Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 459

Search results for: doubly doped

459 FTIR and AFM Properties of Doubly Doped Tin Oxide Thin Films Prepared by Spin Coating Technique

Authors: Bahattin Duzgun, Adem Kocyigit, Demet Tatar, Ahmet Battal


Tin oxide thin films are semiconductor materials highly transparent and with high mechanical and chemical stability, except for their interactions with oxygen atoms at high temperature. Many dopants, such as antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), fluorine (F), indium (In), molybdenum and (Mo) etc. have been used to improve the electrical properties of tin oxide films. Among these, Sb and F are found to be the most commonly used dopants for solar cell layers. Also Tin oxide tin films investigated and characterized by researchers different film deposition and analysis method. In this study, tin oxide thin films are deposited on glass substrate by spin coating technique and characterized by FTIR and AFM. FTIR spectroscopy revealed that all films have O-Sn-O and Sn-OH vibration bonds not changing with layer effect. AFM analysis indicates that all films are homogeneity and uniform. It can be seen that all films have needle shape structure in their surfaces. Uniformity and homogeneity of the films generally increased for increasing layers. The results found in present study showed that doubly doped SnO2 thin films is a good candidate for solar cells and other optoelectronic and technological applications.

Keywords: doubly doped, spin coating, FTIR analysis, AFM analysis

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458 Inequality for Doubly Warped Product Manifolds

Authors: Morteza Faghfouri


In this paper we establish a general inequality involving the Laplacian of the warping functions and the squared mean curvature of any doubly warped product isometrically immersed in a Riemannian manifold.

Keywords: integral submanifolds, S-space forms, doubly warped product, inequality

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
457 Effect of Substrate Temperature on Some Physical Properties of Doubly doped Tin Oxide Thin Films

Authors: Ahmet Battal, Demet Tatar, Bahattin Düzgün


Various transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) are mostly used much applications due to many properties such as cheap, high transmittance/electrical conductivity etc. One of the clearest among TCOs, indium tin oxide (ITO), is the most widely used in many areas. However, as ITO is expensive and very low regarding reserve, other materials with suitable properties (especially SnO2 thin films) are be using instead of it. In this report, tin oxide thin films doubly doped with antimony and fluorine (AFTO) were deposited by spray at different substrate temperatures on glass substrate. It was investigated their structural, optical, electrical and luminescence properties. The substrate temperature was varied from 320 to 480 ˚C at the interval of 40 (±5) ºC. X-ray results were shown that the films are polycrystalline with tetragonal structure and oriented preferentially along (101), (200) and (210) directions. It was observed that the preferential orientations of crystal growth are not dependent on substrate temperature, but the intensity of preferential orientation was increased with increasing substrate temperature until 400 ºC. After this substrate temperature, they decreased. So, substrate temperature impact structure of these thin films. It was known from SEM analysis, the thin films have rough and homogenous and the surface of the films was affected by the substrate temperature i.e. grain size are increasing with increasing substrate temperature until 400 ºC. Also, SEM and AFM studies revealed the surface of AFTO thin films to be made of nanocrystalline particles. The average transmittance of the films in the visible range is 70-85%. Eg values of the films were investigated using the absorption spectra and found to be in the range 3,20-3,93 eV. The electrical resistivity decreases with increasing substrate temperature, then the electrical resistivity increases. PL spectra were found as a function of substrate temperature. With increasing substrate temperature, emission spectra shift a little bit to a UV region. Finally, tin oxide thin films were successfully prepared by this method and a spectroscopic characterization of the obtained films was performed. It was found that the films have very good physical properties. It was concluded that substrate temperature impacts thin film structure.

