Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 4286

Search results for: insecticidal activity

4286 Bioinsecticidal Activity and Phytochemical Study of the Crude Extract from the Plant Artemisia judaica

Authors: Fatma Acheuk, Idir Bitam, Leila Bendifallah, Malika Ramdani, Fethia Barika

Abstract:

Phytochemical study of the plant Artemisia judaica showed the presence of various groups of natural products: saponins, tannins, coumarins, flavonoids, carbohydrates, and reducer compounds. However, alkaloids are present as traces. The crude ethanol extract of the test plant presented significant insecticidal activity on mosquito larvae in stage I, II and III. The LD50 highlighted the excellent insecticidal effect of the tested extract. Similarly, the LT50 are achieved early with high doses. The results obtained are encouraging and suggest the possibility of using the secondary metabolites of this plant such as bio-insecticide.

Keywords: insecticidal activity, mosquito, Atamisia judaica, crud extract

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4285 Phytochemical Study and Bioinsecticidal Effect of the Crude Extract from the Plant Artemisia Judaica

Authors: Fatma Acheuk, Idir Bitam, Leila Bendifallah, Malika Ramdani, Fethia Barika

Abstract:

Phytochemical study of the plant Artemisia judaica showed the presence of various groups of natural products: saponins, tannins, coumarins, flavonoids, carbohydrates, and reducer compounds. However alkaloids are present as traces. The crude ethanol extract of the test plant presented significant insecticidal activity on mosquito larvae in stage I, II, and III. The LD50 highlighted the excellent insecticidal effect of the tested extract. Similarly, the LT50 are achieved early with high doses. The results obtained are encouraging and suggest the possibility of using the secondary metabolites of this plant such as bio-insecticide.

Keywords: insecticidal activity, mosquito, Atamisia judaica, crud extract

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4284 Antibacterial Activity of Bacillus thuringiensis Activated Delta-endotoxins

Authors: R. Gounina-Allouane, N. Ouali, F. Z. Berrabah, A. Bentaleb

Abstract:

For a long time, the Gram-positive spore-forming bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has been widely used in biological control against devastating and disease vectors insects. This is due to the insecticidal activity of its crystalline parasporal inclusion (crystals) predominantly comprised of one or more proteins (Cry and Cyt proteins) also called δ-endotoxins, produced during sporulation. The shape and composition of Bt crystals vary among strains and crystalline proteins are extremely varied (more than 475 cry gene were discovered). The insecticidal activity of Bt crystals is very well studied, thus their insecticidal mode of action is well established, however, their antimicrobial effect is largely unknown. The lack of data on the antimicrobial effect of crystalline proteins of Bt and the need for searching new antimicrobial molecules encouraged us to carried out this study. The antibacterial effect of δ-endotoxines produced by two Bt stains; a strain isolated from soil at northern of Algeria (Bt 7.2.B), and a strain isolated from a bioinsecticide (Bacillus thuringiensis var aizawai), activated by proteolysis, was assayed on clinical bacterial strains and ATCC collection ones respectively. Gram positive and negative clinical bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonaie, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus) were sensitive to activated Bt 72B endotoxins. Similarly, bacterial strains from ATCC collection (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aerugenosa ATCC 27853, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923) were sensitive to activated B. thuringiensis var aizawai δ-endotoxines. The activated δ-endotoxins were separated by SDS-PAGE.

Keywords: Crystals, antibacterial activity, Bacillus thuringiensis, cry proteins, δ-endotoxins

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4283 Antibacterial Activity of Bacillus thuringiensis Cristalline Parasporal Proteins

Authors: R. Gounina-Allouane, N. Ouali, F. Z. Berrabah, A. Bentaleb

Abstract:

For a long time, the Gram-positive spore-forming bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has been widely used in biological control against devastating and disease vectors insects. This is due to the insecticidal activity of its crystalline parasporal inclusion (crystals) predominantly comprised of one or more proteins (Cry and Cyt proteins) also called δ-endotoxins, produced during sporulation. The shape and composition of Bt crystals vary among strains and crystalline proteins are extremely varied (more than 475 cry gene were discovered). The insecticidal activity of Bt crystals is very well studied, thus their insecticidal mode of action is well established, however, their antimicrobial effect is largely unknown. The lack of data on the antimicrobial effect of crystalline proteins of Bt and the need for searching new antimicrobial molecules encouraged us to carried out this study. The antibacterial effect of δ-endotoxines produced by two Bt stains; a strain isolated from soil at northern of Algeria (Bt 7.2.B), and a strain isolated from a bioinsecticide (Bacillus thuringiensis var aizawai), activated by proteolysis, was assayed on clinical bacterial strains and ATCC collection ones respectively. Gram positive and negative clinical bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonaie, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus) were sensitive to activated Bt 72B endotoxins. Similarly, bacterial strains from ATCC collection (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aerugenosa ATCC 27853, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923) were sensitive to activated B. thuringiensis var aizawai δ-endotoxines. The activated δ-endotoxins were separated by SDS-PAGE.

