Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 91

Search results for: golden shower

91 Growth, Yield and Pest Infestation Response of Maize (Zea mays Linn.) to Biopesticide

Authors: Sombat Chuenchooklin, Udomporn Pangnakorn, Settawut Prasatporn

Abstract:

The effect of biopesticide on growth, yield and pest infestation of maize (Zea mays Linn.) (variety DK 6818) was evaluated during the drought season. The experimental plots were located at research station of Faculty of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Environment, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok, Thailand. The extracted substance from plants was evaluated in the plots in 4 treatments: 1) water as control; 2) bitter bush (Chromolaena odorata L.); 3) neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss), 4) golden shower (Cassia fistula Linn.). The experiment was followed a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with 4 treatments and 4 replications per treatment. The results showed that golden shower gave the highest growth of maize in term of height (203.29 cm), followed by neem and bitter bush with average height of 202.66 cm and 191.66 cm respectively with significance different. But neem treatment given significantly higher average of yield component in term of length, width, and weight of pod corn with 18.89 cm 13.91 cm and 166.46 g respectively. Also, treatment of neem showed the highest harvested yield at 284.06 kg/ha followed by the golden shower and bitter bush with harvested yield at 245.86 kg/ha and 235.52 kg/ha respectively. Additionally, treatment of neem and golden shower were the highest effectiveness for reducing insects pest infestation of maize: corn leaf aphid Rhopalosiphum maidis Fitch, corn borer Ostrinia fumacalis Guenee and corn armyworm Mythimna separata Walker. The treatment of neem, golden shower, and bitter bush given reduction insect infestation on maize with leaves area were infested at 5,412 mm², 6,827 mm² and 8,910 mm² respectively with significance different when compared to control.

Keywords: maize, biopesticide, Zea mays Linn, bitter bush, Chromolaena odorata L.), neem, Azadirachta indica A. Juss, golden shower, Cassia fistula Linn

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90 Application of Golden Ratio in Contemporary Textile Industry and Its Effect on Consumer Preferences

Authors: Abdul Hafeez, Rafia Asghar

Abstract:

This research aims to determine the influence of Fibonacci numbers and golden ratio through textile designs. This study was carried out by collecting a variety of designs from different textile industries. Top textile designers were also interviewed regarding golden ratio and its application on their designs and design execution process. This study revealed that most of the designs fulfilled the golden ratio and the designs that were according to golden ratio were more favorite to the consumers.

Keywords: Designs, Textile design, golden ratio, Fibonacci numbers

Procedia PDF Downloads 561
89 Probing Extensive Air Shower Primaries and Their Interactions by Combining Individual Muon Tracks and Shower Depth

Authors: Moon Moon Devi, Ran Budnik

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The current large area cosmic ray detector surface arrays typically measure only the net flux and arrival-time of the charged particles produced in an extensive air shower (EAS). Measurement of the individual charged particles at a surface array will provide additional distinguishing parameters to identify the primary and to map the very high energy interactions in the upper layers of the atmosphere. In turn, these may probe anomalies in QCD interactions at energies beyond the reach of current accelerators. The recent attempts of studying the individual muon tracks are limited in their expandability to larger arrays and can only probe primary particles with energy up to about 10^15.5 eV. New developments in detector technology allow for a realistic cost of large area detectors, however with limitations on energy resolutions, directional information, and dynamic range. In this study, we perform a simulation study using CORSIKA to combine the energy spectrum and lateral spread of the muons with the longitudinal depth (Xmax) of an EAS initiated by a primary at ultra high energies (10¹⁶ – 10¹⁹) eV. Using proton and iron as the shower primaries, we show that the muon observables and Xmax together can be used to distinguish the primary. This study can be used to design a future detector for the surface array, which will be able to enhance our knowledge of primaries and QCD interactions.

Keywords: ultra high energy extensive air shower, muon tracking, air shower primaries, QCD interactions

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88 Evaluation of the Golden Proportion and Golden Standard of Maxillary Anterior Teeth in Relation to Smile Attractiveness

Authors: Marwan Ahmed Swileh, Amal Hussein Abuaffan

Abstract:

Objective: This study aimed to explore the existence of golden proportion (GP) between the widths of maxillary anterior teeth and golden standard (GS) for width to height ratio of maxillary central incisor in individuals with attractive and non-attractive smiles. Materials and methods: A total of 82 females were recruited and divided into 2 groups: attractive smile (n= 41) and non-attractive smile (n= 41). Frontal photographs were taken, scanned, and saved on a personal computer. The apparent mesiodistal width of each anterior tooth was measured. The data were analyzed using the appropriate statistical tests at p-value < 0.05. Results: Frequency of GP was very low among the total sample, and most proportions were higher than GP. No significant differences were found between both groups in relation to central-to-lateral ratio while significant differences were found in relation to canine-to-lateral ratio. Similarly, most proportions of width to height ratio were higher than GS. Difference between groups was significant for left side and for both sides (p < 0.05) but was not for right side (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Frequency of golden proportion was very low among the study population. Smile attractiveness is not related that much to the proportions between the teeth.

Keywords: esthetic, golden proportion, golden standard, attractive smile, anterior teeth

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87 Golden Brain Theory (GBT) for Language Learning

Authors: Tapas Karmaker

Abstract:

Centuries ago, we came to know about ‘Golden Ratio’ also known as Golden Angle. The idea of this research is based on this theme. Researcher perceives ‘The Golden Ratio’ in terms of harmony, meaning that every single item in the universe follows a harmonic behavior. In case of human being, brain responses easily and quickly to this harmony to help memorization. In this theory, harmony means a link. This study has been carried out on a segment of school students and a segment of common people for a period of three years from 2003 to 2006. The research in this respect intended to determine the impact of harmony in the brain of these people. It has been found that students and common people can increase their memorization capacity as much as 70 times more by applying this method. This method works faster and better between age of 8 and 30 years. This result was achieved through tests to assess memorizing capacity by using tools like words, rhymes, texts, math and drawings. The research concludes that this harmonic method can be applied for improving the capacity of learning languages, for the better quality of lifestyle, or any other terms of life as well as in professional activity.