Keywords: thin films, spray pyrolysis, SnO2, doubly doped

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
456 Structural and Magnetic Properties of Undoped and Ni Doped CdZnS

Authors: Sabit Horoz, Ahmet Ekicibil, Omer Sahin, M. Akyol


In this study, CdZnS and Ni-doped CdZnS quantum dots(QDs) were prepared by the wet-chemical method at room temperature using mercaptoethanol as a capping agent. The structural and magnetic properties of the CdZnS and CdZnS doped with different concentrations of Ni QDs were examined by XRD and magnetic susceptibility measurements, respectively. The average particles size of cubic QDs obtained by full-width half maxima (FWHM) analysis, increases with increasing doping concentrations. The investigation of the magnetic properties showed that the Ni-doped samples exhibit signs of ferromagnetism, on the other hand, un-doped CdZnS is diamagnetic.

Keywords: un-doped and Ni doped CdZnS Quantum Dots (QDs), co-precipitation method, structural and optical properties of QDs, diluted magnetic semiconductor materials (DMSMs)

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455 Enhanced Ripening Behaviour of Manganese Doped Cadmium Selenide Quantum Dots (Mn-doped CdSe QDs)

Authors: N. A. Hamizi, M. R. Johan, Y. H. Hor, A. N. Sabri, Y. Y. A. Yong


In this research, Mn-doped CdSe QDs is synthesized by using paraffin liquid as the reacting solvent and oleic acid as the ligands for Cd in order to produce Mn-doped CdSe QDs in zinc-blende crystal structure. Characterization studies for synthesized Mn-doped CdSe QDs are carried out using UV-visible and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The absorption wavelengths in UV-vis test and emission wavelengths in PL test were increase with the increases in the ripening temperature and time respectively.

Keywords: semiconductor, chemical synthesis, optical properties, ripening

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
454 Park’s Vector Approach to Detect an Inter Turn Stator Fault in a Doubly Fed Induction Machine by a Neural Network

Authors: Amel Ourici


An electrical machine failure that is not identified in an initial stage may become catastrophic and it may suffer severe damage. Thus, undetected machine faults may cascade in it failure, which in turn may cause production shutdowns. Such shutdowns are costly in terms of lost production time, maintenance costs, and wasted raw materials. Doubly fed induction generators are used mainly for wind energy conversion in MW power plants. This paper presents a detection of an inter turn stator fault in a doubly fed induction machine whose stator and rotor are supplied by two pulse width modulation (PWM) inverters. The method used in this article to detect this fault, is based on Park’s Vector Approach, using a neural network.

Keywords: doubly fed induction machine, PWM inverter, inter turn stator fault, Park’s vector approach, neural network

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453 Active Control of Multiferroic Composite Shells Using 1-3 Piezoelectric Composites

Authors: S. C. Kattimani


This article deals with the analysis of active constrained layer damping (ACLD) of smart multiferroic or magneto-electro-elastic doubly curved shells. The kinematics of deformations of the multiferroic doubly curved shell is described by a layer-wise shear deformation theory. A three-dimensional finite element model of multiferroic shells has been developed taking into account the electro-elastic and magneto-elastic couplings. A simple velocity feedback control law is employed to incorporate the active damping. Influence of layer stacking sequence and boundary conditions on the response of the multiferroic doubly curved shell has been studied. In addition, for the different orientation of the fibers of the constraining layer, the performance of the ACLD treatment has been studied.

Keywords: active constrained layer damping (ACLD), doubly curved shells, magneto-electro-elastic, multiferroic composite, smart structures

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
452 Simulation Study of a Fault at the Switch on the Operation of the Doubly Fed Induction Generator Based on the Wind Turbine

Authors: N. Zerzouri, N. Benalia, N. Bensiali


This work is devoted to an analysis of the operation of a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) integrated with a wind system. The power transfer between the stator and the network is carried out by acting on the rotor via a bidirectional signal converter. The analysis is devoted to the study of a fault in the converter due to an interruption of the control of a semiconductor. Simulation results obtained by the MATLAB / Simulink software illustrate the quality of the power generated at the default.

