Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2576

Search results for: essential oils

2576 Antimicrobial Activity of Different Essential Oils in Synergy with Amoxicillin against Clinical Isolates of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

Authors: Naheed Niaz, Nimra Naeem, Bushra Uzair, Riffat Tahira

Abstract:

Antibacterial activity of different traditional plants essential oils against clinical isolates of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) through disk diffusion method was evaluated. All the tested essential oils, in different concentrations, inhibited growth of S. aureus to varying degrees. Cinnamon and Thyme essential oils were observed to be the “best” against test pathogen. Even at lowest concentration of these essential oils i.e. 25 µl/ml, clear zone of inhibition was recorded 9+0.085mm and 8+0.051mm respectively, and at higher concentrations there was a total reduction in growth of MRSA. The study also focused on analyzing the synergistic effects of essential oils in combination with amoxicillin. Results showed that oregano and pennyroyal mint essential oils which were not very effective alone turned out to be strong synergistic enhancers. The activity increased with increase in concentration of the essential oils. It may be concluded from present results that cinnamon and thyme essential oils could be used as potential antimicrobial source for the treatment of infections caused by Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

Keywords: Antibiotics, essential oils, Staphylococcus aureus, combination therapy, minimum inhibitory concentration

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2575 Antioxidant Activity and Chemical Constituents of Leaf Essential Oils of Pseuduvaria Monticola and Pseuduvaria Macrophylla (Annonaceae)

Authors: Hairin Taha, P. Narrima, M. A. Hapipah, A. M. Mustafa

Abstract:

The chemical constituents and antioxidant activity of the leaf essential oils of Pseuduvaria monticola and Pseuduvaria macrophylla from the Annonaceae family were investigated. GC-TOFMS analyses identified 46 compounds from Pseuduvaria monticola and 11 compounds from Pseuduvaria macrophylla. The major constituents in the leaf essential oil of Pseuduvaria monticola were a-cadinol (13.0%), calamenene-cis (6.9%), alfa copaene (4%), and epizonarene (3.8%), while in the leaf essential oil of Pseuduvaria macrophylla were caryophyllene oxide (29.7%) and elimicin (28%). The antioxidant activity of both the essential oils were determined using the 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay (DPPH). The present study suggests that both essential oils demonstrated good antioxidant activity.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, Pseuduvaria macrophylla, Pseuduvaria monticola, leaf essential oils, GC-MSTOF

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2574 Insecticidial Effects of Essential Oil of Carum copticum on Sitophilus oryzae L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

Authors: Giti Sabri, Sohrab Imani, Ali Ahadiyat, Aref Maroof, Yahya Ostadi

Abstract:

Recently, there has been a growing interest in research concerning the possible use of plant extracts as alternatives to synthetic insecticides. In this research, the insecticidal effects of Carum copticum essential oils against rice weevil adults were investigated in laboratory condition. Essential oils was extracted through distillation with water using Clevenger apparatus. Tests of randomized complete block included six concentrations and three replications for essential oils (fumigant toxicity) along with control treatment in condition of 27±1ºC degrees Celsius temperature, relative humidity of 65 ± 5 percent and darkness. LC50 values were calculated by SPSS.21.0 software which presented the value of LC50 of Carum copticum essential oils after 48 hurs, 187.35± 0.40 µl/l air on rice weevil adults. Results showed that increasing the concentration of essential oils increased the mortality rate cases. The results also showed that essential oils of Carum copticum are effective biological sources which can effectively protect stored grain from infestation by the rice weevil; although for application of these combinations further research may be needed.

Keywords: Essential Oil, insecticidial effects, Carum copticum, Sitophilus oryzae

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2573 Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and Free Radical Scavenging Activities of Essential Oils Extracted from Six Eucalyptus Species

Authors: Sanaa K. Bardaweel, Mohammad M. Hudaib, Khaled A. Tawaha, Rasha M. Bashatwah

Abstract:

Eucalyptus species are well reputed for their traditional use in Asia as well as in other parts of the world; therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities associated with essential oils from different Eucalyptus species. Essential oils from the leaves of six Eucalyptus species, including: Eucalyptus woodwardi, Eucalyptus stricklandii, Eucalyptus salubris, Eucalyptus sargentii, Eucalyptus torquata and Eucalyptus wandoo were separated by hydrodistillation and dried over anhydrous sodium sulphate. DPPH, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity assays were carried out to evaluate the antioxidant potential of the oils. The results indicate that examined oils exhibit substantial antioxidant activities relative to ascorbic acid. Previously, these oils were evaluated for their antimicrobial activities, against wide range of bacterial and fungal strains, and they were shown to possess significant antimicrobial activities. In this study, further investigation into the growth kinetics of oil-treated microbial cultures was conducted. The results clearly demonstrate that the microbial growth was markedly inhibited when treated with sub-MIC concentrations of the oils. Taken together, the results obtained indicate a high potential of the examined essential oils as bioactive oils, for nutraceutical and medical applications, possessing significant antioxidant and anti microbial activities.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, Antioxidants, essential (volatile) oil, Eucalyptus

