually ripen when maize starts growing in multiple cropping systems. Experiment was conducted to observe suitability of B. brassicae by rearing it on maize as host. In a tritrophic eco-system, predator coccinellids can be found in the fields of brassica and maize. This experiment emphasized on issue of aphids growing incidence in a cropping system. Brassica is sown and harvested earlier than maize and is attacked by aphids, while maize is also attacked by aphids. Five mortality tests were conducted of B. brassicae fed on maize. Out of five mortality tests, 3 tests were conducted using 1st instar, while in two mortality tests, 2nd instars of aphids were used. Mortality tests revealed that first instar mortality was quite high on the second day, while in second instar larvae mortality was delayed up to third to the fourth day. These experiments reveal that aphids can use maize as substitute host at later instars as compared to young ones. These experiments can be foundation for studying further crop-insect interaction and sampling techniques used for this purpose.

Keywords: maize, host suitability, B. brassicae, tritrophic interaction

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716 Analysis of Factors Affecting the Number of Infant and Maternal Mortality in East Java with Geographically Weighted Bivariate Generalized Poisson Regression Method

Authors: Luh Eka Suryani, Purhadi

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Poisson regression is a non-linear regression model with response variable in the form of count data that follows Poisson distribution. Modeling for a pair of count data that show high correlation can be analyzed by Poisson Bivariate Regression. Data, the number of infant mortality and maternal mortality, are count data that can be analyzed by Poisson Bivariate Regression. The Poisson regression assumption is an equidispersion where the mean and variance values are equal. However, the actual count data has a variance value which can be greater or less than the mean value (overdispersion and underdispersion). Violations of this assumption can be overcome by applying Generalized Poisson Regression. Characteristics of each regency can affect the number of cases occurred. This issue can be overcome by spatial analysis called geographically weighted regression. This study analyzes the number of infant mortality and maternal mortality based on conditions in East Java in 2016 using Geographically Weighted Bivariate Generalized Poisson Regression (GWBGPR) method. Modeling is done with adaptive bisquare Kernel weighting which produces 3 regency groups based on infant mortality rate and 5 regency groups based on maternal mortality rate. Variables that significantly influence the number of infant and maternal mortality are the percentages of pregnant women visit health workers at least 4 times during pregnancy, pregnant women get Fe3 tablets, obstetric complication handled, clean household and healthy behavior, and married women with the first marriage age under 18 years.

Keywords: overdispersion, maternal mortality, infant mortality, adaptive bisquare kernel, GWBGPR

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715 Clinical Impact of Delirium and Antipsychotic Therapy: 10-Year Experience from a Referral Coronary Care Unit

Authors: Niyada Naksuk, Thoetchai Peeraphatdit, Vitaly Herasevich, Peter A. Brady, Suraj Kapa, Samuel J. Asirvatham

Abstract:

Introduction: Little is known about the safety of antipsychotic therapy for delirium in the coronary care unit (CCU). Our aim was to examine the effect of delirium and antipsychotic therapy among CCU patients. Methods: Pre-study Confusion Assessment Method-Intensive Care Unit (CAM–ICU) criteria were implemented in screening consecutive patients admitted to Mayo Clinic, Rochester, the USA from 2004 through 2013. Death status was prospectively ascertained. Results: Of 11,079 study patients, the incidence of delirium was 8.3% (n=925). Delirium was associated with an increased risk of in-hospital mortality (adjusted OR 1.49; 95% CI, 1.08-2.08; P=.02) and one-year mortality among patients who survived from CCU admission (adjusted HR 1.46; 95% CI, 1.12-1.87; P=.005). A total of 792 doses of haloperidol (5 IQR [3-10] mg/day) or quetiapine (25 IQR [13-50] mg/day) were given to 244 patients with delirium. The clinical characteristics of patients with delirium who did and did not receive antipsychotic therapy were not different (baseline corrected QT [QTc] interval 460±61 ms vs. 457±58 ms, respectively; P = 0.57). In comparison to baseline, mean QTc intervals after the first and third doses of the antipsychotics were not significantly prolonged in haloperidol (448±56, 458±57, and 450±50 ms, respectively) or quetiapine groups (459±54, 467±68, and 462±46 ms, respectively) (P > 0.05 for all). Additionally, in-hospital mortality (adjusted OR 0.67; 95% CI, 0.42-1.04; P=.07), ventricular arrhythmia (adjusted OR 0.87; 95% CI, 0.17-3.62; P=.85) and one-year mortality among the hospital survivors (adjusted HR 0.86; 95% CI 0.62-1.17; P = 0.34) were not different in patients with delirium irrespective of whether or not they received antipsychotics. Conclusions: In patients admitted to the CCU, delirium was associated with an increase in both in-hospital and one-year mortality. Low doses of haloperidol and quetiapine appeared to be safe, without an increase in risk of sudden cardiac death, in-hospital mortality, or one-year mortality in carefully monitored patients.