Keywords: doubly fed induction generator (DFIG), wind power generation, back to back PWM converter, default switching

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451 Photocatalytic Activity of Pure and Doped CeO2 Nanoparticles

Authors: Mohamed Khedr, Ahmed Farghali, Waleed El Rouby, Abdelrhman Hamdeldeen


Pure CeO2, Sm and Gd doped CeO2 were successfully prepared via hydrothermal method. The effect of hydrothermal temperature, reaction time and precursors were investigated. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), FT-Raman Spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope (TEM) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). The prepared pure and doped CeO2 nanoparticles were used as photo-catalyst for the degradation of Methylene blue (MB) dye under UV light irradiation. The results showed that Gd doped CeO2 nano-particles have the best catalytic degradation effect for MB under UV irradiation. The degradation pathways of MB were followed using liquid chromatography (LC/MS) and it was found that Gd doped CeO2 was able to oxidize MB dye with a complete mineralization of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur heteroatoms into CO2, NH4+, NO3- and SO42-.

Keywords: CeO2, doped CeO2, photocatalysis, methylene blue

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450 Investigation on Electronic and Magnetic Properties of Transition Metals Doped Zinc Selenide

Authors: S. Bentata, W. Benstaali, A. Abbad, H. A. Bentounes, B. Bouadjemi


The full potential linear augmented plane wave (FPLAPW) based on density-functional theory (DFT) is employed to study the electronic, magnetic and optical properties of some transition metals doped ZnSe. Calculations are carried out by varying the doped atoms. Four 3D transition elements were used as a dopant: Cr, Mn, Co and Cu in order to induce spin polarization. Our results show that, Mn and Cu-doped ZnSe could be used in spintronic devices only if additional dopants are introduced, on the contrary, transition elements showing delocalized quality such as Cr, and Co doped ZnSe might be promising candidates for application in spintronic.

Keywords: spin-up, spin-down, magnetic properties, transition metal, composite materials

Procedia PDF Downloads 104
449 Advanced Fuzzy Control for a Doubly Fed Induction Generator in Wind Energy Conversion Systems

Authors: Santhosh Kumat T., Priya E.


The control of a doubly fed induction generator by fuzzy is described. The active and reactive power can be controlled by rotor and grid side converters with fuzzy controller. The main objective is to maintain constant voltage and frequency at the output of the generator. However the Line Side Converter (LSC) can be controlled to supply up to 50% of the required reactive current. When the crowbar is not activated the DFIG can supply reactive power from the rotor side through the machine as well as through the LSC.

Keywords: Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG), Rotor Side Converter (RSC), Grid Side Converter (GSC), Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS)

Procedia PDF Downloads 440
448 Ta-doped Nb2O5: Synthesis and Photocatalytic Activity

Authors: Mahendrasingh J. Pawar, M. D. Gaoner


Ta-doped Nb2O5 (Ta content 0.5-2% mole fraction) nanoparticles in the range of 20-40 nm were synthesized by combustion technique. The crystalline phase, morphology and size of the nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-vis spectroscopy. The specific surface area of the nanoparticles was measured by nitrogen adsorption (BET analysis). The undoped Nb2O5 nanoparticles were found to have the particles size in the range of 50−80 nm. The photocatalytic performance of the samples was characterized by degrading 20 mg/L toluene under UV−Vis irradiation. The results show that the Ta-doped Nb2O5 nanoparticles exhibit a significant increase in photocatalytic performance over the undoped Nb2O5 nanoparticles, and the Nb2O5 nanoparticles doped with 1.5% Ta and calcined at 450°C show the best photocatalytic performance.

Keywords: Nb2O5, Ta-doped Nb2O5, photodegradation of Toluene, combustion method

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447 A Novel Fuzzy Second-Order Sliding Mode Control of a Doubly Fed Induction Generator for Wind Energy Conversion

Authors: Elhadj Bounadja, Mohand Oulhadj Mahmoudi, Abdelkader Djahbar, Zinelaabidine Boudjema


In this paper we present a novel fuzzy second-order sliding mode control (FSOSMC) for wind energy conversion system based on a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG). The proposed control strategy combines a fuzzy logic and a second-order sliding mode for the DFIG control. This strategy presents attractive features such as chattering-free, compared to the conventional first and second order sliding mode techniques. The use of this method provides very satisfactory performance for the DFIG control. The overall strategy has been validated on a 1.5-MW wind turbine driven a DFIG using the Matlab/Simulink.