Keywords: Crystals, antibacterial activity, Bacillus thuringiensis, cry proteins, δ-endotoxins

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4282 NeuroBactrus, a Novel, Highly Effective, and Environmentally Friendly Recombinant Baculovirus Insecticide

Authors: Yeon Ho Je

Abstract:

A novel recombinant baculovirus, NeuroBactrus, was constructed to develop an improved baculovirus insecticide with additional beneficial properties, such as a higher insecticidal activity and improved recovery, compared to wild-type baculovirus. For the construction of NeuroBactrus, the Bacillus thuringiensis crystal protein gene (here termed cry1-5) was introduced into the Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) genome by fusion of the polyhedrin–cry1-5–polyhedrin genes under the control of the polyhedrin promoter. In the opposite direction, an insect-specific neurotoxin gene, AaIT, from Androctonus australis was introduced under the control of an early promoter from Cotesia plutellae bracovirus by fusion of a partial fragment of orf603. The polyhedrin–Cry1-5–polyhedrin fusion protein expressed by the NeuroBactrus was not only occluded into the polyhedra, but it was also activated by treatment with trypsin, resulting in an_65-kDa active toxin. In addition, quantitative PCR revealed that the neurotoxin was expressed from the early phase of infection. NeuroBactrus showed a high level of insecticidal activity against Plutella xylostella larvae and a significant reduction in the median lethal time against Spodoptera exigua larvae compared to those of wild-type AcMNPV. Rerecombinant mutants derived from NeuroBactrus in which AaIT and/or cry1-5 were deleted were generated by serial passages in vitro. Expression of the foreign proteins (B. thuringiensis toxin and AaIT) was continuously reduced during the serial passage of the NeuroBactrus. Moreover, polyhedra collected from S. exigua larvae infected with the serially passaged NeuroBactrus showed insecticidal activity similar to that of wild-type AcMNPV. These results suggested that NeuroBactrus could be recovered to wild-type AcMNPV through serial passaging.

Keywords: neurotoxin, insecticide, baculovirus, neurobactrus

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4281 Phytochemical Composition and Biological Activities of the Vegetal Extracts of Six Aromatic and Medicinal Plants of Algerian Flora and Their Uses in Food and Pharmaceutical Industries

Authors: Ziani Borhane Eddine Cherif, Hazzi Mohamed, Mouhouche Fazia

Abstract:

The vegetal extracts of aromatic and medicinal plants start to have much of interest like potential sources of natural bioactive molecules. Many features are conferred by the nature of the chemical function of their major constituents (phenol, alcohol, aldehyde, cetone). This biopotential lets us to focalize on the study of three main biological activities, the antioxidant, antibiotic and insecticidal activities of six Algerian aromatic plants in the aim of making in evidence by the chromatographic analysis (CPG and CG/SM) the phytochemical compounds implicating in this effects. The contents of Oxygenated monoterpenes represented the most prominent group of constituents in the majority of plants. However, the α-Terpineol (28,3%), Carvacrol (47,3%), pulégone (39,5%), Chrysanthenone (27,4%), Thymol 23,9%, γ-Terpinene 23,9% and 2-Undecanone(94%) were the main components. The antioxyding activity of the Essential oils and no-volatils extracts was evaluated in vitro using four tests: inhibition of free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and the 2,2-Azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical-scavenging activity (ABTS•+), the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assays and the reducing power. The measures of the IC50 of these natural compounds revealed potent activity (between 254.64-462.76mg.l-1), almost similar to that of BHT, BHA, Tocopherol and Ascorbic acid (126,4-369,1 mg.l-1) and so far than the Trolox one (IC50= 2,82mg.l-1). Furthermore, three ethanol extracts were found to be remarkably effective toward DPPH and ABTS inhibition, compared to chemical antioxidant BHA and BHT (IC = 9.8±0.1 and 28±0.7 mg.l-1, respectively); for reducing power test it has also exhibited high activity. The study on the insecticidal activity effect by contact, inhalation, fecundity and fertility of Callosobruchus maculatus and Tribolium confusum showed a strong potential biocide reaching 95-100% mortality only after 24 hours. The antibiotic activity of our essential oils were evaluated by a qualitative study (aromatogramme) and quantitative (MIC, MBC and CML) on four bacteria (Gram+ and Gram-) and one strain of pathogenic yeast, the results of these tests showed very interesting action than that induced by the same reference antibiotics (Gentamycin, and Nystatin Ceftatidine) such that the inhibition diameters and MIC values for tested microorganisms were in the range of 23–58 mm and 0.015–0.25%(v/v) respectively.

Keywords: Aromatic Plants, essential oils, Bioactive Molecules, antioxidant activity, no-volatils extracts, insecticidal activity, antibiotic activity

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4280 Antagonistic Effect of Indigenous Plant Extracts toward Dusky Cotton Bug, Oxycarenus laetus

Authors: Muhammad Rafiq Shahid, Ali Hassan, Umm-e- Rubab, Muhammad Nadeem

Abstract:

Insecticidal property of plant extracts was assessed toward dusky bug of cotton. Plant extracts consisted of bari pata (Ziziphus jajuba), Ak (Calotropis gigantean), Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), Bakine (Melia azedarach),Kanar (Nerium oleander),Kurtuma (Mitragyna speciosa) and one Control was also included with distilled water treatment. Forced feeding experiment was used to determine the antibiotic effect of bug plant extracts on dusky bug whereas Multi-choice experiment to determine the antixenosis/ repellent property of botanicals. It is evident from the results that mortality and antibiosis percentage of dusky bug due to the use of botanicals ranged from 15-95% and 20-87.3% respectively that was maximum in tobacoo extract followed by bakain and kurtama, minimum was on Ak, kanair and bakain extract. Non preference ranged from 14.28 to 85.7 where maximum non preference of dusky bug was found on bakain and kurtama followed by ak and kanair however minimum was on Bari pata extract. It was further found that local plant extract possessed insecticidal property toward dusky bug as well as also possesses repellency effect toward dusky bug, thus should be included in integrated pest management program of cotton in order to minimize the ill effects of pesticides it is compulsory to adopt eco-friendly methods of insect pest management.