Keywords: Arrhythmias, Mortality, Haloperidol, qtc interval, quetiapine

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714 A Description Analysis of Mortality Rate of Human Infection with Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus in China

Authors: Qun Li, Chao Li, Lei Zhou, Ruiqi Ren, Dan Li, Yali Wang, Daxin Ni, Zijian Feng

Abstract:

Background: Since the first human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) case was reported in China on 31 March 2013, five epidemics have been observed in China through February 2013 and September 2017. Though the overall mortality rate of H7N9 has remained as high as around 40% throughout the five epidemics, the specific mortality rate in Mainland China varied by provinces. We conducted a descriptive analysis of mortality rates of H7N9 cases to explore the various severity features of the disease and then to provide clues of further analyses of potential factors associated with the severity of the disease. Methods: The data for analysis originated from the National Notifiable Infectious Disease Report and Surveillance System (NNIDRSS). The surveillance system and identification procedure for H7N9 infection have not changed in China since 2013. The definition of a confirmed H7N9 case is as same as previous reports. Mortality rates of H7N9 cases are described and compared by time and location of reporting, age and sex, and genetic features of H7N9 virus strains. Results: The overall mortality rate, the male and female specific overall rates of H7N9 is 39.6% (608/1533), 40.3% (432/1072) and 38.2% (176/461), respectively. There was no significant difference between the mortality rates of male and female. The age-specific mortality rates are significantly varied by age groups (χ²=38.16, p < 0.001). The mortality of H7N9 cases in the age group between 20 and 60 (33.17%) and age group of over 60 (51.16%) is much higher than that in the age group of under 20 (5.00%). Considering the time of reporting, the mortality rates of cases which were reported in the first (40.57%) and fourth (42.51%) quarters of each year are significantly higher than the mortality of cases which were reported in the second (36.02%) and third (27.27%) quarters (χ²=75.18, p < 0.001). The geographic specific mortality rates vary too. The mortality rates of H7N9 cases reported from the Northeast China (66.67%) and Westeast China (56.52%) are significantly higher than that of H7N9 cases reported from the remained area of mainland China. The mortality rate of H7N9 cases reported from the Central China is the lowest (34.38%). The mortality rates of H7N9 cases reported from rural (37.76%) and urban (38.96%) areas are similar. The mortality rate of H7N9 cases infected with the highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H7N9) virus (48.15%) is higher than the rate of H7N9 cases infected with the low pathogenic avian influenza A(H7N9) virus (37.57%), but the difference is not statistically significant. Preliminary analyses showed that age and some clinical complications such as respiratory failure, heart failure, and septic shock could be potential risk factors associated with the death of H7N9 cases. Conclusions: The mortality rates of H7N9 cases varied by age, sex, time of reporting and geographical location in mainland China. Further in-depth analyses and field investigations of the factors associated with the severity of H7N9 cases need to be considered.