Keywords: doubly fed induction generator, fuzzy second-order sliding mode controller, wind energy

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446 Effect of O2 Pressure of Fe-Doped TiO2 Nanostructure on Morphology Properties for Gas Sensing

Authors: Samar Y. Al-Dabagh, Adawiya J. Haider, Mirvat D. Majed


Pure nanostructure TiO2 and thin films doped with transition metal Fe were prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on Si (111) substrate. The thin films structures were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The morphology properties were determined from atomic force microscopy (AFM), which shows that the roughness increases when TiO2 is doped with Fe. Results show TiO2 doped with Fe metal thin films deposited on Si (111) substrate has maximum sensitivity to ethanol vapor at 10 mbar oxygen pressure than at 0.01 and 0.1 mbar with optimum operation temperature of 250°C.

Keywords: pulsed laser deposition (PLD), TiO2 doped thin films, nanostructure, gas sensor

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445 Hafnium Doped Zno Nanostructures: An Eco-Friendly Synthesis for Optoelectronic Applications

Authors: Mohamed Achehboune, Mohammed Khenfouch, Issam Boukhoubza, Bakang Mothudi, Izeddine Zorkani, Anouar Jorio


Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanostructures have been attracting growing interest in recent years; their optical and electrical properties make them useful as attractive and promising materials for optoelectronic applications. In this study, pure and Hafnium doped ZnO nanostructures were synthesized using a green processing method. The structural, optical and electrical properties of samples were investigated structural and optical spectroscopies and electrical measurements. The synthesis and chemical composition of pure and Hafnium doped ZnO were confirmed by SEM observation. The XRD studies of Hafnium doped ZnO demonstrate the formation of wurtzite structure with preferred c-axis orientation. Moreover, the optical and electrical properties of doped material have improved after the doping process. The experimental results obtained for our material show that Hf doped ZnO nanostructures could be a promising material in optoelectronic applications such as photovoltaic cell and light emitting diode devices.

Keywords: green synthesis, hafnium-doped-zinc oxide, nanostructures, optoelectronic

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444 Eu+3 Ion as a Luminescent Probe in ZrO2: Gd+3 Co-Doped Nanophosphor

Authors: S. Manjunatha, M. S. Dharmaprakash


Well-defined 2D Eu+3 co-doped ZrO2: Gd+3 nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by microwave assisted solution combustion technique for luminescent applications. The present investigation reports the rapid and effective method for the synthesis of the Eu+3 co-doped ZrO2:Gd+3 nanoparticles and study of the luminescence behavior of Eu+3 ion in ZrO2:Gd+3 nanostructures. The optical properties of the prepared nanostructures were investigated by using UV-visible spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectra. The phase formation and the morphology of the nanoplatelets were studied by XRD, FESEM and HRTEM. The average grain size was found to be 45-50 nm. The presence of Gd3+ ion increases the crystallinity of the material and hence acts as a good nucleating agent. The ZrO2:Gd3+ co-doped with Eu+3 nanoplatelets gives an emission at 607 nm, a strong red emission under the excitation wavelength of 255 nm.

Keywords: nanoparticles, XRD, TEM, photoluminescence

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
443 Recursive Parametric Identification of a Doubly Fed Induction Generator-Based Wind Turbine

Authors: A. El Kachani, E. Chakir, A. Ait Laachir, A. Niaaniaa, J. Zerouaoui


This document presents an adaptive controller based on recursive parametric identification applied to a wind turbine based on the doubly-fed induction machine (DFIG), to compensate the faults and guarantee efficient of the DFIG. The proposed adaptive controller is based on the recursive least square algorithm which considers that the best estimator for the vector parameter is the vector x minimizing a quadratic criterion. Furthermore, this method can improve the rapidity and precision of the controller based on a model. The proposed controller is validated via simulation on a 5.5 kW DFIG-based wind turbine. The results obtained seem to be good. In addition, they show the advantages of an adaptive controller based on recursive least square algorithm.