Keywords: botanical extract, insecticidal and repellency activity, Gossypium hirsutum, oxycarenus laetus

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4279 Use of an Insecticidal-Iridovirus Kinase towards the Development of Aphid-Resistant Plants

Authors: Saranya Ganapathy, Megha N. Parajulee, Michael San Francisco, Hong Zhang

Abstract:

Insect pests are a serious threat to agricultural productivity. Use of chemical pesticides, the predominant control method thus far, has resulted in environmental damage, pest resurgence, and negative effects on non-target species. Genetically modified (GM) crops offer a promising alternative, and Bacillus thuringiensis endotoxin genes have played a major role in this respect. However, to overcome insect tolerance issues and to broaden the target range, it is critical to identify alternative-insecticidal toxins working through novel mechanisms. Our research group has identified a kinase from Chilo iridescent virus (CIV; Family Iridoviridae) that has insecticidal activity and designated it as ISTK (Iridovirus Serine/Threonine Kinase). A 35 kDa truncated form of ISTK, designated iridoptin, was obtained during expression and purification of ISTK in the yeast system. This yeast-expressed CIV toxin induced 50% mortality in cotton aphids and 100% mortality in green peach aphids (GPA). Optimized viral genes (o-ISTK and o-IRI) were stably transformed into the model plant, Arabidopsis. PCR analysis of genomic DNA confirmed the presence of the gene insert (oISTK/oIRI) in selected transgenic lines. The further screening was performed to identify the PCR positive lines that showed expression of respective toxins at the polypeptide level using Western blot analysis. The stable lines expressing either of these two toxins induced moderate to very high mortality in GPAs and significantly affected GPA development and fecundity. The aphicidal potential of these transgenic Arabidopsis lines will be presented.

Keywords: Chilo iridescent virus, insecticidal toxin, iridoviruses, plant-incorporated protectants, serine/threonine kinase

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4278 A Potential Bio-Pesticidal Molecule Derived from Indian Traditional Plant

Authors: Bunindro Nameirakpam, Sonia Sougrapakam, Shannon B. Olsson, Rajashekar Yallappa

Abstract:

Natural sources for new pesticidal compounds hold promise in view of their eco-friendly nature, selectivity and mammalian safety. Despite a large number of plants that show insecticidal activity and diversity of natural chemistry with inherent eco-friendly nature, newer classes of insecticides have eluded discovery. Artemisia vulgaris, known as Mugwort, is a universal herb used for folk medicine and religious purposes throughout the ancient world. In India, the essential oils of Artemisia vulgaris are used for its insecticidal, anti parasiticidal and antimicrobial properties. Traditionally, the dried leaves of Artemisia vulgaris are used to repel insects as well as rats in and around the granaries in the North-East India. Artemisia vulgaris collected during November from different ecological sites were studied for the bio-pesticidal utility against the stored grain pests. The insecticidal activities were found in the crude extracts of n-hexane and methanol from the samples collected in Sikkim and Manipur respectively. Using silica gel column chromatography protocol, we have isolated one novel bioactive molecule from the aerial parts of Artemisia vulgaris L based on various physical-chemical and spectroscopic techniques (IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass). The novel bioactive molecule is highly toxic and very low concentration (4.35 µg/l) is needed to control the stored product insects. In additional experiment results clearly showed the involvement of sodium pumps inhibition in the insecticidal action of purified compound in the Sitophilus oryzae. The knockdown activity of the purified compound is concomitant with the in vivo inhibition of Na+/ K+- ATPase. Further, our study showed insignificant differences in the seed germination of control and the treated grains. The lack of adverse effect of the novel bioactive molecule on the seed germination is highly desirable for seed/grain protectant and showing the potential to be developed as possible natural fumigants for the control of stored grain pests. The novel bioactive molecule is selective insecticide with a high margin of safety to mammals and showed promise as novel biopesticide candidate for grain protection. It is believed that Bio-pesticides can serve as the most important pest management tools as far as global safety is concerned.

Keywords: seed germination, bio-pesticides, Indian traditional plant, Artemisia vulgaris, Na+/ K+- ATPase

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4277 Insecticidal Activity of Piper aduncum Fruit and Tephrosia vogelii Leaf Mixed Formulations against Cabbage Pest Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)

Authors: Eka Candra Lina, Indah Widhianingrum, Mita Eka Putri, Nur Afni Evalia, Muhammad Makky

Abstract:

The emulsifiable concentrate (EC) and wettable powder (WP) of Piper aduncum and Tephrosia vogelii mixed formulations were tested for their activities in the laboratory and their effectiveness in the field against cabbage pest Plutella xyostella. Cabbage leaves soaked in six different mixed formulation concentrations were tested to 2ⁿᵈ instar larvae of P. xylostella with six replications. The observation was conducted everyday until larvae reached 4ᵗʰ instar stage. Correlation between concentration and larvae mortality was analyzed using probit (POLO-PC). The survived larvae was observed by looking at the growth and development, as well as the antifeedant effects. Field efficacy test was based on LC₉₅ value from laboratory test result. The experiment used a randomized block design with 5 treatments and 3 replications to test the populations of P. xylostella larvae and insecticide effectivity. The results showed that the EC and WP mixed formulations showed insecticidal activity against P. xylostella larvae, with LC₉₅ value of 0.35% and 0.37%, respectively. The highest antifeedant effect on EC mixed formulation was 85.01% and WP mixed formulation was 86.23%. Both mixed formulations also slowed the development of larvae when compared with control. Field effication result showed that applications of EC mixed formulation were able to restrain the population of P. xylostella, with effectivity value of 71.06%. Insecticide effectivity value of EC mixed formulation was higher than WP mixed formulation and Bacillus thuringiensis formulation.