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2572 Eucalyptus camendulensis and Its Drying Effect on Water and Essential Oil Content

Authors: Mehani Mouna, Segni Ladjel

Abstract:

Medicinal and aromatic plants are promising and are characterized by the biosynthesis of odorous molecules that make up the so-called essential oils (EO), which have long been known for their antiseptic and therapeutic activity in folk medicine. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of drying in the shade on the water content and on the content of essential oils extracted from leaves of Eucalyptus camendulensis for better quality control of medicinal and aromatic plants. The water content of the Eucalyptus camendulensis plant material decreases during the drying process. It increased from 100 % to 0.006 % for the drying in the shade after ten days. The moisture content is practically constant at the end of the drying period. The drying in the shade increases the concentration of essential oils of Eucalyptus camendulensis. When the leaves of Eucalyptus camendulensis plant are in the shade, the maximum of the essential oil content was obtained on the eighth days; the recorded value was 1.43% ± 0.01%. Beyond these periods, the content continuously drops in before stabilizing. The optimum drying time is between 6 and 9 days.

Keywords: Water, Drying, essential oils, content, Eucalyptus camendulensis

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2571 Seasonal Variation of the Essential Oils of Foeniculum vulgare Miller and Carum carvi L. Cultivated in Algerian Sahara

Authors: K. Fyad, A. Cheriti, Y. Bourmita, N. Belboukhari

Abstract:

Many industries are involved by using essential oils such as food, flavour, and beverage, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and fragrance. Apiaceae species are usually herbs, rarely schrubs characterized particularly by its inflorescence typical umbel. Many species of this family have been widely used in folk medicine throughout the world. The most characteristic natural compounds in this family are the essential oils secreted in schizogenous canals in all organs with remarkable variability chemical composition. As a part of our investigation into medicinal plants growing in Algerian Sahara. In this study, we investigate the chemical composition of the essential oils extracted from two Apiaceae species: Foeniculum vulgare Miller and Carum carvi L cultivated in the Sahara. The plants were selected on the basis of their use by local people to treat infectious diseases as determined in our previous ethnopharmacological study. Wild samples of Foeniculum vulgare Miller and Carum carvi L cultivated in an experimental field at the university. The harvest was made during the year 2011 according to the growth cycle stage of the plants. The essential oils of different fresh aerial parts, obtained by hydrodistillation were analysed by GC. The results showed that the essential oils yields are not uniform among the different cycle stage. The percentage of components is significantly affected by the harvesting period of the plant material.

Keywords: essential oils, apiaceae, Sahara, growth cycle

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2570 Evaluation of Chemical Compositions and Biological Activities of Five Essential Oils

Authors: G. Ozturk, B. Demirci

Abstract:

It is well known that essential oils used for therapeutic purposes for many years. In this study, five different Pharmacopoeia grade essential oils (Achillea millefolium L., Pimpinella anisum L., Matricaria recutita L., Eucalyptus globulus L., Salvia officinalis L.) which obtained from commercial sources were evaluated for chemical compositions, synergistic antimicrobial activities, and lipoxygenase enzyme inhibitions. Volatile components were determined by gas chromatography/flame ionization detector and gas chromatography/mass spectrometer, simultaneously. The potential antimicrobial activity of essential oils was tested against oral pathogenic standard strains such as Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguinis, Staphylococcus aureus, Corynebacterium striatum, Candida albicans and Candida krusei by broth microdilution methods. Ciprofloxacin and ketoconazole were used positive controls. It has been observed that the essential oils tested have average inhibitory antimicrobial activity against oral pathogens with a Minimum Inhibition Concentration of 20-0.625 mg/mL. The active essential oils have been combined with antibiotics and synergistic effects have been evaluated by Checkerboard method. ƩFIC values were determined. In combination with antibiotics M. recutita essential oil has been shown to have a synergistic effect against S. aureus in combination with tetracycline (ƩFIC 0.46). In addition, 5-LOX inhibitory activity was measured by modifying the spectrophotometric method developed by Baylac and Racine. As a result, 5-LOX % inhibition of S. officinalis, E. globulus and M. recutita were calculated as 34.0 ± 6.66, 72.7 ± 2.78 and 27.7 ± 0.60, respectively.

Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, essential oils, synergistic activity

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2569 Essential Oil Compounds and Antioxidant Activity for α-Thujene Rich Two Species of Artemisia

Authors: Reza Dehghani Bidgoli

Abstract:

Although Artemisia species are one of the most important medicinal plants, there are a few reports on chemistry or activity of their essential oils because of low amounts of the oils in this genus. In this study, chemical composition of essential oils leaves and stems of Artemisia sieberi and Artemisia aucheri growing wild in Kashan rangelands, central Iran, have been analyzed using GC–MS technique. Analysis revealed 50 identified compounds, representing 96.55% of the oil and 23 identified compounds representing 97.83% of the oil on Artemisia sieberi and Artemisia aucheri respectively. The yield of essential oil extraction is very higher than those of previous reports. In both plants α-thujene is the main component in both of them, with an extra value, 74.42%, in aucheri species. Several compounds (some with significant compositions), were found in these varieties of Artemisia which are not recorded in previous literature. Antioxidant activities of the essential oils were evaluated for the first time in this research work using β-carotene/linoleic acid assay and found to be surprisingly attributed directly to α-pinene contents in them.

Keywords: Essential Oil, antioxidant activity, artemisia aucheri, artemisia sieberi, α-thujene

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2568 Chemical Variability in the Essential Oils from the Leaves and Buds of Syzygium Species

Authors: Rabia Waseem, Low Kah Hin, Najihah Mohamed Hashim

Abstract:

The variability in the chemical components of the Syzygium species essential oils has been evaluated. The leaves of Syzygium species have been collected from Perak, Malaysia. The essential oils extracted by using the conventional Hydro-distillation extraction procedure and analyzed by using Gas chromatography System attached with Mass Spectrometry (GCMS). Twenty-seven constituents were found in Syzygium species in which the major constituents include: α-Pinene (3.94%), α-Thujene (2.16%), α-Terpineol (2.95%), g-Elemene (2.89%) and D-Limonene (14.59%). The aim of this study was the comparison between the evaluated data and existing literature to fortify the major variability through statistical analysis.

Keywords: Statistical Analysis, Medicinal Plants, Cluster Analysis, Essential Oil, chemotaxonomy

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2567 Fungicidal Evaluation of Essential Oils of Medicinal Plants for the Management of Early Blight Pathogen (Alternaria solani) in Pakistan

Authors: Sehrish Iftikhar, Kiran Nawaz, Ahmad A. Shahid, Waheed Anwar, Muhammad S. Haider

Abstract:

Early blight caused by Alternaria solani Sorauer is one of the most serious foliage diseases of the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). This disease causes huge crop losses and has major economic importance worldwide. The antifungal activity for three medicinal plants (Foeniculum vulgare, Syzygium aromaticum, and Eucalyptus citriodora) against Alternaria solani has been evaluated. The inhibitory potential of selected essential oils on the radial mycelial growth and germination of spore was measured in vitro at various concentrations (5%, 2.5%. 1.25%, 0.625%, and 0.312%) using agar well diffusion assay. Essential oil of E. citriodora was most effective causing 85% inhibition of mycelial growth and 88% inhibition of spore germination at 0.625% and 1.25% concentrations. Essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare also caused 80% and 82% inhibition of the above mentioned parameters but at double the concentrations 1.25% and 2.5%. While essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum was least effective in controlling the mycelial growth and spore germination with 76% and 77% inhibition at 1.25% and 2.5%. All the selected essential oils, especially E. citriodora, showed marked antimicrobial activity significant at higher concentration. These results suggest that the use of essential oils for the control of A. solani can reduce environmental risks related with commercial fungicides, lower cost for control, and the chances for resistance development. Additional studies are essential to evaluate the potential of essential oils as natural treatments for this disease.

Keywords: essential oils, potato, clove, fennel

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2566 Chemical Composition of Essential Oil from Lavandula stoechas and Lavandula multifida Growing Wild in Algeria

Authors: Fatima Benchikh-Amiraa, Hocine Laouerb, Smain Amiraa, Guido Flaminic

Abstract:

The essential oils of the aerial parts of Lavandula multifida and L. stoechas were extracted at the full bloom stage by hydrodistillation and theirs chemical compositions were estimated by means of gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). A total of 46 and 67 constituents were identified representing 95.5% and 98.2% of the total oils, respectively. The main components of L. multifida oil were carvacrol (63.8%), beta-bisabolene (8.7%), spathulenol (6.2%), caryophyllene oxide (3.6%) and linalool (2.9%). The oil of L. stoechas was dominated by fenchone (63.9%), camphor (7.8%), 1,8-cineole (5.3%) and myrtenyl acetate (4.2).