Keywords: adaptive controller, recursive least squares algorithm, wind turbine, doubly fed induction generator

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
442 Inverse Cauchy Problem of Doubly Connected Domains via Spectral Meshless Radial Point Interpolation

Authors: Elyas Shivanian


In this paper, the spectral meshless radial point interpolation (SMRPI) technique is applied to the Cauchy problems of two-dimensional elliptic PDEs in doubly connected domains. It is obtained the unknown data on the inner boundary of the domain while overspecified boundary data are imposed on the outer boundary of the domain by using the SMRPI. Shape functions, which are constructed through point interpolation method using the radial basis functions, help us to treat problem locally with the aim of high order convergence rate. In this way, localization in SMRPI can reduce the ill-conditioning for Cauchy problem. Furthermore, we improve previous results and it is revealed the SMRPI is more accurate and stable by adding strong perturbations.

Keywords: cauchy problem, doubly connected domain, radial basis function, shape function

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441 Optical and Magnetic Properties of Ferromagnetic Co-Ni Co-Doped TiO2 Thin Films

Authors: Rabah Bensaha, Badreddine Toubal


We investigate the structural, optical and magnetic properties of TiO2, Co-doped TiO2, Ni-doped TiO2 and Co-Ni co-doped TiO2 thin films prepared by the sol-gel dip coating method. Fully anatase phase was obtained by adding metal ions without any detectable impurity phase or oxide formed. AFM and SEM micrographs clearly confirm that the addition of Co-Ni affects the shape of anatase nanoparticles. The crystallite sizes and surface roughness of TiO2 films increase with Co-doping, Ni-doping and Co–Ni co-doping, respectively. The refractive index, thickness and optical band gap values of the films were obtained by means of optical transmittance spectra measurements. The band gap of TiO2 sample was decreased by Co-doping, Ni-doping and Co–Ni co-doping TiO2 films. Both undoped and Co-Ni co-doped films were found to be ferromagnetic at room temperature may due to the presence of oxygen vacancy defect and the probable formation of metal clusters Co-Ni.

Keywords: Co-Ni co-doped, anatase TiO2, ferromagnetic, sol-gel method, thin films

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
440 Active Disturbance Rejection Control for Maximization of Generated Power from Wind Energy Conversion Systems using a Doubly Fed Induction Generator

Authors: Tamou Nasser, Ahmed Essadki, Ali Boukhriss


This paper presents the control of doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) used in the wind energy conversion systems. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) strategy is used to extract the maximum of power during the conversion and taking care that the system does not exceed the operating limits. This is done by acting on the pitch angle to control the orientation of the turbine's blades. Having regard to its robustness and performance, active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) based on the extended state observer (ESO) is employed to achieve the control of both rotor and grid side converters. Simulations are carried out using matlab simulink.

Keywords: active disturbance rejection control, extended state observer, doubly fed induction generator, maximum power point tracking

Procedia PDF Downloads 407
439 Maximization of Generated Power from Wind Energy Conversion Systems Using a Doubly Fed Induction Generator with Active Disturbance Rejection Control

Authors: Tamou Nasser, Ahmed Essadki, Ali Boukhriss


This paper presents the control of doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) used in the wind energy conversion systems. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) strategy is used to extract the maximum of power during the conversion and taking care that the system does not exceed the operating limits. This is done by acting on the pitch angle to control the orientation of the turbine's blades. Having regard to its robustness and performance, active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) based on the extended state observer (ESO) is employed to achieve the control of both rotor and grid side converters. Simulations are carried out using matlab simulink.

Keywords: active disturbance rejection control, extended state observer, doubly fed induction generator, maximum power point tracking

Procedia PDF Downloads 362
438 Thermoelectric Properties of Spark Plasma Sintered Te Doped Cu₃SbSe₄: Promising Thermoelectric Material

Authors: Kriti Tyagi, Bhasker Gahtori


Various groups have attempted on enhancing the thermoelectric figure-of-merit (ZT) of the Cu₃SbSe₄ compound by employing doping process. Efforts are made to study the thermoelectric performance of Cu₃SbSe₄ material doped with Te in different compositions (i. e. Cu₃Sb₁₋ₓTeₓSe₄, x = 0.005, 0.01, 0.015, 0.02). The different doping concentration has been selected to identify the suitable doping to increase the thermoelectric performance. Compared to pristine Cu₃SbSe₄, an enhancement of thermoelectric figure-of-merit was achieved for 0.005 Te doped Cu₃SbSe₄. This improvement can be attributed to the reduction of thermal conductivity for 0.005 Te doped Cu₃SbSe₄.