Keywords: Efficacy, plutella xylostella, botanical insecticide, emulsifiable concentrate (EC), wettable powder (WP)

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4276 Bio-Efficacy of Newer Insecticides against Diamondback Moth (Plutella xylostella L. ) in Cabbage

Authors: C. G. Sawant, C. S. Patil

Abstract:

The investigation was conducted during January 2016 on Farmer’s field at Nandur Madhyameshwar, Tq. Niphad, Dist. Nashik (Maharashtra: India) on bio-efficacy of newer insecticides against Plutella xylostella L. infesting cabbage. The cabbage crop (var. Saint) was raised according to package of practices except for plant protection measures. Six newer insecticides along with two conventional insecticides and one synthetic pyrethroid were applied twice at 30 and 55 days after transplanting. Insecticidal solutions were diluted in water (375-500 L ha-1) and applied using knapsack sprayer (16L) with hollow cone nozzle. Treatments included indoxacarb @ 40 g a.i.ha-1, spinosad @ 17.5 g a.i.ha-1, flubendiamide @18.24 g a.i. ha-1, diafenthiuron @ 300 g a. i. ha-1, emamectin benzoate @ 10 g a. i. ha-1, chlorantraniliprole @ 10 g a. i. ha-1, quinalphos @ 250 g a. i. ha-1, triazophos @ 500 g a. i. ha-1, bifenthrin @ 50 g a.i. ha-1 and untreated control. The larvae were counted on head and outside the head. Observations were recorded one day before spray (Precount) and 1,3,7,14 days after spray. Results revealed that all the insecticidal treatments were significantly superior over untreated control by recording lower larval count. Among the insecticidal treatments, significantly lowest number of larvae of diamondback moth was recorded in chlorantraniliprole @ 10 g a.i.ha-1 (1.00 larvae plant-1) followed by spinosad @ 17.5 g a.i. ha-1 (1.45 larvae plant-1 and flubendiamide 18.24 g a.i. ha-1(1.53 larvae plant-1). The efficacy of insecticides reflected on yield of marketable cabbage heads by recording 242.27 qt ha-1 (1:33.38) in the treatment of chlorantraniliprole @ 10 g a.i.ha-1. It was followed by spinosad @ 17.5 g a.i. ha-1 with 236.91 qt ha-1 (1:24.92) and flubendiamide 18.24 g a.i. ha-1 with 228.49 qt ha-1 (1:30.43).

Keywords: cabbage, chlorantraniliprole, bio-efficacy, Plutella xylostella L

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4275 Effect of Four Medicinal Plant Extracts on Chickpea Leaf Miner Liriomyza cicerina (Rondani)

Authors: Sabraoui Abdelhadi, El Bouhssini Mustapha, Lhaloui Saadia, El Fakhouri Karim, Bouchelta Aziz

Abstract:

The surveys carried out in 2014, 2015 in the regions of Abda- Doukala, Chaouia- Ouardigha, Zemour- Zair and Fes- Sais have confirmed that the leaf miner was the main insect pest attacking chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) in Morocco. The grain yield losses caused by this pest could be more than 20% for winter planting and more than 42% for spring-sown crop. To reduce the chickpea leaf miner infestations, four essential oils, as biopesticide alternatives, were tested for their insecticidal effect on L. ciccerina, adults and larvae under laboratory conditions. In addition, we assessed the efficacy of these essential oils with and without adjuvant against this pest in comparison to three insecticides under field conditions. Mentha pulegium, with a dose of 33 µl/l of air caused 100% mortality on adults and larvae, after three hours and six hours of exposure, respectively. Eucalyptus showed 100% mortality on adults and larvae, with doses of 33 and 83 µl/l, after six and three hours of exposure, respectively. In the field conditions M. pulegium and E. globulus with adjuvant showed promising results compared with Abamectin, Azadirachtin and Spinetoram respectively. Essential oils could be used as one of the IPM components for the control of chickpea leaf miner.

Keywords: essential oils, chickpea, Morocco, insecticidal activity, liriomyza cicerina

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4274 The Effect of Aromatherapy Candle as Insecticide from Citrus Extract of Lemongrass (Cymbopogon) to Increase Ae. aegypti Mortality

Authors: Nurul Hidayah, Farida Rahmatika, Fathimah Azzahra, Nesty Herennadia

Abstract:

Aromatherapy candles are one of the insecticide media that have not been much researched. The active ingredient that is proven to have the effect of insecticide is a citrus extract from lemongrass oil (Cymbopogon). Aromatherapy candles are added by citrus compounds to be insecticidal for Ae. aegypti mosquito that was related to the infectious disease such as dengue fever. This research aims to find out if aromatherapy candles of citrus compounds have an insecticidal effect on Ae. aegypti mosquito. We used true experimental design including posttest only with control group design. The samples are 20 male and female Ae. aegypti mosquitos with aged 1-7 days belong to the inclusion criteria. The subjects were divided into 6 groups, consisting of 1 negative control group and 5 treatment groups with variation concentration are 1%; 2%; 3%; 4%; 5%. Each group will be treated for 2 hours and observed death after 24 hours. Replication in each group is done 4 times. The results were then tested statistically using Kruskal-Wallis and probit test. Mean of death in negative control group, and treatment group 1%; 2%; 3%; 4%; 5% respectively 0; 1; 0.25; 0; 1 and 1 mosquito. The Kruskal-Wallis test in the study group found no significant difference (p = 0.178). The probit analysis showed that LC50 and LC90 were 20.069% and 31.557%. The aromatherapy candle of a citrus compound has an insecticidal effect on the Ae aegypti mosquito.