Keywords: essential oils, Chemical and Molecular Engineering, Lavandula multifida, Lavandula stoechas

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2565 Physicochemical Profile of Essential Oil of Daucus carota

Authors: Nassima Behidj-Benyounes, Thoraya Dahmene

Abstract:

Essential oils have a significant antimicrobial activity. These oils can successfully replace the antibiotics. So, the microorganisms show their inefficiencies resistant for the antibiotics. For this reason, we study the physic-chemical analysis and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Daucus carota. The extraction is done by steam distillation of water which brought us a very significant return of 4.65%. The analysis of the essential oil is performed by GC/MS and has allowed us to identify 32 compounds in the oil of D. carota flowering tops of Bouira. Three of which are in the majority are the α-pinene (22.3%), the carotol (21.7%) and the limonene (15.8%).

Keywords: Essential Oil, Daucus carota, α-Pinene, carotol, limonene

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2564 Environmental Efficacy on Heracleum persicum Essential Oils

Authors: Rahele Hasani, Iraj Mehregan, Kambiz Larijani, Taher Nejadsattari, Romain Scalone

Abstract:

Essential oils of Heracleum persicum (Apiaceae) have been widely used from many years ago, but the difference of its properties among different populations have not been identified up to now. Hydrodistilation Clevenger type was used to obtaining the fruit essential oils of four populations of H. persicum from different localities in Iran, then they were characterized by GC-FID and GC-MS analyses. Some ecological factors were also measured. The oils of four populations were compared to determine the similarities and differences and the relationships between these factors and ecological factors. Based on the result, 18-32 different components were identified in four populations, while the percentage of the main components was higher in population with lower number of components. According to the statistical analyses of chemical components and ecological factors, it can be concluded that some ecological factors such as altitude, less humidity, high difference between day and night temperature and salty soil would lead to lower number of components in essential oil, whereas they consist the higher percentage.

Keywords: apiaceae, chemotaxonomy, Persian hogweed, Ecological factors

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2563 Substitution of Silver-Thiosulfate (STS) with Some Essential Oils on Vase-Life of Cut Carnation cv. Liberty

Authors: Mohammad Bagher Hassanpouraghdam, Mohammad Ali Aazami Mavaloo

Abstract:

Due to the huge side-effects of chemicals; essential oils have been considered as suitable alternatives for keeping the vase-life of cut flowers mainly owing to the availability and environment-friend nature of these bio-chemicals. In the present experiment, 50% substitution of STS was achieved and tested on cut carnation flowers cv. Liberty by using the essential oils from four plants; Satureja sahendica Bornm., Echinophora platyloba DC., Tanacetum balsamita L. and Cupressus arizonica Greene., as CRD with five treatments and 3 replications. Vase-life and flower diameter were affected with 50% substitution of STS by essential oils from C. arizonica and T. balsamita. Membrane stability index, Malondialdehyde (MDA) content and Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) amounts were affected by the substitution treatments as well. The main preservative effect belonged to the substitution with C. arizonica. So that, 50% STS substitution with Cupressus oil holds the highest membrane integrity and the least data for MDA and H2O2 content.

Keywords: Essential Oil, carnation, Membrane stability index (MSI), vase life

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2562 Stability of Essential Oils in Pang-Rum by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

Authors: K. Jarmkom, P. Eakwaropas, W. Khobjai, S. Techaeoi

Abstract:

Ancient Thai perfumed powder was used as a fragrance for clothing, food, and the body. Plant-based natural Thai perfume products are known as Pang-Rum. The objective of this study was to evaluate the stability of essential oils after six months of incubation. The chemical compositions were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), in terms of the qualitative composition of the isolated essential oil. The isolation of the essential oil of natural products by incubate sample for 5 min at 40 ºC is described. The volatile components were identified by percentage of total peak areas comparing their retention times of GC chromatograph with NIST mass spectral library. The results show no significant difference in the seven chromatograms of perfumed powder (Pang-Rum) both with binder and without binder. Further identification was done by GC-MS. Some components of Pang-Rum with/without binder were changed by temperature and time.

Keywords: Stability, essential oils, GC-MS analysis, pang-rum

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2561 Analyzing Antimicrobial Power of Cotula cinerea Essential Oil: Case of Western Algeria

Authors: A. Abdenbi, B. Dennai, B. Touati, M. Bouaaza, A. Saad

Abstract:

The essential oils of many plants have become popular in recent years and their bioactive principles have recently won several industry sectors, however their use as antibacterial and anti fungal agents has been reported. This study focuses on the physico chemical and phyto chemical with a study of the antimicrobial activity of essential oils of aromatic and medicinal plant of southwest Algeria, this essential oil was obtained by hydro-distillation of aerial parts of Cotula cinerea, belonging to the Asteraceae family, it is very extensive in the spring season in a region called Kenadza road, located 12km from Bechar. Variable anti fungal activity of the essential oil of Cotula cinerea (yield 2%) were revealed about four fungal strains, the minimum inhibitory concentrations of essential oils were determined by the method of dilution in agar. Significant fungal sensitivity of Penicillium sp with an inhibition of 32.3 mm area.