Keywords: figure-of-merit, polycrystalline, thermal conductivity, thermoelectric

Procedia PDF Downloads 105
437 A Linear Active Disturbance Rejection Control for Maximization of Generated Power from Wind Energy Conversion Systems Using a Doubly Fed Induction Generator

Authors: Tamou Nasser, Ahmed Essadki, Ali Boukhriss


This paper presents the control of doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) used in the wind energy conversion systems. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) strategy is used to extract the maximum of power during the conversion and taking care that the system does not exceed the operating limits. This is done by acting on the pitch angle to control the orientation of the turbine's blades. Having regard to its robustness and performance, active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) based on the extended state observer (ESO) is employed to achieve the control of both rotor and grid side converters. Simulations are carried out using MATLAB simulink.

Keywords: active disturbance rejection control, extended state observer, doubly fed induction generator, maximum power point tracking

Procedia PDF Downloads 364
436 Dynamic Analysis of Composite Doubly Curved Panels with Variable Thickness

Authors: I. Algul, G. Akgun, H. Kurtaran


Dynamic analysis of composite doubly curved panels with variable thickness subjected to different pulse types using Generalized Differential Quadrature method (GDQ) is presented in this study. Panels with variable thickness are used in the construction of aerospace and marine industry. Giving variable thickness to panels can allow the designer to get optimum structural efficiency. For this reason, estimating the response of variable thickness panels is very important to design more reliable structures under dynamic loads. Dynamic equations for composite panels with variable thickness are obtained using virtual work principle. Partial derivatives in the equation of motion are expressed with GDQ and Newmark average acceleration scheme is used for temporal discretization. Several examples are used to highlight the effectiveness of the proposed method. Results are compared with finite element method. Effects of taper ratios, boundary conditions and loading type on the response of composite panel are investigated.

Keywords: differential quadrature method, doubly curved panels, laminated composite materials, small displacement

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435 Modeling and Power Control of DFIG Used in Wind Energy System

Authors: Nadia Ben Si Ali, Nadia Benalia, Nora Zerzouri


Wind energy generation has attracted great interests in recent years. Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) for wind turbines are largely deployed because variable-speed wind turbines have many advantages over fixed-speed generation such as increased energy capture, operation at maximum power point, improved efficiency, and power quality. This paper presents the operation and vector control of a Doubly-fed Induction Generator (DFIG) system where the stator is connected directly to a stiff grid and the rotor is connected to the grid through bidirectional back-to-back AC-DC-AC converter. The basic operational characteristics, mathematical model of the aerodynamic system and vector control technique which is used to obtain decoupled control of powers are investigated using the software Mathlab/Simulink.

Keywords: wind turbine, Doubly Fed Induction Generator, wind speed controller, power system stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
434 The Microstructure of Aging ZnO, AZO, and GZO Films

Authors: Zue Chin Chang, Shih-Chang Liang


RF magnetron sputtering is used on the ceramic targets, each of which contains zinc oxide (ZnO), zinc oxide doped with aluminum (AZO) and zinc oxide doped with gallium (GZO). The electric conduction mechanism of the AZO and GZO films came mainly from the Al and Ga, the oxygen vacancies, Zn interstitial atoms, and Al and/or Ga interstitial atoms. AZO and GZO films achieved higher conduction than did ZnO film, it being ion vacant and nonstoichiometric. The XRD analysis showed a preferred orientation along the (002) plane for ZnO, AZO, and GZO films.