Keywords: Education, Learning, Teaching, Language, golden brain

Procedia PDF Downloads 94
86 Concept and Implementation of Religious Tourism as a City Icon; Case Study: Golden Dome Mosque in Depok, Indonesia

Authors: Azhari Fauzan

Abstract:

Dian Al Mahri Mosque or more known as Golden Dome Mosque is one of the biggest mosques in Southeast Asia which located in Depok, West Java Province, Indonesia. Instead of a place for praying, this beautiful Mosque is also becoming an icon of Depok for religious tourism destination. The purpose of this study is to understand the concept and objective of religious tourism, also how to be implemented as an icon of the city. As a qualitative method, the data was collected by direct interview with three of the most influential persons: K. H. Amirudin Said S. Q. MA as a Manager of the Mosque, K. H. Dr. Mohammad Idris, MA as a Major of Depok, and Mulyamto as a Head of Tourism Department of Depok. As a result, Golden Dome Mosque involves three integrated aspects (social, economic, and cultural) which can be implemented to evaluate their daily activities and services in order to define themselves as a religious tourism destination.

Keywords: Religious Tourism, city icon, golden mosque, Muslim Indonesia

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
85 Application of Intelligent City and Hierarchy Intelligent Buildings in Kuala Lumpur

Authors: Zurinah Tahir, Jalalludin Abdul Malek

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When the Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC) was launched in 1995, it became the catalyst for the implementation of the intelligent city concept, an area that covers about 15 x 50 kilometres from Kuala Lumpur City Centre (KLCC), Putrajaya and Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA). The concept of intelligent city means that the city has an advanced infrastructure and infostructure such as information technology, advanced telecommunication systems, electronic technology and mechanical technology to be utilized for the development of urban elements such as industries, health, services, transportation and communications. For example, the Golden Triangle of Kuala Lumpur has also many intelligent buildings developed by the private sector such as the KLCC Tower to implement the intelligent city concept. Consequently, the intelligent buildings in the Golden Triangle can be linked directly to the Putrajaya Intelligent City and Cyberjaya Intelligent City within the confines of the MSC. However, the reality of the situation is that there are not many intelligent buildings within the Golden Triangle Kuala Lumpur scope which can be considered of high-standard intelligent buildings as referred to by the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) building standard. This increases the need to implement the real ‘intelligent city’ concept. This paper aims to show the strengths and weaknesses of the intelligent buildings in the Golden Triangle by taking into account aspects of 'intelligence' in the areas of technology and infrastructure of buildings.

Keywords: intelligent building, intelligent city concepts, Golden Triangle, Kuala Lumpur

Procedia PDF Downloads 131
84 Evaluation of Golden Beam Data for the Commissioning of 6 and 18 MV Photons Beams in Varian Linear Accelerator

Authors: Shoukat Ali, Abdul Qadir Jandga, Amjad Hussain

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Objective: The main purpose of this study is to compare the Percent Depth dose (PDD) and In-plane and cross-plane profiles of Varian Golden beam data to the measured data of 6 and 18 MV photons for the commissioning of Eclipse treatment planning system. Introduction: Commissioning of treatment planning system requires an extensive acquisition of beam data for the clinical use of linear accelerators. Accurate dose delivery require to enter the PDDs, Profiles and dose rate tables for open and wedges fields into treatment planning system, enabling to calculate the MUs and dose distribution. Varian offers a generic set of beam data as a reference data, however not recommend for clinical use. In this study, we compared the generic beam data with the measured beam data to evaluate the reliability of generic beam data to be used for the clinical purpose. Methods and Material: PDDs and Profiles of Open and Wedge fields for different field sizes and at different depths measured as per Varian’s algorithm commissioning guideline. The measurement performed with PTW 3D-scanning water phantom with semi-flex ion chamber and MEPHYSTO software. The online available Varian Golden Beam Data compared with the measured data to evaluate the accuracy of the golden beam data to be used for the commissioning of Eclipse treatment planning system. Results: The deviation between measured vs. golden beam data was in the range of 2% max. In PDDs, the deviation increases more in the deeper depths than the shallower depths. Similarly, profiles have the same trend of increasing deviation at large field sizes and increasing depths. Conclusion: Study shows that the percentage deviation between measured and golden beam data is within the acceptable tolerance and therefore can be used for the commissioning process; however, verification of small subset of acquired data with the golden beam data should be mandatory before clinical use.

Keywords: Symmetry‎, percent depth dose, flatness, golden beam data

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83 DOA Estimation Using Golden Section Search

Authors: Sandeep Santosh, Niharika Verma

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DOA technique is a localization technique used in the communication field. Various algorithms have been developed for direction of arrival estimation like MUSIC, ROOT MUSIC, etc. These algorithms depend on various parameters like antenna array elements, number of snapshots and various others. Basically the MUSIC spectrum is evaluated and peaks obtained are considered as the angle of arrivals. The angles evaluated using this process depends on the scanning interval chosen. The accuracy of the results obtained depends on the coarseness of the interval chosen. In this paper, golden section search is applied to the MUSIC algorithm and therefore, more accurate results are achieved. Initially the coarse DOA estimations is done using the MUSIC algorithm in the range -90 to 90 degree at the interval of 10 degree. After the peaks obtained then fine DOA estimation is done using golden section search. Also, the partitioning method is applied to estimate the number of signals incident on the antenna array. Dependency of the algorithm on the number of snapshots is also being explained. Hence, the accurate results are being determined using this algorithm.