Keywords: Essential Oil, Cotula cinerea, physico- chemical analysis and phyto- chemical, anti fungal power

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2560 Physico-Chemical Characterization of the Essential Oil of Daucus carota

Authors: Nassima Behidj-Benyounes, Thoraya Dahmene, Khaled Benyounes Nadjiba Chebouti1and F/Zohra Bissaad

Abstract:

Essential oils have a significant antimicrobial activity. These oils can successfully replace the antibiotics. So, the microorganisms show their inefficiencies resistant for the antibiotics. For this reason, we study the physicochemical analysis and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Daucus carota. The extraction is done by steam distillation of water which brought us a very significant return of 4.65%. The analysis of the essential oil is performed by GC/MS and has allowed us to identify 32 compounds in the oil of D. carota flowering tops of Bouira. Three of which are in the majority are the α-pinene (22.3%), the carotol (21.7%) and the limonene (15.8%).

Keywords: Essential Oil, Daucus carota, α-Pinene, carotol, limonene

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2559 Comparation of Essential Oils Composition from the Leaves and Flowers of Salvia pratensis L.

Authors: Valerija Dunkić, Nada Bezić

Abstract:

Salvia is a genus of the well-known medicinal plant of Lamiaceae family and growing wild throughout the world. This abstract reports the comparation of the essential oils from leaves and flowers composition of Salvia pratensis L. from mountain Velebit, Croatia. Water distilled essential oils from aerial parts of investigation plant have been analysed by GC and GC/MS using VF-5ms capillary column. Fifty-three constituents, representing 99.4% of the leaf oil composition; 51 constituents, representing 86.8% of the flower oil composition. Essential oil yield varied from 0.9% to 1.3% in the leaf and flower parts of the plant. The flower essential oil was characterized by a high concentration of E-caryophyllene (21.9%) and germacrene D (10.2%). Major constituents of the leaf oil were linalool (17.7%), linalool acetate (15.3%) and limonene (9.8%). The comparative results clearly indicated that the leaf and flower oil compositions of S. pratensis were quite different in terms of major components content. The present study gives additional knowledge about secondary metabolites contents on the genus Salvia.

Keywords: Essential Oil, flower, leaf, Salvia pratensis L

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2558 GC-MS Identification of Two Major Essential Oils and their Anti-Oxidative Effect Using DPPH Assay

Authors: Mohammed Falalu Hamza

Abstract:

A phytochemical investigation conducted on the leaves extract of Cryptocarya latifolia (Lauraceae) revealed the presence of two major essential oils; Nerolidol (1) and Copaene (2) with the aid of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The compounds exhibited good anti-oxidant capacity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. The result shows that the anti-oxidant capacity of the compounds is dependent on concentration similar to the standard (ascorbic acid). This study shows that the leaves extract of C. latifolia is a good source of important natural antioxidants.

Keywords: essential oils, phytochemical, broad-leaved quince, anti-oxidant

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2557 Biological Activity of Essential Oils from Salvia nemorosa L.

Authors: Abdol-Hassan Doulah

Abstract:

In this study, antimicrobial activity of essential oil and ethyl acetate and ether extracts of S. nemorosa were examined against some species of bacteria and fungi. The essential oil of the aerial part of S. nemorosa was examined by GC and GC-MS. In the essential oil of S. nemorosa 26 Compounds have been identified. 2-Nonanone (44.09 %), 2-Undecanone (33.79 %), E-Caryophyllene (3.74 %) and 2-Decanone (2.89 %) were the main components of the essential oil. The essential oil analysis showed greatest antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis (5.3 μg/ml) and S. cerevisiae (9.3 μg/ml). The ethyl acetate showed greatest antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis (106.7 μg/ml), Candida albicans (5.3 μg/ml) and ether extract showed greatest antimicrobial activity against Klebseilla pneumoniae (10.7 μg/ml) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (10.7 μg/ml). In conclusion, we suggest that the antimicrobial activity of S. nemorosa may be due to its content of germacrene and linalool.

Keywords: Biological Activity, essential oils, antibacterial activity, antifungal activity, Salvia nemorosa L

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2556 Logic Programming and Artificial Neural Networks in Pharmacological Screening of Schinus Essential Oils

Authors: José Neves, M. Rosário Martins, Fátima Candeias, Diana Ferreira, Sílvia Arantes, Júlio Cruz-Morais, Guida Gomes, Joaquim Macedo, António Abelha, Henrique Vicente

Abstract:

Some plants of genus Schinus have been used in the folk medicine as topical antiseptic, digestive, purgative, diuretic, analgesic or antidepressant, and also for respiratory and urinary infections. Chemical composition of essential oils of S. molle and S. terebinthifolius had been evaluated and presented high variability according with the part of the plant studied and with the geographic and climatic regions. The pharmacological properties, namely antimicrobial, anti-tumoural and anti-inflammatory activities are conditioned by chemical composition of essential oils. Taking into account the difficulty to infer the pharmacological properties of Schinus essential oils without hard experimental approach, this work will focus on the development of a decision support system, in terms of its knowledge representation and reasoning procedures, under a formal framework based on Logic Programming, complemented with an approach to computing centered on Artificial Neural Networks and the respective Degree-of-Confidence that one has on such an occurrence.