Keywords: Ae. aegypti insecticide, aromatherapy candle, citrus compound, lemongrass oil (Cymbopogon)

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4273 Helicoverpa armigera Hubner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Susceptibility to Bacillus thuringiensis Crystal Toxins

Authors: Muhammad Jawad Saleem, Faisal Hafeez, Muhammad Arshad, Afifa Naeem, Ayesha Iftekhar

Abstract:

Bacillus thuringiensis is a gram-positive spore-forming bacterium that belongs to the Bacillus cereus group of Bacilli and it produces ICP (insecticidal crystal protein) Cry toxins or Cysts toxins. Spores are produced as parasporal crystalline inclusions bodies (also known as endotoxins) at the onset of sporulation during the stationary growth phase. During vegetative growth that does not form crystals and is called vegetative insecticidal proteins (VIP) and secreted an insecticidal protein (SIP). Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is important for pest management either in the form of insecticides or through incorporated in the gene of the crop. Bioassays were conducted on the F2 generation of 1st instar larvae of H. armigera by the diet incorporation method to determine the susceptibility to Bt Cry toxins (Cry1Ac, Cry2Ab, Cry2A). The median lethal concentration (LC₅₀) of Cry1Ac, Cry2Ab, Cry2A ranged from 0.11 to 1.06 µg/ml and moult inhibitory concentration (MIC₅₀) of Cry1Ac, Cry2Ab, Cry2A ranged from 0.05 to 0.25 µg/ml. Cry1Ac was found most toxic to 1st instar larvae of H. armigera as compared to other Bt Cry toxins (Cry1Ac, Cry2Ab, Cry2A). The experimental results are important to policy-makers and technology providers to develop strategies for the exploitation of transgenic Bt cotton varieties as a component of integrated pest management.

Keywords: Susceptibility, helicoverpa armigera, Cry1Ac, Bt toxin, Cry2Ab, Cry2A

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4272 Antioxidant Activity of Launaea nudicaulis Growing in Southwest of Algeria

Authors: Abdelkrim Cheriti, Mebarka Belboukhari, Nasser Belboukhari

Abstract:

Launaea Cass. is a small genus of the family Asteraceae (tribe Lactuceae, subtribe Sonchinae), consisting of 54 species, of which 9 are presented in the flora of Algeria and is mainly distributed in the South Mediterranean, Africa and SW Asia. Plants in the Launaea genus have been used ethnobotanically as bitter stomachic, for treating diarrhea, gastrointestinal tracts, as anti-inflammatory, for skin diseases, treatment of infected wounds, hepatic pains, children fever, as soporific, lactagogue, diuretic and as insecticidal. Antioxidants are vital substances, which possess the ability to protect the body from damages caused by free radical induced oxidative stress. A variety of free radical scavenging antioxidants is found in a number of dietary sources. The main objective of this study focused on the screening of antioxidant activity of Launaea nudicaulis (Asteraceae) extracts. The in vitro antioxidant activity was investigated with DPPH radical scavenging assay. The quantitative evaluation of DPPH scavenging activity showed that n-BuOH and EtOAc extracts are the most active extracts with a percentage of antiradical activity of 89,62% and 71,57% respectively.

Keywords: Sahara, phytochemical, Launaea, South Algeria, endemic specie

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4271 Insecticidal Effects of Plant Extracts of Thymus daenensis and Eucalyptus camaldulensis on Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

Authors: Afsoon Danesh Afrooz, Sohrab Imani, Ali Ahadiyat, Aref Maroof, Yahya Ostadi

Abstract:

This study has been investigated for finding alternative and safe botanical pesticides instead of chemical insecticides. The effects of plant extracts of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Thymus daenensis were tested against adult of Callosobrochus maculatus F. Experiments were carried out at 27±1°C and 60 ± 5% R. H. under dark condition with adopting a complete randomized block design. Three replicates were set up for five concentrations of each plants extract. LC50 values were determined by SPSS 16.0 software. LC50 values indicated that plant extract of Thymus daenensis with 1.708 (µl/l air) against adult was more effective than the plant extract of Eucalyptus camaldulensis with LC50 12.755 (µl/l air). It was found that plant extract of Thymus daenensis in comparison with extract of Eucalyptus camaldulensis could be used as a pesticide for control store pests.

Keywords: Eucalyptus camaldulensis, callosobruchus maculatus, insecticidal effects, Thymus daenensis

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4270 Separation of Some Pyrethroid Insecticides by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

Authors: Fairouz Tazerouti, Samira Ihadadene

Abstract:

Pyrethroids are synthetic pesticides that originated from the modification of natural pyrethrins to improve their biological activity and stability. They are a family of chiral pesticides with a large number of stereoisomers. Enantiomers of synthetic pyretroids present different insecticidal activity, toxicity against aquatic invertebrates and persistence in the environment so the development of rapid and sensitive chiral methods for the determination of different enantiomers is necessary. In this study, the separation of enantiomers of pyrethroid insecticides has been systematically studied using three commercially chiral high-performance liquid chromatography columns. Useful resolution was obtained for compounds with a variety of acid and alcohol moieties, and containing one to four chiral centres. The chromatographic behaviour of the diastereomers of some of these insecticides by using normal, polar and reversed mobile phase mode were also examined.

Keywords: Analysis, Pesticides, liquid chromatography, pyrethroids

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4269 Influence of Catharanthus roseus, Ocimum sanctum and Lantana camara Extracts on Survival and Longevity of Dysdercus koenigii

Authors: Sunil Kayesth, Kamal Kumar Gupta

Abstract:

The development of resistance among insects and pests, environmental contamination and adverse effects on non-target organisms is contributed by the indiscriminate use of chemical based insecticides. To overcome these environmental and other ecological issues that are need to replace these harmful toxic compounds. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of Catharanthus roseus, Ocimum sanctum and Lantana camara plants volatiles on survival and longevity of Dysdercus koenigii. The hexane extract and ethanol extracts of these three plants were used. The fifth instars were exposed to hexane extract with concentrations of 10%, 5%, 2.5% 1.25%, 0.1%, 0.5% 0.25%, 0.125% and 0.0625% while, adults were treated with10%, 5%, 2.5% and 1.25%. 1-ml of each of these concentrations was used to make a thin film in sterilized glass jars of 500 ml capacity. Fifteen- newly emerged fifth instar nymphs and adult bugs were treated separately with the extracts for 24- hour exposure to the plant volatiles. For ethanol extracts cottonseed were treated with ethanol extracts of 10%, 5%, 2.5% and 1.25% concentrations. The treated seeds were provided to the Dysdercus for a period of 24 hours and their feeding behaviour was observed. The effect of hexane and ethanol extract of these plants was observed and readings were recorded for 15 days. Survival and longevity of both fifth instars and adults were in correlation with the concentrations of the plant extracts. Among three plant extracts, Ocimum hexane extract was most toxic and Catharanthus was moderate while Lantana was least toxic. The ethanol extracts of Lantana was highly antifeedent while Ocimum was moderate and Catharanthus was least antifeedent. Both Catharanthus and Ocimum appeared to have potential molecules, which possessed insecticidal activity while Ocimum and Lantana showed antifeedent activities. These insecticidal and antifeedent properties may be used in IPM.

Keywords: dysdercus koenigii, Catharanthus roseus, Ocimum sanctum, Lantana camara

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4268 Storage of Maize Grains Using Powder and Oils of Commonly Used Medicinal Plants (Aframomum melegueta, Garcinia kola and Piper guineense)

Authors: T. O. Adejumo, O. S. Akinyemi

Abstract:

Powders and oils of Aframomum melegueta, Garcinia kola and Piper guineense were tested as preservatives for the storage of maize grains for four weeks. The concentrations of the powders were 32.5gkg-1, 65.0gkg-1 and 97.5gkg-1 maize, while those of oils were 0.85mlkg-1, 0.50mlkg-1 and 0.75mlkg-1 maize respectively. Powders of the three botanicals at 97.5gkg-1 maize possessed insecticidal effect on Sitophilus zeamais and also inhibitory activities on Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger and Fusarium verticillioides, while little effect was observed for other concentrations. Oils of the three botanicals at 0.50mlkg-1 and 0.75mlkg-1 maize showed an insecticidal effect on S. zeamais and also inhibitory activities on A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, F. verticillioides, Penicillium and Rhizopus species. Oils showed more potential as a protectant against fungal and insect pest in storage maize grains than powders. Powders and oils of A. melegueta, G. kola and P. guineense could be successfully used as biopesticides.

Keywords: Oils, Powder, maize, Garcinia kola, piper guineense, aframomum melegueta

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4267 Test of Biological Control against Date Moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae zeller (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) by Spinosad

Authors: Hadjeb Ayoub, Mehaoua Med Seghir, Ouakid M. Laid

Abstract:

Currently, chemical control is the only means used to control populations of the date moth (Ectomyelois ceratoniae) which is the most important and dangerous pest to palm groves in Algeria, conventional insecticides act faster, but their main drawback is it can’t be destroyed or degraded. In this context we conducted our work to explore the insecticidal activity of Spinpsad which is a bio-pesticide on the larval stages of Ectomyelois ceratoniae. The study of the effect of Spinosad on the mortality of different larval stages revealed that the doses used were significantly and positively correlated with mortality adjusted for different durations of exposure of larvae bio- pesticide. Lowest corrected mortality was observed in a short time and lethal in older larvae treated with the lowest concentration. While the higher mortality was observed in a longer duration of exposure in younger instars treated with the highest concentration.

Keywords: toxicology, Biological Control, date palm, Ectomyelois ceratoniae, Spinosad

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4266 Antioxidant Activity of the Algerian Traditional Kefir Supernatant

Authors: H. Amellal-Chibane, N. Dehdouh, S. Ait-Kaki, F. Halladj

Abstract:

Kefir is fermented milk that is produced by adding Kefir grains, consisting of bacteria and yeasts, to milk. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activity of the kefir supernatant and the raw milk. The Antioxidant activity assays of kefir supernatant and raw milk were evaluated by assessing the DPPH radical-scavenging activity. Kefir supernatant demonstrated high antioxidant activity (87.75%) compared to the raw milk (70.59 %). These results suggest that the Algerian kefir has interesting antioxidant activity.

Keywords: Raw Milk, antioxidant activity, kefir, kefir supernatant

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4265 Biological Activity of Essential Oils from Salvia nemorosa L.

Authors: Abdol-Hassan Doulah

Abstract:

In this study, antimicrobial activity of essential oil and ethyl acetate and ether extracts of S. nemorosa were examined against some species of bacteria and fungi. The essential oil of the aerial part of S. nemorosa was examined by GC and GC-MS. In the essential oil of S. nemorosa 26 Compounds have been identified. 2-Nonanone (44.09 %), 2-Undecanone (33.79 %), E-Caryophyllene (3.74 %) and 2-Decanone (2.89 %) were the main components of the essential oil. The essential oil analysis showed greatest antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis (5.3 μg/ml) and S. cerevisiae (9.3 μg/ml). The ethyl acetate showed greatest antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis (106.7 μg/ml), Candida albicans (5.3 μg/ml) and ether extract showed greatest antimicrobial activity against Klebseilla pneumoniae (10.7 μg/ml) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (10.7 μg/ml). In conclusion, we suggest that the antimicrobial activity of S. nemorosa may be due to its content of germacrene and linalool.