Keywords: Music, Direction of Arrival (DOA), golden section search, number of snapshots

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
82 Exact Phase Diagram of High-TC Superconductors

Authors: Abid Boudiar

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We propose a simple model to obtain an exact expression of Tc/(Tc,max) for the temperature-doping phase diagram of superconducting cuprates. We showed that our model predicted most phase diagram scenario. We found the exact special doping points p(opt), p(qcp) and an accurate E(g,max). Some other properties such as the stripes length 100.1°A and the energy gap in cuprates chain 6meV can also be calculated exactly. Another interesting consequence of this simple picture is the new magic numbers and the ability to express everything using a (Tc,p) diagram via the golden ratio.

Keywords: Phase, golden ratio, superconducting cuprates, pseudogap, hole doping, strips, soliton

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
81 The Effect of Ultrasound as Pre-Treatment for Drying of Red Delicious and Golden Delicious Apples

Authors: Gulcin Yildiz

Abstract:

Drying (dehydration) is the process of removing water from food in order to preserve the food and an alternative to reduce post-harvest loss of fruits. Different pre-treatment methods have been developed for fruit drying, such as ultrasound. If no pre-treatment is done, the fruits will continue to darken after they are dried. However, the effects of ultrasound as pre-treatment on drying of apples has not been well documented. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of ultrasound as pre-treatment before oven drying of red delicious and golden delicious apples. Red delicious and golden delicious apples were dried in different temperatures. Before performing drying experiments in an oven at 50, 75 and 100 °C, ultrasound as pretreatment was applied in 5, 10, and 15 minutes. Colors of the dried apples were measured with a Minolta Chroma Meter CR-300 (Minolta Camera Co. Ltd., Osaka, Japan) by directly holding the device vertically to the surface of the samples. Content of total phenols was determined spectrophotometrically with the FolinCiocalteau assay, and the antioxidant capacity was evaluated by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The samples (both red delicious and golden delicious apples) with longer ultrasound treatment produced higher weight loss due to the changes in tissue structure. However less phenolic content and antioxidant capacity were observed for the samples with longer ultrasound pre-treatment. The highest total phenolic content (TPC) was determined in dried apples at 75 °C with 5 minutes pre-treatment ultrasound and the lowest TPC was determined in dried apples at 50 °C with 15 minutes pre-treatment ultrasound which was subjected to the longest ultrasound pre-treatment and drying. The combination of 5 min of ultrasound pre-treatment and 75 °C of oven-drying showed to be the best combination for an energy efficient process. This combination exhibited good antioxidant properties as well. The present study clearly demonstrated that applying ultrasound as pre-treatment for drying of apples is an effective process in terms of quality of dried products, time, and energy.

Keywords: Ultrasound, total phenolic content, golden delicious apples, red delicious apples

Procedia PDF Downloads 133
80 Comparison of Oven and Microwave Drying on Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Activities of Red Delicious and Golden Delicious Apples

Authors: Gulcin Yildiz, Gokcen Izli

Abstract:

Drying (dehydration) is the process of removing water from food in order to preserve the food. Drying is one of the oldest methods known for the preservation of agricultural products such as fruits and vegetables. Drying of agricultural products enhances their storage life, minimizes losses during storage, and save shipping and transportation costs. Apples are considered excellent candidates for drying. The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of microwave and oven processing on the quality of selected apple products. Red delicious and golden delicious apples were washed, peeled, and sliced. Drying experiments were performed in an oven at 50, 75 and 100 °C and in a microwave at 140 W and 210 W. Quality attributes such as color, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of dried samples with different methods were compared with the fresh sample. A Minolta CR-300 Chroma Meter was used to examine color changes in the apples. Total phenolic content was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. The free radical scavenging activity of the extract was determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). It was found that the phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities of dried samples under all drying conditions were decreased compared to the fresh samples. The phenolic contents of microwave dried samples at 140 W and 210 W for both red and golden delicious apples were higher than those of the oven drying at 50, 75 and 100 °C. Similarly, the antioxidant activities of microwave dried samples at 140 W and 210 W were higher than those of the oven drying at 50, 75 and 100 °C for both types of apples. All color parameters (L*, a*, b*) were changed significantly depending on the drying methods and temperatures. The closest color values to the fresh sample were found for the microwave dried samples at 140 W. Microwave drying was proven to be more effective than oven drying.

Keywords: Microwave, Color, Antioxidant Capacity, total phenolic content, golden delicious, red delicious

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79 Malaysian Retirement Savings Behavior

Authors: Haneffa M. G.

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Retirement preparedness among Malaysian working individuals found to be poor. Prior research proven women consistently have lower retirement confidence as compared to men. Retirement planning still become the vague issues due to saving for the golden years are being stepsided by many people. Most of them think that their contributions in companies and government retirement plan is enough to comfort them in their golden years. The Employee Provident Fund (EPF) claims that most of nearly retired person have inadequate fund to retire. Therefore, this paper aims to discuss the saving behavior of younger cohort of working individuals towards retirement planning in Malaysia. A theoretical framework is developed to understand the relationship between demographic characteristics, financial education, goal clarity, perceived religiosity and retirement savings behavior.