Keywords: essential oils, logic programming, artificial neuronal networks, knowledge representation and reasoning, Schinus molle L, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi

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2555 Effects of Essential Oils on the Intestinal Microflora of Termite (Heterotermes indicola)

Authors: Ayesha Aihetasham, Najma Arshad, Sobia Khan

Abstract:

Damage causes by subterranean termites are of major concern today. Termites majorly treated with pesticides resulted in several problems related to health and environment. For this reason, plant-derived natural products specifically essential oils have been evaluated in order to control termites. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antitermitic potential of six essential oils on Heterotermes indicola subterranean termite. No-choice bioassay was used to assess the termiticidal action of essential oils. Further, gut from each set of treated termite group was extracted and analyzed for reduction in number of protozoa and bacteria by protozoal count method using haemocytometer and viable bacterial plate count (dilution method) respectively. In no-choice bioassay it was found that Foeniculum vulgare oil causes high degree of mortality 90 % average mortality at 10 mg oil concentration (10mg/0.42g weight of filter paper). Least mortality appeared to be due to Citrus sinensis oil (43.33 % average mortality at 10 mg/0.42g). The highest activity verified to be of Foeniculum vulgare followed by Eruca sativa, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Peganum harmala, Syzygium cumini and Citrus sinensis. The essential oil which caused maximum reduction in number of protozoa was P. harmala followed by T. foenum-graecum and E. sativa. In case of bacterial count E. sativa oil indicated maximum decrease in bacterial number (6.4×10⁹ CFU/ml). It is concluded that F. vulgare, E. sativa and P. harmala essential oils are highly effective against H. indicola termite and its gut microflora.

Keywords: essential oils, bacterial count, Heterotermes indicola, protozoal count

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2554 Extraction and Uses of Essential Oil

Authors: Ram Prasad Baral

Abstract:

A large number of herb materials contain Essential Oils with extensive bioactivities. Acknowledging the importance of plants and its medicinal value, extraction of Essential Oil had been done using Steam Distillation method. In this project, Steam Distillation was used to extract oil from different plant materials like Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert, Artemisia Vulgaris L, Rhododendron anthopogon D. Don, Cymbopogon nardus L, Andropogon nardus, Cinnamomum tamala, Juniperus spp, Cymbopohonflexuosus flexuous, Mantha Arvensia, Nardostachys Jatamansi, Wintergreen Essential Oil, and Valeriana Officinalis. Research has confirmed centuries of practical use of essential oils, and we now know that the 'fragrant pharmacy' contains compounds with an extremely broad range of biochemical effects. Essential oils are so termed as they are believed to represent the very essence of odor and flavor. The recovery of Essential Oil from the raw botanical starting material is very important since the quality of the oil is greatly influenced during this step. There is a variety of methods for obtaining volatile oils from plants. Steam distillation method was found to be one of the promising techniques for the extraction of essential oil from plants as reputable distiller will preserve the original qualities of the plant. The distillation was conducted in Clevenger apparatus in which boiling, condensing, and decantation was done. Analysis of essential oil was done using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer apparatus, which gives evaluates essential oil qualitatively and quantitatively. The volume of essential oil obtained was changing with respect to temperature and time of heating.

Keywords: Cinnamomum tamala, Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert, Artemisia Vulgaris L, Rhododendron anthopogon D. Don, Cymbopogon nardus L, Andropogon nardus, Juniperus spp, Cymbopohonflexuosus flexuous, Mantha

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2553 Extracting Therapeutic Grade Essential Oils from the Lamiaceae Plant Family in the United Arab Emirates (UAE): Highlights on Great Possibilities and Sever Difficulties

Authors: Suzan M. Shahin, Mohammed A. Salem

Abstract:

Essential oils are expensive phytochemicals produced and extracted from specific species belonging to particular families in the plant kingdom. In the United Arab Emirates country (UAE), which is located in the arid region of the world, nine species, from the Lamiaceae family, having the capability to produce therapeutic grade essential oils. These species include; Mentha spicata, Ocimum forskolei, Salvia macrosiphon, Salvia aegyptiaca, Salvia macilenta, Salvia spinosa, Teucrium polium, Teucrium stocksianum, and Zataria multiflora. Although, such potential species are indigenous to the UAE, however, there are almost no studies available to investigate the chemical composition and the quality of the extracted essential oils under the UAE climatological conditions. Therefore, great attention has to be given to such valuable natural resources, through conducting highly supported research projects, tailored to the UAE conditions, and investigating different extraction techniques, including the application of the latest available technologies, such as superficial fluid CO2. This is crucially needed; in order to accomplish the greatest possibilities in the medicinal field, specifically in the discovery of new therapeutic chemotypes, as well as, to achieve the sustainability of this natural resource in the country.