Keywords: ZnO, AZO, GZO, doped, sputtering

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433 Structural, Electronic and Magnetic Properties of Co and Mn Doped CDTE

Authors: A. Zitouni, S. Bentata, B. Bouadjemi, T. Lantri, W. Benstaali, A. Zoubir, S. Cherid, A. Sefir


The structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of transition metal Co and Mn doped zinc-blende semiconductor CdTe were calculated using the density functional theory (DFT) with both generalized gradient approximation (GGA). We have analyzed the structural parameters, charge and spin densities, total and partial densities of states. We find that the Co and Mn doped zinc blende CdTe show half-metallic behavior with a total magnetic moment of 6.0 and 10.0 µB, respectively.The results obtained, make the Co and Mn doped CdTe a promising candidate for application in spintronics.

Keywords: first-principles, half-metallic, diluted magnetic semiconductor, magnetic moment

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432 Effect of Doping Ag and N on the Photo-Catalytic Activity of ZnO/CuO Nanocomposite for Degradation of Methyl Orange under UV and Visible Radiation

Authors: O. P. Yadav


Nano-size Ag-N co-doped ZnO/CuO composite photo-catalyst has been synthesized by chemical method and characterized using XRD, TEM, FTIR, AAS and UV-Vis spectroscopic techniques. Photo-catalytic activity of as-synthesized nanomaterial has been studied using degradation of methyl orange as a probe under UV as well as visible radiations. Ag-N co-doped ZnO/CuO composite showed higher photo-catalytic activity than Ag- or N-doped ZnO and undoped ZnO-CuO composite photo-catalysts. The observed highest activity of Ag-N co-doped ZnO-CuO among the studied photo-catalysts is attributed to the cumulative effects of lowering of band-gap energy and decrease of recombination rate of photo-generated electrons and holes owing to doped N and Ag, respectively. Effects of photo-catalyst load, pH and substrate initial concentration on degradation of methyl orange have also been studied. Photo-catalytic degradation of methyl orange follows pseudo first order kinetics.

Keywords: degradation, nanocomposite, photocatalyst, spectroscopy, XRD

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431 Phenol Degradation via Photocatalytic Oxidation Using Fe Doped TiO₂

Authors: Sherif Ismail


Degradation of phenol-contaminated wastewater using Photocatalytic oxidation process was investigated in batch experiments using Fe doped TiO₂. Moreover, the effect of oxygen aeration on the performance of photocatalytic oxidation process by iron (Fe⁺²) doped titanium dioxide (TiO₂) was assessed. Photocatalytic oxidation using Fe doped TiO₂ effectively reduce the phenol concentration in wastewater with optimum condition of light intensity, pH, catalyst-dosing and initial concentration of phenol were 50 W/m2, 5.3, 600 mg/l and 10 mg/l respectively. The results obtained that removal efficiency of phenol was 88% after 180 min in case of N₂ addition. However, aeration by oxygen resulted in a 99% removal efficiency in 120 min. The results of photo-catalysis oxidation experiments fitted the pseudo-first-order kinetic equation with high correlation. Costs estimation of 30 m3/d full-scale photo-catalysis oxidation plant was assessed.

Keywords: phenol degradation, Fe-doped TiO2, AOPs, cost analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
430 Recursive Doubly Complementary Filter Design Using Particle Swarm Optimization

Authors: Ju-Hong Lee, Ding-Chen Chung


This paper deals with the optimal design of recursive doubly complementary (DC) digital filter design using a metaheuristic based optimization technique. Based on the theory of DC digital filters using two recursive digital all-pass filters (DAFs), the design problem is appropriately formulated to result in an objective function which is a weighted sum of the phase response errors of the designed DAFs. To deal with the stability of the recursive DC filters during the design process, we can either impose some necessary constraints on the phases of the recursive DAFs. Through a frequency sampling and a weighted least squares approach, the optimization problem of the objective function can be solved by utilizing a population based stochastic optimization approach. The resulting DC digital filters can possess satisfactory frequency response. Simulation results are presented for illustration and comparison.

Keywords: doubly complementary, digital all-pass filter, weighted least squares algorithm, particle swarm optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 541