Keywords: Biological Activity, essential oils, antibacterial activity, antifungal activity, Salvia nemorosa L

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4264 Preparation and Evaluation of Citrus hystrix Nanoemulsion Formulation against Rice Weevil, Sitophilus oryzae

Authors: Elsayed Elmiligy, Dzolkhifili Omar, Norhayu Asib

Abstract:

Sitophilus oryzae is a primary destructive insect pest. A study on nanoemulsion formulation of C. hystrix peel oil and evaluation of its insecticidal effect on the adults of S. oryzae was held in toxicology laboratory at Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM). Three nanoemulsion formulations (F1, F2, and F3) were prepared using C. hystrix peel oil (a.i), Tween 80 (surfactant), AMD 810 (carrier) and deionized water. The selected formulations have undergone stability tests, surface tension, zeta potential and particle size measurements. The formulations were tested for their contact and fumigant activity against the adults of S. oryzae. LC₅₀ values were obtained from Probit regressions using the Polo-PC program. All the formulations showed stability under storage temperature and centrifugation. They were characterized as nanoemulsions as they remained in the range of nanoscale 200 nm. The formulations revealed lower surface tension in the range of 29.5 to 30.4 mN/m. They showed stable of zeta potential values. The formulations showed the highest toxicity against the adults of S. oryzae. The order of decreasing toxicity was F1 > F2 > F3 with LC₅₀ values of 52.1, 58.5, and 61.7 µl/l for contact toxicity, and 71, 75.5, and 76.7 µl/l air for fumigant bioassay after 72 hours. Formulation of C. hystrix peel oil in a nanoemulsion enhance its effectiveness and reduce the amount of applied essential oil.

Keywords: Nanoemulsion, Sitophilus oryzae, contact toxicity, Citrus hystrix peel oil, Fumigant bioassay

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4263 Enhancement in Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of Cuminum cyminum L. through Niosome Nanocarries

Authors: Fatemeh Haghiralsadat, Mohadese Hashemi, Elham Akhoundi Kharanaghi, Mojgan Yazdani, Mahboobe Sharafodini, Omid Javani

Abstract:

Niosomes are colloidal particles formed from the self-assembly of non-ionic surfactants in aqueous medium resulting in closed bilayer structures. As a consequence of this hydrophilic and hydrophobic structure, niosomes have the capacity to entrap compounds of different solubilities. Niosomes are promising vehicle for drug delivery which protect sensitive drugs and improve the therapeutic index of drugs by restricting their action to target cells. Essential oils are complex mixtures of volatile compounds such as terpenoids, phenol-derived aromatic components that have been used for many biological properties including bactericidal, fungicidal, insecticidal, antioxidant, anti-tyrosinase and other medicinal properties. Encapsulation of essential oils in niosomes can be an attractive method to overcome their limitation such as volatility, easily decomposition by heat, humidity, light, or oxygen. Cuminum cyminum L. (Cumin) is an aromatic plant included in the Apiaceae family and is used to flavor foods, added to fragrances, and for medical preparations which is indigenous to Egypt, the Mediterranean region, Iran and India. The major components of the Cumin oil were reported as cuminaldehyde, γ -terpinene, β-pinene, p-cymene, p-mentha-1, 3-dien-7-al, and p-mentha-1, 4-dien-7-al which provide the antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. The aim of this work was to formulate Cumin essential oil-loaded niosomes to improve water solubility of natural product and evaluate its physico-chemical features and stability. Cumin oil was obtained through steam distillation using a clevenger-type apparatus and GC/MS was applied to identify the main components of the essential oil. Niosomes were prepared by using thin film hydration method and nanoparticles were characterized for particle size, dispersity index, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency, in vitro release, and morphology.

Keywords: encapsulation, Essential Oil, cumin, niosome, Cuminum cyminum L

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4262 The Investigation of Correlation between Body Composition and Physical Activity in University Students

Authors: Ferruh Taspinar, Gulce K. Seyyar, Gamze Kurt, Eda O. Okur, Emrah Afsar, Ismail Saracoglu, Betul Taspinar

Abstract:

Alterations of physical activity can effect body composition (especially body fat ratio); however body mass index may not sufficient to indicate these minimal differences. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between body composition and physical activity in university students. In this study, 132 university students (mean age; 21.21±1.51) were included. Tanita BC-418 and International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) were used to evaluate participants. The correlation between the parameters was analysed via Spearman correlation analysis. Significance level in statistical analyses was accepted is 0.05. The results showed that there was no correlation between body mass index and physical activity (p>0.05). There was a positive correlation between body muscle ratio and physical activity, whereas a negative correlation between body fat ratio and physical activity (p<0.05). This study showed that body fat and muscle ratio affects the level of physical activity in healthy university students. Therefore, we thought that physical activity might reduce effects of the diseases caused by disturbed body composition. Further studies are required to support this idea.

Keywords: Physical Activity, Body Composition, body mass index, university student

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4261 Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Methanolic Extract of Spilanthes acmella Murr.

Authors: Wanthani Paengsri, Thanyarat Chuesaard, Napapha Promsawan

Abstract:

Spilanthes acmella Murr. was extracted with methanol, yielding methanol crude extract 5.86 %w/w. This study aimed to examine the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of methanolic crude extract. The chemical composition of methanolic crude extract was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The predominant components were found to be palmitic acid (40.08%), 2-hexadecanoyl glycerol (6.96%) and octadecanoic acid (4.06%). Antioxidant activity was determined using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical, for evaluating free radicle scavenging activity. The methanolic extract at 150 µg/mL showed an antioxidant activity with high of radical scavenging activity (75.23%).

Keywords: antioxidant activity, GC-MS analysis, Spilanthes, Phak-Kratt Hauwaen

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4260 Polyphenols Content and Antioxidant Activity of Extracts from Peganum harmala Seeds

Authors: Rachid Kacem, Sara Talbi, Yasmina Hemissi, Sofia Bouguattoucha

Abstract:

The aim of the present work is the evaluation of the antioxidant activity of the Peganum harmala (P. harmala) seeds extracts. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by applying two methods, the method of ß-carotene bleaching and DPPH (2, 2-Diphenyl-1-Picryl-Hydrazyl). Using Folin-Ciocalteu assay, these results revealed that the concentration of polyphenols in EthOH E. (122.28 ± 2.24 µg GAE/mg extract) is the highest. The antiradical activity of the P. harmala seeds extracts on DPPH was found to be dose dependent with polyphenols concentration. The E. EthOH extract showed the highest antioxidant activity (IC = 252.10 ± 11.18 μg /ml). The test of β-carotene bleaching indicates that the E. EthOH of P. harmala showed the highest percentage of the antioxidant activity (49.88 %).