Keywords: Retirement Planning, Malaysia, savings behavior, perceived religiosity, goal clarity

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
78 Effect of Nitrogen and Gibberellic Acid at Different Level and their Interaction on Calendula

Authors: Pragnyashree Mishra, Shradhanjali Mohapatra

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The present investigation is carried out to know the effect of foliar feeding of nitrogen and gibberellic acid on vegetative growth, flowering behaviour and yield of calendula variety ‘Golden Emporer’. The experiment was laid out in RBD in rabi season of 2013-14. There are 16 treatments are taken at different level such as nitrogen (at 0%,1%,2%,3%) and GA3 (at 50 ppm,100ppm,150 ppm). Among them maximum height at bud initiation stage was obtained at 3% nitrogen (27.00 cm) and at 150 ppm GA3 (26.5 cm), fist flowering was obtained at 3% nitrogen(60.00 days) and at 150 ppm GA3 (63.75 days), maximum flower stalk length was obtained at 3% nitrogen(3.50 cm) and at 150 ppm GA3 (5.42 cm),maximum duration of flowering was obtained at 3% nitrogen(46.00 days) and at 150 ppm GA3 (46.50days), maximum number of flower was obtained at 3% nitrogen (89.00per plant) and at 150 ppm GA3 (83.50 per plant), maximum flower weight was obtained at 3% nitrogen(1.25 gm per flower) and at 150 ppm GA3 (1.50 gm per flower), maximum yield was was obtained at 3% nitrogen (110.00 gm per plant) and at 150 ppm GA3 (105.00gm per plant) and minimum of all character was obtained when 0% nitrogen0 ppm GA3. All interaction between nitrogen and GA3 was found in significant except the yield .

Keywords: calendula, golden emporer, GA3, nitrogen and gibberellic acid

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77 Reactive Sputter Deposition of Titanium Nitride on Silicon Using a Magnetized Sheet Plasma Source

Authors: Janella Salamania, Marcedon Fernandez, Matthew Villanueva Henry Ramos

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Titanium nitrite (TiN) a popular functional and decorative coating because of its golden yellow color, high hardness and superior wear resistance. It is also being studied as a diffusion barrier in integrated circuits due to its known chemical stability and low resistivity. While there have been numerous deposition methods done for TiN, most required the heating of substrates at high temperatures. In this work, TiN films are deposited on silicon (111) and (100) substrates without substrate heating using a patented magnetized sheet plasma source. Films were successfully deposited without substrate heating at various target bias, while maintaining a constant 25% N2 to Ar ratio, and deposition of time of 30 minutes. The resulting films exhibited a golden yellow color which is characteristic of TiN. X-ray diffraction patterns show the formation of TiN predominantly oriented in the (111) direction regardless of substrate used. EDX data also confirms the 1:1 stoichiometry of titanium an nitrogen. Ellipsometry measurements estimate the thickness to range from 28 nm to 33 nm. SEM images were also taken to observe the morphology of the film.

Keywords: Coatings, Thin Films, Nitrides, reactive magnetron sputtering

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
76 Characteristics of Oak Mushroom Cultivar, Bambithyang Developed by Golden Seed Project

Authors: Yeongseon Jang, Rhim Ryoo, Young-Ae Park, Kang-Hyeon Ka, Donha Choi, Sung-Suk Lee

Abstract:

Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler, oak mushroom, is one of the most largely produced mushrooms in the world. To increase the competitiveness of Korean oak mushroom, golden seed project is ongoing. In this project, we develop new oak mushroom varieties to increase its productivity, quality, disease resistance, and so on. Through the project, new oak mushroom cultivar, Bambithyang was developed by mono-mono hybridization method. The optimum temperature for mycelial growth was at 25°C on potato dextrose agar (PDA) media. For the mass production test, it was cultivated using sawdust media with sawdust block type for 100 days. The temperature for primordia formation and fruit body production was broad (between 11°C and 20°C) which is good for spring and fall. Each flush period lasted for 6-7 days and the highest fruit body production was recorded in the first flush. The fruiting is sporadic. The pileus was deep brown. Its diameter was 69.2 mm and width was 17.8 mm. The stipe was ivory. It was 14.7 mm thick and 54.7 mm long. We would continue to develop new varieties while increasing the market share of domestic spawn with this variety.

Keywords: Lentinula edodes, mono-mono hybridization, new cultivar, oak mushroom

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75 Role of Physical Properties of Maize Grains Towards Resistance to Sitotroga Cerealella (OLIV.) (Gelechiidae: Lepidoptera) in No Choice

Authors: Sohail Ahmed, Ahmad Raza

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Physical properties of maize grains were correlated with levels of the life history of Sitotroga cerealella (Oliv.) (Gelechiidae: Lepidoptera) in no choice test to find out relative resistance in different varieties. Eight maize varieties /lines (EV-6089, Sahiwal-2002, Golden, 34N43, EV-1098, Sultan, China-1, EV-20) including seven yellow and one white were obtained from Maize and Millet Research Institute, Yousaf Wala, Sahiwal, Punjab, Pakistan. Freshly laid eggs (one day old) of S. cerealella were obtained and cultured on a susceptible maize variety for two generations for later on shifting to test varieties. Results showed that maximum moth emergence (10.33), fecundity (35.66), hatching (87.66%), moth weight (5.05 mg), development time (36.0 days) damage (93.35%) and grain weight loss (38.84%) was found in varieties, 34N43 and Golden, Sultan, Sahiwal 2002, 34N43, EV-6089, 34N43 and EV-1089, respectively. Varieties had significant difference with other varieties in these parameters (P<0.05). The varieties had positive as well as negative correlation between hardness index, grain weight and bulk density with the biological parameters of S. cerealella, percent grain damage and weight loss. Possible involvement of these grain properties in the resistance of maize grains towards S. cerealella is discussed.