Keywords: avian influenza, China, Mortality, H7N9 virus

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713 The Relationship between First-Day Body Temperature and Mortality in Traumatic Patients

Authors: Soudabeh Shafiee Ardestani, Neda Valizadeh, Mani Mofidi, Sama Haghighi, Ali Hashemaghaee

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Background: There are many systems and parameters to evaluate trauma patients in the emergency department. Most of these evaluations are to distinguish patients with worse conditions so that the care systems have a better prediction of condition for a better care-giving. The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between axillary body temperature and mortality in patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit (ICU) with multiple traumas and with other clinical and para-clinical factors. Methods: All patients between 16 and 75 years old with multiple traumas who were admitted into Emergency Department then hospitalized in the ICU were included in our study. An axillary temperature in the first and the second day of admission, Glasgow cola scale (GCS), systolic blood pressure, Serum glucose levels, and white blood cell counts of all patients at the admission day were recorded and their relationship with mortality were analyzed by SPSS software with suitable statistical tests. Results: Axillary body temperatures in the first and second day were statistically lower in expired traumatic patients (p=0.001 and p<0,001 respectively). Patients with lower GCS had a significantly lower first-day temperature and a significantly higher mortality. (p=0.006 and p=0.006 respectively). Furthermore, the first-day axillary temperature was significantly lower in patients with a lower first-day systolic blood pressure (p=0.014). Conclusion: Our results showed that lower axillary body temperature in the first day is associated with higher mortality, lower GCS, and lower systolic blood pressure. Thus, this could be used as a predictor of mortality in evaluation of traumatic patients in emergency settings.

Keywords: Trauma, Emergency, Mortality, fever

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712 Effect of Serum Electrolytes on a QTc Interval and Mortality in Patients admitted to Coronary Care Unit

Authors: Niyada Naksuk, Thoetchai Peeraphatdit, Peter A. Brady, Suraj Kapa, Samuel J. Asirvatham

Abstract:

Background: Serum electrolyte abnormalities are a common cause of an acquired prolonged QT syndrome, especially, in the coronary care unit (CCU) setting. Optimal electrolyte ranges among the CCU patients have not been sufficiently investigated. Methods: We identified 8,498 consecutive CCU patients who were admitted to the CCU at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, the USA, from 2004 through 2013. Association between first serum electrolytes and baseline corrected QT intervals (QTc), as well as in-hospital mortality, was tested using multivariate linear regression and logistic regression, respectively. Serum potassium 4.0- < 4.5 mEq/L, ionized calcium (iCa) 4.6-4.8 mg/dL, and magnesium 2.0- < 2.2 mg/dL were used as the reference levels. Results: There was a modest level-dependent relationship between hypokalemia ( < 4.0 mEq/L), hypocalcemia ( < 4.4 mg/dL), and a prolonged QTc interval; serum magnesium did not affect the QTc interval. Association between the serum electrolytes and in-hospital mortality included a U-shaped relationship for serum potassium (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.53 and OR 1.91for serum potassium 4.5- < 5.0 and ≥ 5.0 mEq/L, respectively) and an inverted J-shaped relationship for iCa (adjusted OR 2.79 and OR 2.03 for calcium < 4.4 and 4.4- < 4.6 mg/dL, respectively). For serum magnesium, the mortality was greater only among patients with levels ≥ 2.4 mg/dL (adjusted OR 1.40), compared to the reference level. Findings were similar in sensitivity analyses examining the association between mean serum electrolytes and mean QTc intervals, as well as in-hospital mortality. Conclusions: Serum potassium 4.0- < 4.5 mEq/L, iCa ≥ 4.6 mg/dL, and magnesium < 2.4 mg/dL had a neutral effect on QTc intervals and were associated with the lowest in-hospital mortality among the CCU patients.

Keywords: Electrocardiography, Calcium, Mortality, Magnesium, potassium, long-QT syndrome

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711 Descriptive Epidemiology of Mortality in Certain Species of Captive Deer in Pakistan