Keywords: Traditional Medicine, essential oils, extraction techniques, Lamiaceae, United Arab Emirates (UAE)

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2552 Extraction of Grapefruit Essential Oil from Grapefruit Peels

Authors: Adithya Subramanian, S. Ananthan, T. Prasanth, S. P. Selvabharathi

Abstract:

This project involves extraction of grapefruit essential oil from grapefruit peels using various oils like castor oil, gingelly oil, olive oil as carrier oils. The main aim of this project is to extract the oil which has numerous medicinal uses. The extraction can be performed by two methods. Project involves extraction of the oil with various carrier oil in a view to reduce the cost of production and the physical properties of the extracted oil are examined.

Keywords: Essential Oil, carrier oil, medicinal uses, cost of production

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2551 Chemical Composition and Biological Investigation of Halpophyllum tuberculatum A. Juss (Rutaceae) Essential Oils Growing in Libya

Authors: O. M. M. Sabry, Abeer M. El Sayed

Abstract:

The essential oils from the aerial parts and flowers of Haplophyllum tuberculatum (Forsskal) Adr. Juss (Rutaceae) growing in Libya were obtained separately by hydro-distillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus. The essential oils yield were (0.4, 1.5w/w%) respectively based on the dry weight of the plant. The oils were analyzed by GC-MS. Twenty four constituents, amounting to 96.6%, were identified in the oil of the aerial parts. The predominant compounds were among the non oxygenated terpenoids (82.4%) as monoterpene hydrocarbons, represented by sabinen (26.4 %), δ-terpinen (26 %), β-phellandrene (10.4%) and 3-carene (3.86%). Zingiberine (0.4%) and β-sesquiphellandrene (0.12%) were the major sesquiterpene hydrocarbons identified. Oxygenated monoterpenes were represented by eucalyptol (5.5%) and piperitone (5.55%). Twenty six constituents, equivalent to 99.5%, were identified in the oil of the flowers. The dominance of monoterpene hydrocarbons in the flowers oil can be attributed to the high percentage of γ-terpinen (38.44%), β-phellandrene (10.0%), α- phellandrene (2.33%), 3,4-dimethyl-1,5-cyclooctadiene (6.67%), β-myrecene (6.04%), 3-carene (5.43%) and α-pinene (1.3%).While the oxygenated monoterpenes can be contributed to the trans-piperitol (4.67%) and piperitone (2.07%). Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons were not identified in the oil of the flower of H. tuberculatum. Variation in constitution between oils of Libyan H. tuberculatum and that obtained from other countries can be due to both environmental and genetic factors. The essential oils have demonstrated variable antimicrobial activities against certain micro-organisms. Also have revealed marked in vitro cytotoxicity against lung (H1299), liver (HEPG2) carcinoma cell line and variably effective as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, Anti-Inflammatory, Essential Oil, Libya, antioxidant, antitumor, rutaceae, Halpophyllum tuberculatum

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2550 Physical and Microbiological Evaluation of Chitosan Films: Effect of Essential Oils and Storage

Authors: N. Valderrama, W. Albarracín, N. Algecira

Abstract:

It was studied the effect of the inclusion of thyme and rosemary essential oils into chitosan films, as well as the microbiological and physical properties when storing chitosan film with and without the mentioned inclusion. The film forming solution was prepared by dissolving chitosan (2%, w/v), polysorbate 80 (4% w/w CH) and glycerol (16% w/w CH) in aqueous lactic acid solutions (control). The thyme (TEO) and rosemary (REO) essential oils (EOs) were included 1:1 w/w (EOs:CH) on their combination 50/50 (TEO:REO). The films were stored at temperatures of 5, 20, 33°C and a relative humidity of 75% during four weeks. The films with essential oil inclusion did not show an antimicrobial activity against strains. This behavior could be explained because the chitosan only inhibits the growth of microorganisms in direct contact with the active sites. However, the inhibition capacity of TEO was higher than the REO and a synergic effect between TEO:REO was found for S. enteritidis strains in the chitosan solution. Some physical properties were modified by the inclusion of essential oils. The addition of essential oils does not affect the mechanical properties (tensile strength, elongation at break, puncture deformation), the water solubility, the swelling index nor the DSC behavior. However, the essential oil inclusion can significantly decrease the thickness, the moisture content, and the L* value of films whereas the b* value increased due to molecular interactions between the polymeric matrix, the loosing of the structure, and the chemical modifications. On the other hand, the temperature and time of storage changed some physical properties on the chitosan films. This could have occurred because of chemical changes, such as swelling in the presence of high humidity air and the reacetylation of amino groups. In the majority of cases, properties such as moisture content, tensile strength, elongation at break, puncture deformation, a*, b*, chrome, ΔE increased whereas water resistance, swelling index, L*, and hue angle decreased.