Keywords: maize, varieties, sitotroga cerealella, hardness index, grain damage

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74 Quest for Literary Past: A Study of Byatt’s Possession

Authors: Chen Jun

Abstract:

Antonia Susan Byatt’s Possession: A Romance has been misread as a postmodern pastiche novel since its publication because there are epics, epigraphs, lyrics, fairy tales, epistles, and even critical articles swollen in this work. The word ‘pastiche’ suggests messy, disorganized, and chaotic, which buries its artistic excellence while overlooking its subtitle, A Romance. The center of romance is the quest that the hero sets forth to conquer the adversity, hardship, and danger to accomplish a task to prove his identity or social worth. This paper argues that Byatt’s Possession is not a postmodern pastiche novel but rather a postmodern romance in which the characters in the academic world set forth their quest into the Victorian literary past that is nostalgically identified by Byatt as the Golden Age of English literature. In doing so, these five following issues are addressed: first, the origin of the protagonist Roland, and consequently, the nature of his quest; second, the central image of the dragon created by the fictional Victorian poet Henry Ash; third, Melusine as an image of female serpent created by the fictional Victorian poet Christabel LaMotte; fourth, the images of the two ladies; last, the image of water that links the dragon and the serpent. In Possession, the past is reinvented not as an unfortunate fall but as a Golden Age presented in the imaginative academic adventure. The dragon, a stereotypical symbol of evil, becomes the symbol of life in Byatt’s work, which parallels with the image of the mythical phoenix that can resurrect from its own ash. At the same time, the phoenix symbolizes Byatt’s efforts to revive the Victorian poetic art that is supposed to be dead in the post-capitalism society when the novel is the dominating literary genre and poetry becomes the minority. The fictional Victorian poet Ash is in fact Byatt’s own poetic mask through which she breathes life into the lost poetic artistry in the postmodern era.

Keywords: possession, Byatt, postmodern romance, literary past

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73 Effect of Supply Frequency on Pre-Breakdown and Breakdown Phenomena in Unbridged Vacuum Gaps

Authors: T.C. Balachandra, Habibuddin Shaik

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This paper presents experimental results leading towards a better understanding of pre-breakdown and breakdown behavior of vacuum gaps under variable frequency alternating excitations. The frequency variation is in the range of 30 to 300 Hz in steps of 10 Hz for a fixed gap spacing of 0.5 mm. The results indicate that the pre-breakdown currents show an inverse relation with the breakdown voltage in general though erratic behavior was observed over a certain range of frequencies. A breakdown voltage peak was observed at 130 Hz. This was pronounced when the electrode pair was of stainless steel and less pronounced when copper and aluminum electrodes were used. The experimental results are explained based on F-N emission, I-F emission, and also thermal interaction due to quasi-continuous shower of anode micro-particles. Further, it is speculated that the ostensible cause for time delay between voltage and current peaks is due to the presence of neutral molecules in the gap.

Keywords: anode hot-spots, F-N emission, I-F emission, microparticle, neutral molecules, pre-breakdown conduction, vacuum breakdown

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72 Morphology, Qualitative, and Quantitative Elemental Analysis of Pheasant Eggshells in Thailand

Authors: Mayuree Pumipaiboon, Kalaya Sribuddhachart, Mayuva Youngsabanant-Areekijseree

Abstract:

The ultrastructure of 20 species of pheasant eggshells in Thailand, (Simese Fireback, Lophura diardi), (Silver Pheasant, Lophura nycthemera), (Kalij Pheasant, Lophura leucomelanos crawfurdii), (Kalij Pheasant, Lophura leucomelanos lineata), (Red Junglefowl, Gallus gallus spadiceus), (Crested Fireback, Lophura ignita rufa), (Green Peafowl, Pavo muticus), (Indian Peafowl, Pavo cristatus), (Grey Peacock Pheasant, Polyplectron bicalcaratum bicalcaratum), (Lesser Bornean Fireback, Lophura ignita ignita), (Green Junglefowl, Gallus varius), (Hume's Pheasant, Syrmaticus humiae humiae), (Himalayan Monal, Lophophorus impejanus), Golden Pheasant, Chrysolophus pictus, (Ring-Neck Pheasant, Phasianus sp.), (Reeves’s Pheasant, Syrmaticus reevesi), (Polish Chicken, Gallus sp.), (Brahma Chicken, Gallus sp.), (Yellow Golden Pheasant, Chrysolophus pictus luteus), and (Lady Amhersts Pheasant, Chrysolophus amherstiae) were studied by Secondary electron imaging (SEI) and Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) detectors of scanning electron microscope. Generally, all pheasant eggshells showed 3 layers of cuticle, palisade, and mammillary. The total thickness was ranging from 190.28±5.94-838.96±16.31µm. The palisade layer is the most thickness layer following by mammillary and cuticle layers. The palisade layer in all pheasant eggshells consisted of numerous vesicle holes that were firmly forming as network thorough the layer. The vesicle holes in all pheasant eggshells had difference porosity ranging from 0.44±0.11-0.23±0.05 µm. While the mammillary layer was the most compact layer with a variable shape (broad-base V and U-shape) connect to shell membrane. Elemental analysis by of 20 specie eggshells showed 9 apparent elements including carbon (C), oxygen (O), calcium (Ca), phosphorous (P), sulfur (S), magnesium (Mg), silicon (Si), aluminum (Al), and copper (Cu) at the percentage of 28.90- 8.33%, 60.64-27.61%, 55.30-14.49%, 1.97-0.03%, 0.08-0.03%, 0.50-0.16%, 0.30-0.04%, 0.06-0.02%, and 2.67-1.73%, respectively. It was found that Ca, C, and O showed highest elemental compositions, which essential for pheasant embryonic development, mainly presented as composited structure of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) more than 97%. Meanwhile, Mg, S, Si, Al, and P were major inorganic constituents of the eggshells which directly related to an increase of the shell hardness. Finally, the percentage of heavy metal copper (Cu) has been observed in 4 eggshell species. There are Golden Pheasant (2.67±0.16%), Indian Peafowl (2.61±0.13%), Green Peafowl (1.97±0.74%), and Silver Pheasant (1.73±0.11%), respectively. A non-significant difference was found in the percentages of 9 elements in all pheasant eggshells. This study is useful to provide the information of biology and taxonomic of pheasant study in Thailand for conservation.