Authors: Umer Farooq, Musadiq Idris, Sajjad Ali, Syed A. Khaliq

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Postmortem record of 217 captive ungulates including Black-buck (n=31), Chinkara (n=20), Hog deer (n=116), Spotted deer (n=35), Red Deer n=(04), and Rusa deer (n=11) submitted to the Veterinary Research Institute, Lahore, Pakistan was analyzed to determine the primary cause of mortality in these animals. The submissions included temporal distribution from Government wildlife captive farms, zoo, and private ownerships, over a three year period (2007-2009). The most common cause of death was found to be trauma (20.27%), followed by parasitic diseases (15.67%), bacterial diseases (11.98%), stillbirths (9.21%), snakebites (2.76%), gut affections (2.30%), neoplasia (1.38%) and starvation (0.92%). The exact cause of death could not be determined in 77 of 217 animals. Pneumonia (8.29%) and tuberculosis (3.69%) were the most common bacterial diseases. Analyses for parasitic infestation revealed tapeworms to be highest (11.05%), followed by roundworms (8.29%) and hemoparasitism (5.07%) (babesiosis and theileriosis). The mortality rate in young ungulates was lower as compared to adults (32.26% and 67.74%). Gender wise data presented higher mortality in females (55.30%) compared to males (44.70%). In conclusion, highest mortality factor in captive ungulates was trauma, followed by parasitic and bacterial infestations/infections of tapeworms and pneumonia, respectively. Furthermore, necropsies provided substantial information on etiology of death and other related epidemiological aspects.

Keywords: Epidemiology, Gender, age, Mortality, ungulates

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710 Detecting Overdispersion for Mortality AIDS in Zero-inflated Negative Binomial Death Rate (ZINBDR) Co-infection Patients in Kelantan

Authors: Nyi Nyi Naing, Mohd Asrul Affedi

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Overdispersion is present in count data, and basically when a phenomenon happened, a Negative Binomial (NB) is commonly used to replace a standard Poisson model. Analysis of count data event, such as mortality cases basically Poisson regression model is appropriate. Hence, the model is not appropriate when existing a zero values. The zero-inflated negative binomial model is appropriate. In this article, we modelled the mortality cases as a dependent variable by age categorical. The objective of this study to determine existing overdispersion in mortality data of AIDS co-infection patients in Kelantan.

Keywords: AIDS, overdispersion, negative binomial death rate, zero-inflation negative binomial death rate

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709 The Use of Venous Glucose, Serum Lactate and Base Deficit as Biochemical Predictors of Mortality in Polytraumatized Patients: Acomparative with Trauma and Injury Severity Score and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evalution IV

Authors: Osama Moustafa Zayed

Abstract:

Aim of the work: To evaluate the effectiveness of venous glucose, levels of serum lactate and base deficit in polytraumatized patients as simple parameters to predict the mortality in these patients. Compared to the predictive value of Trauma and injury severity (TRISS) and Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation IV (APACHE IV). Introduction: Trauma is a serious global health problem, accounting for approximately one in 10 deaths worldwide. Trauma accounts for 5 million deaths per year. Prediction of mortality in trauma patients is an important part of trauma care. Several trauma scores have been devised to predict injury severity and risk of mortality. The trauma and injury severity score (TRISS) was most common used. Regardless of the accuracy of trauma scores, is based on an anatomical description of every injury and cannot be assigned to the patients until a full diagnostic procedure has been performed. So we hypothesized that alterations in admission glucose, lactate levels and base deficit would be an early and easy rapid predictor of mortality. Patient and Method: a comparative cross-sectional study. 282 Polytraumatized patients attended to the Emergency Department(ED) of the Suez Canal university Hospital constituted. The period from 1/1/2012 to 1/4/2013 was included. Results: We found that the best cut off value of TRISS probability of survival score for prediction of mortality among poly-traumatized patients is = 90, with 77% sensitivity and 89% specificity using area under the ROC curve (0.89) at (95%CI). APACHE IV demonstrated 67% sensitivity and 95% specificity at 95% CI at cut off point 99. The best cutoff value of Random Blood Sugar (RBS) for prediction of mortality was>140 mg/dl, with 89%, sensitivity, 49% specificity. The best cut off value of base deficit for prediction of mortality was less than -5.6 with 64% sensitivity, 93% specificity. The best cutoff point of lactate for prediction of mortality was > 2.6 mmol/L with 92%, sensitivity, 42% specificity. Conclusion: According to our results from all evaluated predictors of mortality (laboratory and scores) and mortality based on the estimated cutoff values using ROC curves analysis, the highest risk of mortality was found using a cutoff value of 90 in TRISS score while with laboratory parameters the highest risk of mortality was with serum lactate > 2.6 . Although that all of the three parameter are accurate in predicting mortality in poly-traumatized patients and near with each other, as in serum lactate the area under the curve 0.82, in BD 0.79 and 0.77 in RBS.

