Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 824

Search results for: cellulosic substrate

824 Synthesis and Characterization of Polypyrrole-Coated Non-Conducting Cellulosic Substrate and Modified by Copper Oxide

Authors: A. Hamam, D. Oukil, A. Dib, L. Makhloufi

Abstract:

The aim of this work is to synthesize modified Polypyrrole films (PPy) containing nanoparticles of copper oxides onto a non conducting cellulosic substrate. Firstly, the chemical polymerization of polypyrrole onto cellulosic substrate is carried out using FeCl3 as an oxidant and Pyrrole as monomer. Different parameters were optimized (monomer concentration, duration of the experiment, nature of supporting electrolyte, temperature, etc.) in order to obtain films with different thickness and different morphologies. Thickness and topography of different PPy deposits were estimated by a profilometer apparatus. The electrochemical reactivity of the obtained electrodes were tested by cyclic voltammetry technique (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Secondly, the modification of the PPy film surface by incorporation of copper oxide nanonoparticles is conducted by applying a galvanostatic procedure from CuCl2 solution. Surface characterization has been carried out using scanning microscope (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The analysis showed the presence of the copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO) in the polymer films with dimensions less than 50 nm.

Keywords: polypyrrole, modified electrode, cellulosic substrate, copper oxide

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823 Co-Liquefaction of Cellulosic Biomass and Waste Plastics

Authors: Katsumi Hirano, Yusuke Kakuta, Koji Yoshida, Shozo Itagaki, Masahiko Kajioka, Toshihiko Okada

Abstract:

A conversion technology of cellulosic biomass and waste plastics to liquid fuel at low pressure and low temperature has been investigated. This study aims at the production of the liquefied fuel (CPLF) of substituting diesel oil by mixing cellulosic biomass and waste plastics in the presence of solvent. Co-liquefaction of cellulosic biomass (Japan cedar) and polypropylene (PP) using wood tar or mineral oil as solvent at 673K with an autoclave was carried out. It was confirmed that the co-liquefaction gave CPLF in a high yield among the cases of wood or of polypropylene Which was ascribed the acceleration of decomposition of plastics by radicals derived from the decomposition of wood. The co-liquefaction was also conducted by a small twin screw extruder. It was found that CPLF was obtained in the co-liquefaction, And the acceleration of decomposition of plastics in the presence of cellulosic biomass. The engine test of CPLF showed that the engine performances, Compression ignition and combustion characteristics were almost similar to those of diesel fuel at any mixing ratio of CPLF and any load, Therefore, CPLF could be practically used as alternative fuel for diesel engines.

Keywords: Cellulosic Biomass, Co-liquefaction, Solvent, Waste Plastics

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822 Use of Cellulosic Fibres in Double Layer Porous Asphalt

Authors: Márcia Afonso, Marisa Dinis-Almeida, Cristina Fael

Abstract:

Climate change, namely precipitation patterns alteration, has led to extreme conditions such as floods and droughts. In turn, excessive construction has led to the waterproofing of the soil, increasing the surface runoff and decreasing the groundwater recharge capacity. The permeable pavements used in areas with low traffic lead to a decrease in the probability of floods peaks occurrence and the sediments reduction and pollutants transport, ensuring rainwater quality improvement. This study aims to evaluate the porous asphalt performance, developed in the laboratory, with addition of cellulosic fibres. One of the main objectives of cellulosic fibres use is to stop binder drainage, preventing its loss during storage and transport. Comparing to the conventional porous asphalt the cellulosic fibres addition improved the porous asphalt performance. The cellulosic fibres allowed the bitumen content increase, enabling retention and better aggregates coating and, consequently, a greater mixture durability. With this solution, it is intended to develop better practices of resilience and adaptation to the extreme climate changes and respond to the sustainability current demands, through the eco-friendly materials use. The mix design was performed for different size aggregates (with fine aggregates – PA1 and with coarse aggregates – PA2). The percentage influence of the fibres to be used was studied. It was observed that overall, the binder drainage decreases as the cellulose fibres percentage increases. It was found that the PA2 mixture obtained most binder drainage relative to PA1 mixture, irrespective of the fibres percentage used. Subsequently, the performance was evaluated through laboratory tests of indirect tensile stiffness modulus, water sensitivity, permeability and permanent deformation. The stiffness modulus for the two mixtures groups (with and without cellulosic fibres) presented very similar values between them. For the water sensitivity test it was observed that porous asphalt containing more fine aggregates are more susceptible to the water presence than mixtures with coarse aggregates. The porous asphalt with coarse aggregates have more air voids which allow water to pass easily leading to ITSR higher values. In the permeability test was observed that asphalt porous without cellulosic fibres presented had lower permeability than asphalt porous with cellulosic fibres. The resistance to permanent deformation results indicates better behaviour of porous asphalt with cellulosic fibres, verifying a bigger rut depth in porous asphalt without cellulosic fibres. In this study, it was observed that porous asphalt with bitumen higher percentages improve the performance to permanent deformation. This fact was only possible due to the bitumen retention by the cellulosic fibres.