Keywords: Morphology, Thailand, pheasants eggshells, secondary electron imaging (SEI) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX)

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71 The Golden Bridge for Better Farmers Life

Authors: Giga Rahmah An-Nafisah, Lailatus Syifa Kamilah

Abstract:

Agriculture today, especially in Indonesia have globally improved. Since the election of the new president, who in the program of work priority the food self-sufficiency. Many ways and attempts have been planned carefully. All this is done to maximize agricultural production for the future. But if we look from another side, there is something missing. Yes! Improvement of life safety of the farmers, useless we fix all agricultural processing systems to maximize agricultural output, but the Hero of agriculture itself it does not change towards a better life. Yes, broker or middleman system agriculture results. Broker system or middleman this is the real problem facing farmers for their welfare. How come? As much as agriculture result, but if farmers were sell into middlemen with very low prices, then there will be no progress for their welfare. Broker system who do the actual middlemen should not happen in the current agricultural system, because the agriculture condition currently being concern, they would still be able to reap a profit as much as possible, no matter how miserable farmers manage the farm and currently face import competition this cannot be avoided anymore. This phenomenon is already visible plain sight all, who see it. Why? Because farmers those who fell victim cannot do anything to change this system. It is true, if only these middlemen who want to receive it for the sale of agricultural products, or arguably the only system that is the bridge realtor economic life of the farmers. The problem is that we should strive for the welfare of the heroes of our food. A golden bridge that could save them that, are the government. Why? Because the government can more easily with the powers to stop this broker system compared to other parties. The government supposed to be a bridge connecting the farmers with consumers or the people themselves. Yes, with improved broker system becomes: buy agricultural produce with highest prices to farmers and selling of agricultural products with lowest price to the consumer or the people themselves. And then the next question about the fate of middlemen? The system indirectly realtor is like system corruption. Why? Because the definition of corruption is an activity that is detrimental to the victim without being noticed by anyone continue to enrich himself and his victim's life miserable. Government may transfer performance of the middlemen into the idea of a new bridge that is done by the government itself. The government could lift them into this new bridge system employs them to remain a distributor of agricultural products themselves, but under the new policy made by the government to keep improving the welfare of farmers. This idea is made is not going to have much effect would improve the welfare of farmers, but most/least this idea will bring around many people for helping conscience farmers to the government, through the daily chatter, as well as celebrity gossip can quickly know too many people.

Keywords: Government, Agricultural Economics, broker system, farmers live

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70 Calcitriol Improves Plasma Lipoprotein Profile by Decreasing Plasma Total Cholesterol and Triglyceride in Hypercholesterolemic Golden Syrian Hamsters

Authors: Zhen-Yu Chen, Xiaobo Wang

Abstract:

Higher plasma total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) are independent risk factors of cardiovascular disease while high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is protective. Vitamin D is well-known for its regulatory role in calcium homeostasis. Its potential important role in cardiovascular disease has recently attracted much attention. This study was conducted to investigate effects of different dosage of calcitriol on plasma lipoprotein profile and the underlying mechanism. Sixty male Syrian Golden hamsters were randomly divided into 6 groups: no-cholesterol control (NCD), high-cholesterol control (HCD), groups with calcitriol supplementation at 10/20/40/80ng/kg body weight (CA, CB, CC, CD), respectively. Calcitriol in medium-chain triacylglycerol (MCT) oil was delivered to four experimental groups via oral gavage every other day, while NCD and HCD received MCT oil in the equivalent amount. NCD hamsters were fed with non-cholesterol diet while other five groups were maintained on diet containing 0.2% cholesterol to induce a hypercholesterolemic condition. The treatment lasts for 6 weeks followed by sample collection after hamsters sacrificed. Four experimental groups experienced a reduction in average food intake around 11% compared to HCD with slight decrease in body weight (not exceeding 10%). This reduction reflects on the deceased relative weights of testis, epididymal and perirenal adipose tissue in a dose-dependent manner. Plasma calcitriol levels were measured and was corresponding to oral gavage. At the end of week 6, lipoprotein profiles were improved with calcitriol supplementation with TC, non-HDL-C and plasma triglyceride (TG) decreased in a dose-dependent manner (TC: r=0.373, p=0.009, non-HDL-C: r=0.479, p=0.001, TG: r=0.405, p=0.004). Since HDL-C of four experiment groups showed no significant difference compared to HCD, the ratio of nHDL-C to HDL-C and HDL-C to TC had been restored in a dose-dependent manner. For hamsters receiving the highest level of calcitriol (80ng/kg) showed a reduction of TC by 11.5%, nHDL-C by 24.1% and TG by 31.25%. Little difference was found among six groups on the acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation or contraction of thoracic aorta. To summarize, calcitriol supplementation in hamster at maximum 80ng/kg body weight for 6 weeks lead to an overall improvement in plasma lipoprotein profile with decreased TC and TG level. The molecular mechanism of its effects is under investigation.