Keywords: Emergency Department, APACHE IV, polytraumatized patients, serum lactate

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708 Developing Cucurbitacin a Minimum Inhibition Concentration of Meloidogyne Incognita Using a Computer-Based Model

Authors: Phatu W. Mashela, Zakheleni P. Dube

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Minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) is the lowest concentration of a chemical that brings about significant inhibition of target organism. The conventional method for establishing the MIC for phytonematicides is tedious. The objective of this study was to use the Curve-fitting Allelochemical Response Data (CARD) to determine the MIC for pure cucurbitacin A on Meloidogyne incognita second-stage juveniles (J2) hatch, immobility and mortality. Meloidogyne incognita eggs and freshly hatched J2 were separately exposed to a series of pure cucurbitacin A concentrations of 0.00, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 1.50, 1.75, 2.00, 2.25 and 2.50 μg.mL⁻¹for 12, 24, 48 and 72 h in an incubator set at 25 ± 2°C. Meloidogyne incognita J2 hatch, immobility and mortality counts were determined using a stereomicroscope and the significant means were subjected to the CARD model. The model exhibited density-dependent growth (DDG) patterns of J2 hatch, immobility and mortality to increasing concentrations of cucurbitacin A. The average MIC for cucurbitacin A on M. incognita J2 hatch, immobility and mortality were 2.2, 0.58 and 0.63 µg.mL⁻¹, respectively. Meloidogyne incognita J2 hatch had the highest average MIC value followed by mortality and immobility had the least. In conclusion, the CARD model was able to generate MIC for cucurbitacin A, hence it could serve as a valuable tool in the chemical-nematode bioassay studies.

Keywords: triterpenoids, inhibition concentration, phytonematicide, sensitivity index, threshold stimulation

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707 A Survey to Determine the Incidence of Piglets' Mortality in Outdoor Farms in New Zealand

Authors: Patrick C. H. Morel, Ian W. Barugh, Kirsty L. Chidgey

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The aim of this study was to quantify the level of piglet deaths in outdoor farrowing systems in New Zealand. A total of 14 farms were visited, the farmers interviewed, and data collected. A total of 10,154 sows were kept on those farms representing an estimated 33% of the NZ sow herd or 80% of the outdoor sow herd in 2016. Data from 25,911 litters was available for the different analyses. The characteristics and reproductive performance for the years 2015-2016 from the 14 farms surveyed in this study were analysed, and the following results were obtained. The average percentage of stillbirths was 7.1% ranging between 3.5 and 10.7%, and the average pre-weaning live-born mortality was 16.7% ranging between 3.7% and 23.6%. The majority of piglet deaths (89%) occurred during the first week after birth, with 81% of deaths occurring up to day three. The number of piglets born alive was 12.3 (8.0 to 14.0), and average number of piglets weaned per sow per year was 22.4, range 10.5-27.3. The average stocking rate per ha (number of sows and mated gilts) was 15.3 and ranged from 2.8 to 28.6. The sow to boar ratio average was 20.9:1 and the range was 7.1: 1 to 63:1. The sow replacement rate ranged between 37% and 78%. There was a large variation in the piglet live-born mortality both between months within a farm and between farms within a given month. The monthly recorded piglet mortality ranged between 7.7% and 31.5%, and there was no statistically significant difference between months on the number of piglets born, born alive, weaned or on pre-weaning piglet mortality. Twelve different types of hut/farrowing systems were used on the 14 farms. No difference in piglet mortality was observed between A-Frame, A-Frame Modified and for Box-shape huts. There was a positive relationship between the average number of piglets born per litter and the number of piglets born alive (r=0.975) or the number weaned per litter (r=0.845). Moreover, as the average number of piglets born-alive increases, both pre-weaning live-born mortality rate and the number of piglets weaned increased. An increase of 1 piglet in the number born alive corresponds to an increase of 2.9% in live-born mortality and an increase of 0.56 piglets weaned. Farmers reported that staff are the key to success with the key attributes being: good and reliable with attention to detail and skills with the stock.