Keywords: polyphenols, Flavonoids, antioxidant activity, Peganum harmala

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4259 The Effect of Solution pH of Chitosan on Antimicrobial Properties of Nylon 6,6 Fabrics

Authors: Nilüfer Yıldız Varan

Abstract:

The antimicrobial activities of chitosan against various bacteria and fungi are well known, and the antimicrobial activity of chitosan depends on pH. This study investigates the antimicrobial activity at different pH levels. Nylon 6,6 fabrics were treated with different chitosan solutions. Additionally, samples were treated also in basic conditions to see the antimicrobial activities. AATCC Test Method 100 was followed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity using Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 test inoculum. The pH of the chitosan solutions was controlled below 6.5 since chitosan shows its antimicrobial activity only in acidic conditions because of its poor solubility above 6.5. In basic conditions, the samples did not show any antimicrobial activity. It appears from SEM images that the bonded chitosan in the structures exists. In acidic media (ph < 6.5), all samples showed antimicrobial activity. No correlation was found between pH levels and antimicrobial activity in acidic media.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, chitosan, crosslinking, pH stability, nylon 6

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4258 Immune Activity of Roman Hens as Influenced by the Feed Formulated with Germinated Paddy Rice

Authors: Wirot Likittrakulwong, Pisit Poolprasert, Tossaporn Incharoen

Abstract:

Germinated paddy rice (GPR) has the potential to be used as a feed ingredient. However, their properties have not been fully investigated. This paper examined the nutrient digestibility and the relationship to immune activity in Roman hens fed with GPR. It was found that true and apparent metabolizable energy (ME) values of GPR were 3.20 and 3.28 kcal/g air dry, respectively. GPR exhibited high content of phytonutrients, especially GABA. GPR showed similar protein profiles in comparison to non-germinated paddy rice. For immune activity, the feed with GPR enhanced the immune activity of Roman hens under high stocking density stress as evidenced by the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lysozyme activity. In this study, GPR is proved to be a good source of functional ingredient for chicken feed.

Keywords: nutrient digestibility, functional property, germinated paddy rice, immune activity

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4257 Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and Enzyme Activities of Geosmithia pallida (KU693285): A Fungal Endophyte Associated with Brucea mollis Wall Ex. Kurz, an Endangered and Medicinal Plant of N. E. India

Authors: Deepanwita Deka, Dhruva Kumar Jha

Abstract:

Endophytes are the microbes that colonize living, internal tissues of plants without causing any immediate, overt negative effects. Endophytes are rich source of therapeutic substances like antimicrobial, anticancerous, herbicidal, insecticidal, immunomodulatory compounds. Brucea mollis, commonly known as Quinine in Assam, belonging to the family Simaroubaceae, is a shrub or small tree, recorded as endangered species in North East India by CAMP survey in 2003. It is traditionally being used as antimalarial and antimicrobial agent and has antiplasmodial, cytotoxic, anticancer, diuretic, cardiovascular effect etc. Being endangered and medicinal; this plant may host certain noble endophytes which need to be studied in depth. The aim of the present study was isolation and identification of potent endophytic fungi from Brucea mollis, an endangered medicinal plant, to protect it from extinction due to over use for medicinal purposes. Aseptically collected leaves, barks and roots samples of healthy plants were washed and cut into a total of 648 segments of about 2 cm long and 0.5 cm broad with sterile knife, comprising 216 segments each from leaves, barks and roots. These segments were surface sterilized using ethanol, mercuric chloride (HgCl2) and aqueous solution of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO). Different media viz., Czapeck-Dox-Agar (CDA, Himedia), Potato-Dextrose-Agar (PDA, Himedia), Malt Extract Agar (MEA, Himedia), Sabourad Dextrose Agar (SDA, Himedia), V8 juice agar, nutrient agar and water agar media and media amended with plant extracts were used separately for the isolation of the endophytic fungi. A total of 11 fungal species were recovered from leaf, bark and root tissues of B. mollis. The isolates were screened for antimicrobial, antioxidant and enzymatic activities using certain protocols. Cochliobolus geniculatus was identified as the most dominant species. The mycelia sterilia (creamy white) showing highest inhibitory activity against Candida albicans (MTCC 183) was induced to sporulate using modified PDA media. The isolate was identified as Geosmithia pallida. The internal transcribed spacer of rDNA was sequenced for confirmation of the taxonomic identity of the sterile mycelia (creamy white). The internal transcribed spacer r-DNA sequence was submitted to the NCBI (KU693285) for the first time from India. G. pallida and Penicillium showed highest antioxidant activity among all the isolates. The antioxidant activity of G. pallida and Penicillium didn’t show statistically significant difference (P˃0.05). G. pallida, Cochliobolus geniculatus and P. purpurogenum respectively showed highest cellulase, amylase and protease activities. Thus, endopytic fungal isolates may be used as potential natural resource of pharmaceutical importance. The endophytic fungi, Geosmithia pallida, may be used for synthesis of pharmaceutically important natural products and consequently can replace plants hitherto used for the same purpose. This study suggests that endophytes should be investigated more aggressively to better understand the endophyte biology of B. mollis.

Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, Enzyme Activity, antioxidant activity, endophytic fungi, Brucea mollis, Geosmithia pallida

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