Keywords: cholesterol, vitamin D, calcitriol, hamster

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69 Energy Deposited by Secondary Electrons Generated by Swift Proton Beams through Polymethylmethacrylate

Authors: Maurizio Dapor, Isabel Abril, Pablo de Vera, Rafael Garcia-Molina

Abstract:

The ionization yield of ion tracks in polymers and bio-molecular systems reaches a maximum, known as the Bragg peak, close to the end of the ion trajectories. Along the path of the ions through the materials, many electrons are generated, which produce a cascade of further ionizations and, consequently, a shower of secondary electrons. Among these, very low energy secondary electrons can produce damage in the biomolecules by dissociative electron attachment. This work deals with the calculation of the energy distribution of electrons produced by protons in a sample of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), a material that is used as a phantom for living tissues in hadron therapy. PMMA is also of relevance for microelectronics in CMOS technologies and as a photoresist mask in electron beam lithography. We present a Monte Carlo code that, starting from a realistic description of the energy distribution of the electrons ejected by protons moving through PMMA, simulates the entire cascade of generated secondary electrons. By following in detail the motion of all these electrons, we find the radial distribution of the energy that they deposit in PMMA for several initial proton energies characteristic of the Bragg peak.

Keywords: monte carlo method, secondary electrons, energetic ions, ion-beam cancer therapy, ionization cross section, polymethylmethacrylate, proton beams, radial energy distribution

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68 Major Incident Tier System in the Emergency Department: An Approach

Authors: Catherine Bernard, Paul Ransom

Abstract:

Recent events have prompted emergency planners to re-evaluate their emergency response to major incidents and mass casualties. At the Royal Sussex County Hospital, we have adopted a tiered system comprised of three levels, anticipating an increasing P1, P2 or P3 load. This will aid planning in the golden period between Major Incident ‘Standby,’ and ‘Declared’. Each tier offers step-by-step instructions on appropriate patient movement within and out of the department, as well as suggestions for overflow areas and additional staffing levels. This system can be adapted to individual hospitals and provides concise instructions to be followed in a potentially overwhelming situation.

Keywords: Emergency Preparedness, disaster planning, major incident planning, mass casualty event

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67 1D PIC Simulation of Cold Plasma Electrostatic Waves beyond Wave-Breaking Limit

Authors: Prabal Singh Verma

Abstract:

Electrostatic Waves in plasma have emerged as a new source for the acceleration of charged particles. The accelerated particles have a wide range of applications, for example in cancer therapy to cutting and melting of hard materials. The maximum acceleration can only be achieved when the amplitude of the plasma wave stays below a critical limit known as wave-breaking amplitude. Beyond this limit amplitude of the wave diminishes dramatically as the coherent energy of the wave starts to convert into random kinetic energy. In this work, spatiotemporal evolution of non-relativistic electrostatic waves in a cold plasma has been studied in the wave-breaking regime using a 1D particle-in-cell simulation (PIC). It is found that plasma gets heated after the wave-breaking but a fraction of initial energy always remains with the remnant wave in the form of Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal (BGK) mode in warm plasma. Another interesting finding of this work is that the frequency of the resultant BGK wave is found be below electron plasma frequency which decreases with increasing initial amplitude and the acceleration mechanism after the wave-breaking is also found to be different from the previous work. In order to explain the results observed in the numerical experiments, a simplified theoretical model is constructed which exhibits a good agreement with the simulation. In conclusion, it is shown in this work that electrostatic waves get shower after the wave-breaking and a fraction of initial coherent energy always remains with remnant wave. These investigations have direct relevance in wakefield acceleration experiments.

Keywords: longitudinal, nonlinear plasma waves, wave-breaking, wake-field acceleration

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66 A Sensitive Approach on Trace Analysis of Methylparaben in Wastewater and Cosmetic Products Using Molecularly Imprinted Polymer

Authors: Nadia El Alami El Hassani, Soukaina Motia, Benachir Bouchikhi, Nezha El Bari, Alassane Diouf

Abstract:

Parabens are the antimicrobial molecules largely used in cosmetic products as a preservative agent. Among them, the methylparaben (MP) is the most frequently used ingredient in cosmetic preparations. Nevertheless, their potential dangers led to the development of sensible and reliable methods for their determination in environmental samples. Firstly, a sensitive and selective molecular imprinted polymer (MIP) based on screen-printed gold electrode (Au-SPE), assembled on a polymeric layer of carboxylated poly(vinyl-chloride) (PVC-COOH), was developed. After the template removal, the obtained material was able to rebind MP and discriminate it among other interfering species such as glucose, sucrose, and citric acid. The behavior of molecular imprinted sensor was characterized by Cyclic Voltammetry (CV), Differential Pulse Voltammetry (DPV) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. Then, the biosensor was found to have a linear detection range from 0.1 pg.mL-1 to 1 ng.mL-1 and a low limit of detection of 0.12 fg.mL-1 and 5.18 pg.mL-1 by DPV and EIS, respectively. For applications, this biosensor was employed to determine MP content in four wastewaters in Meknes city and two cosmetic products (shower gel and shampoo). The operational reproducibility and stability of this biosensor were also studied. Secondly, another MIP biosensor based on tungsten trioxide (WO3) functionalized by gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) assembled on a polymeric layer of PVC-COOH was developed. The main goal was to increase the sensitivity of the biosensor. The developed MIP biosensor was successfully applied for the MP determination in wastewater samples and cosmetic products.

Keywords: wastewater, molecularly imprinted polymer, methylparaben, cosmetic products

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65 The Impact of Foliar Application of the Calcium-Containing Compounds in Increasing Resistance to Blue Mold on Apples

Authors: Masoud Baghalian, Musa Arshad

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In order to investigate the effect of foliar application of calcium chloride on the resistance of fruits such as Red and Golden Lebanese apple varieties to blue mold, a split plot experiment in time and space, based on accidental blocks, with three replications under foliar application were done (Control, one in a thousand, two in thousands) and the results of the variance analysis showed that there is a significant difference between the levels of foliar and variety at 5% level and between time, there is significant difference in interaction of variety × time and three way interaction of foliar×variety×time, at 1% level. The highest resistance to the blue mold disease in foliar application was observed at two in thousands calcium (calcium chloride) level.