Keywords: Mortality, outdoor, pig farm, piglets

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706 Test of Biological Control against Date Moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae zeller (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) by Spinosad

Authors: Hadjeb Ayoub, Mehaoua Med Seghir, Ouakid M. Laid

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Currently, chemical control is the only means used to control populations of the date moth (Ectomyelois ceratoniae) which is the most important and dangerous pest to palm groves in Algeria, conventional insecticides act faster, but their main drawback is it can’t be destroyed or degraded. In this context we conducted our work to explore the insecticidal activity of Spinpsad which is a bio-pesticide on the larval stages of Ectomyelois ceratoniae. The study of the effect of Spinosad on the mortality of different larval stages revealed that the doses used were significantly and positively correlated with mortality adjusted for different durations of exposure of larvae bio- pesticide. Lowest corrected mortality was observed in a short time and lethal in older larvae treated with the lowest concentration. While the higher mortality was observed in a longer duration of exposure in younger instars treated with the highest concentration.

Keywords: toxicology, Biological Control, date palm, Ectomyelois ceratoniae, Spinosad

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705 The Comparison of Mortality Rate between Triaged of Level-1 and Undertriage of Level-1 Regarding Life-Saving Intervention

Authors: Sujinna Hinthong, Kasamon Aramvanitch

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Background: Triage is a method to determine an urgent need of the patient for the treatment in the emergency department (ED). Modified Emergency Severity Index (ESI version 4) is one of the most commonly used triage systems in Thailand. Objective: To compare mortality rates between triaged level 1 and undertriage of level 1 regarding life-saving intervention and find sensitivity and specificity of modified ESI version 4 for detecting patient who needs life-saving interventions. Method: Medical records were reviewed for patients 18-year-old or older who visited in a single-center university hospital for two months and received life-saving interventions within the 1st hour period. We compared the mortality rate of the patients who triaged as level 1 to whom triaged as other levels (undertriage of level 1) and found sensitivity and specificity of modified ESI version 4 to detect patients that need immediate life-saving interventions. Result: 209 patients received life-saving interventions within 1st hour of ED visit. 25 (12.0%) patients had been triaged as level 1, and 184 (88.0%) patients had been undertriage (173 as level 2, 10 as level 3, and 1 as level 4). The mortality rate in triaged level 1 group were 40.0% compared to undertriage of level 1 9.2% OR 6.55 (95% confidence interval 2.23 to 18.35), P-value <0.001. However, the length of stay in ED of triaged level 1 compare to undertriage of level 1 was 7.9 (IQR 21.5) hours and 16.3 (IQR 34.2), p-value 0.008. The sensitivity of modified ESI version 4 to identify patients receiving an immediate intervention was 14.1% (95% CI 7.7-23.0%) and specificity 99.7% (95% CI 99.3-99.9%). Conclusion: Undertriage of level 1 patient had less mortality rate than triaged level 1 patient, but had a longer length of ED stay significantly.

Keywords: Mortality, Sensitivity, triage, ESI, undertriage

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704 Insecticide Efficacy against Jassids in Egg Plants

Authors: Farhan Ali, Zunnu Raen Akhtar, Muhammad Saeed-Ur-Rehman

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Jassids are considered as serious sucking pests in eggplants. Jassids can be controlled using imidacloprid, but it can also result in non-target ecological impacts on eco-system. It can also result in reduced population of predators of jassids in the field. An experiment was conducted on jassids, Amrasca sp. reared on eggplant leaves were treated with insecticide imidacloprid at lower, recommended and higher doses including 1L, 2L, 3L respectively. 3rd instar larvae and adults of jassids were exposed to lower, recommended, higher doses. Mortality tests were repeated three times for each dose and insect growth stage. Imidacloprid was sprayed on the leaves followed by drying. Data was recorded for 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24 hours after spraying insecticide on the leaves. Results showed that higher mortality was observed in higher and recommended doses, while slow mortality was observed in the case of lower dose. It can be asserted that higher and recommended doses causing immediate mortality of insects are better to control Amrasca sp. in the field, it will not cause immediate resistance development in insects against imidacloprid.

Keywords: Efficacy, imidacloprid, Amrasca sp, egg plant

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