Keywords: Polymers, food additives, chitosan, modified films

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2549 Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of the Essential Oils from Bunium alpinum and Bunium incrassatum

Authors: Hayet El Kolli, Hocine Laouer

Abstract:

Bunium in the world comprises about 50 to 100 species, mostly distributed in: Algeria, Italy, Pakistan, Iran, and South Africa. Bunium species have several uses like: Bunium persicum which is commonly used as antispasmodic, carminative, anti-obesity and lactogage. This plant have been widely used as an additive in food stuff such as in bread cooking, rice and yoghurt for its carminative, anti-dyspepsia and antispasmodic effect. The B. paucifolium oil has a wide spectrum of action against moulds, yeast and bacteria. The chemical compositions of Bunium incrassatum and Bunium alpinum essential oils were carry out by GC and GC/MS. Therefore, antibacterial activity of two oils was investigated by disk diffusion method against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 1331, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 700603, Bacillus cereus ATCC 10876, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 49452, Lysteria monocytogenes ATCC 15313, Citrobacter freundii ATCC 8090, Proteus mirabilis ATCC 35659. A moderate antibacterial activity was found. In conclusion, it is found that essential oils of the two species are rich in sesquiterpens and other oxygenated compounds. These compounds have been reported to show bactericidal activity and the presence of phenolic compounds makes them useful antioxidants so that results confirm some ethnopharmacologique applications of these two oils of Bunium.

Keywords: Antibacterial, Phenols, Essential Oil, Bunium alpinum, Bunium incrassatum, apiaceae, sesquiterpens, antioxidant activities

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2548 Effect of Four Medicinal Plant Extracts on Chickpea Leaf Miner Liriomyza cicerina (Rondani)

Authors: Sabraoui Abdelhadi, El Bouhssini Mustapha, Lhaloui Saadia, El Fakhouri Karim, Bouchelta Aziz

Abstract:

The surveys carried out in 2014, 2015 in the regions of Abda- Doukala, Chaouia- Ouardigha, Zemour- Zair and Fes- Sais have confirmed that the leaf miner was the main insect pest attacking chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) in Morocco. The grain yield losses caused by this pest could be more than 20% for winter planting and more than 42% for spring-sown crop. To reduce the chickpea leaf miner infestations, four essential oils, as biopesticide alternatives, were tested for their insecticidal effect on L. ciccerina, adults and larvae under laboratory conditions. In addition, we assessed the efficacy of these essential oils with and without adjuvant against this pest in comparison to three insecticides under field conditions. Mentha pulegium, with a dose of 33 µl/l of air caused 100% mortality on adults and larvae, after three hours and six hours of exposure, respectively. Eucalyptus showed 100% mortality on adults and larvae, with doses of 33 and 83 µl/l, after six and three hours of exposure, respectively. In the field conditions M. pulegium and E. globulus with adjuvant showed promising results compared with Abamectin, Azadirachtin and Spinetoram respectively. Essential oils could be used as one of the IPM components for the control of chickpea leaf miner.

Keywords: essential oils, chickpea, Morocco, insecticidal activity, liriomyza cicerina

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2547 Essential Oil Analysis of the Aerial Parts of Sideritis incana and Calamitha hispidula

Authors: Smain Amiraa, Hocine Laouerb, Fatima Benchikh-Amiraa, Guido Flaminic

Abstract:

The aerial parts of Sideritis incana and Calamintha hispidula at the flowering stage were submitted to hydrodistillation in a Clevenger–type apparatus for 3 hours and the chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed by GC coupled to GC-MS. The essential oil contained a total of 99 constituents for S. incana and 31 for C. hispidula representing 95.7% and 99.6 of the total oils, rerspectively. The mains components of S. incana oil were linalool (25.2), cedrol (13.7%), geraniol (7%) and α-terpineol (5.4%). The chemical constituents of the oil from C. hispidula were predominated by pulegone (43.2%), isomenthone (36%), piperitone (3.2%), limonene (2.6%) and 4-terpineol (2.5%). The results revealed that the oil of the plants is characterized by the presence of many important components which could be applied in food, pharmaceutical and perfume industry.

Keywords: essential oils, Chemical and Molecular Engineering, Calamintha hispidula, Sideritis incana

Procedia PDF Downloads 127