Keywords: Resistance, Apple, blue mold, foliar calcium

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64 Monitoring of Potato Rot Nematode (Ditylenchus destructor Thorne, 1945) in Southern Georgia Nematode Fauna Diversity of Rhizosphere

Authors: E. Tskitishvili, I. Eliava, T. Tskitishvili, N. Bagathuria, M. Gigolashvili, L. Jgenti

Abstract:

The nematode fauna of 20 agrocenosis (soil, tuber of potato, green parts of plant, roots) was studied in four regions in South Georgia (Akhaltsikhe, Aspindza, Akhalkalaki, Ninotsminda). In all, there were registered 173 forms of free-living and Phyto-parasitic nematodes, including 132 forms which were specified according to their species. A few exemplars of potato root nematode (Ditylenchus destructor) were identified in soil samples taken in Ninotsminda, Akhalkalaki and Aspinda stations, i.e. invasion is weak. Based on our data, potato Ditylenchus was not found in any of the researched tubers, while based on the data of previous years the most of tubers were infested. The cysts of 'golden nematodes' were not found during inspection of material for detection of Globoderosis

Keywords: monitoring, potato, ditylenchus, nematoda

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63 Greywater Treatment Using Activated Biochar Produced from Agricultural Waste

Authors: Tumisang Seodigeng, Pascal Mwenge

Abstract:

The increase in urbanisation in South Africa has led to an increase in water demand and a decline in freshwater supply. Despite this, poor water usage is still a major challenge in South Africa, for instance, freshwater is still used for non-drinking applications. The freshwater shortage can be alleviated by using other sources of water for non-portable purposes such as greywater treated with activated biochar produced from agricultural waste. The success of activated biochar produced from agricultural waste to treat greywater can be both economically and environmentally beneficial. Greywater treated with activated biochar produced from agricultural waste is considered a cost-effective wastewater treatment.  This work was aimed at determining the ability of activated biochar to remove Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Ammonium (NH4-N), Nitrate (NO3-N), and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) from greywater. The experiments were carried out in 800 ml laboratory plastic cylinders used as filter columns. 2.5 cm layer of gravel was used at the bottom and top of the column to sandwich the activated biochar material. Activated biochar (200 g and 400 g) was loaded in a column and used as a filter medium for greywater. Samples were collected after a week and sent for analysis. Four types of greywater were treated: Kitchen, floor cleaning water, shower and laundry water. The findings showed: 95% removal of TSS, 76% of NO3-N and 63% of COD on kitchen greywater and 85% removal of NH4-N on bathroom greywater, as highest removal of efficiency of the studied pollutants. The results showed that activated biochar produced from agricultural waste reduces a certain amount of pollutants from greywater. The results also indicated the ability of activated biochar to treat greywater for onsite non-potable reuse purposes.

Keywords: COD, greywater, nitrate, TSS, chemical oxygen demand, ammonium, activated biochar produced from agriculture waste, NH₄-N, NO₃-N, total suspended solids

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62 Application of the Standard Deviation in Regulating Design Variation of Urban Solutions Generated through Evolutionary Computation

Authors: Mohammed Makki, Milad Showkatbakhsh, Aiman Tabony

Abstract:

Computational applications of natural evolutionary processes as problem-solving tools have been well established since the mid-20th century. However, their application within architecture and design has only gained ground in recent years, with an increasing number of academics and professionals in the field electing to utilize evolutionary computation to address problems comprised from multiple conflicting objectives with no clear optimal solution. Recent advances in computer science and its consequent constructive influence on the architectural discourse has led to the emergence of multiple algorithmic processes capable of simulating the evolutionary process in nature within an efficient timescale. Many of the developed processes of generating a population of candidate solutions to a design problem through an evolutionary based stochastic search process are often driven through the application of both environmental and architectural parameters. These methods allow for conflicting objectives to be simultaneously, independently, and objectively optimized. This is an essential approach in design problems with a final product that must address the demand of a multitude of individuals with various requirements. However, one of the main challenges encountered through the application of an evolutionary process as a design tool is the ability for the simulation to maintain variation amongst design solutions in the population while simultaneously increasing in fitness. This is most commonly known as the ‘golden rule’ of balancing exploration and exploitation over time; the difficulty of achieving this balance in the simulation is due to the tendency of either variation or optimization being favored as the simulation progresses. In such cases, the generated population of candidate solutions has either optimized very early in the simulation, or has continued to maintain high levels of variation to which an optimal set could not be discerned; thus, providing the user with a solution set that has not evolved efficiently to the objectives outlined in the problem at hand. As such, the experiments presented in this paper seek to achieve the ‘golden rule’ by incorporating a mathematical fitness criterion for the development of an urban tissue comprised from the superblock as its primary architectural element. The mathematical value investigated in the experiments is the standard deviation factor. Traditionally, the standard deviation factor has been used as an analytical value rather than a generative one, conventionally used to measure the distribution of variation within a population by calculating the degree by which the majority of the population deviates from the mean. A higher standard deviation value delineates a higher number of the population is clustered around the mean and thus limited variation within the population, while a lower standard deviation value is due to greater variation within the population and a lack of convergence towards an optimal solution. The results presented will aim to clarify the extent to which the utilization of the standard deviation factor as a fitness criterion can be advantageous to generating fitter individuals in a more efficient timeframe when compared to conventional simulations that only incorporate architectural and environmental parameters.

Keywords: Evolution, Architecture, Computation, Urban, standard deviation

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