Keywords: binder drainage, cellulosic fibres, permanent deformation, porous asphalt

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821 Fermentation of Pretreated Herbaceous Cellulosic Wastes to Ethanol by Anaerobic Cellulolytic and Saccharolytic Thermophilic Clostridia

Authors: Lali Kutateladze, Tamar Urushadze, Tamar Dudauri, Besarion Metreveli, Nino Zakariashvili, Izolda Khokhashvili, Maya Jobava

Abstract:

Lignocellulosic waste streams from agriculture, paper and wood industry are renewable, plentiful and low-cost raw materials that can be used for large-scale production of liquid and gaseous biofuels. As opposed to prevailing multi-stage biotechnological processes developed for bioconversion of cellulosic substrates to ethanol where high-cost cellulase preparations are used, Consolidated Bioprocessing (CBP) offers to accomplish cellulose and xylan hydrolysis followed by fermentation of both C6 and C5 sugars to ethanol in a single-stage process. Syntrophic microbial consortium comprising of anaerobic, thermophilic, cellulolytic, and saccharolytic bacteria in the genus Clostridia with improved ethanol productivity and high tolerance to fermentation end-products had been proposed for achieving CBP. 65 new strains of anaerobic thermophilic cellulolytic and saccharolytic Clostridia were isolated from different wetlands and hot springs in Georgia. Using new isolates, fermentation of mechanically pretreated wheat straw and corn stalks was done under oxygen-free nitrogen environment in thermophilic conditions (T=550C) and pH 7.1. Process duration was 120 hours. Liquid and gaseous products of fermentation were analyzed on a daily basis using Perkin-Elmer gas chromatographs with flame ionization and thermal detectors. Residual cellulose, xylan, xylose, and glucose were determined using standard methods. Cellulolytic and saccharolytic bacteria strains degraded mechanically pretreated herbaceous cellulosic wastes and fermented glucose and xylose to ethanol, acetic acid and gaseous products like hydrogen and CO2. Specifically, maximum yield of ethanol was reached at 96 h of fermentation and varied between 2.9 – 3.2 g/ 10 g of substrate. The content of acetic acid didn’t exceed 0.35 g/l. Other volatile fatty acids were detected in trace quantities.

Keywords: anaerobic bacteria, cellulosic wastes, Clostridia sp, ethanol

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820 The Potential Use of Flavin Mononucleotide for Photoluminescent and Bioluminescent Textile

Authors: Sweta Iyer, Nemeshwaree Behary, Jinping Guan, Guoqiang Chen, Vincent Nierstrasz

Abstract:

Flavin mononucleotide widely known as 'FMN' is a biobased resource derived from riboflavin. The isoalloxazine ring present in the FMN molecule attributes the photoluminescence phenomenon, whereas FMN molecule in the presence of bacterial luciferase enzyme and co-factors such as NADH, long chain aldehyde leads to bioluminescence reaction. In this study, the FMN molecule was treated on cellulosic textile using chromojet technique and the photoluminescence property was characterized using spectroscopy technique. Further, the FMN was used as a substrate along with enzymes and co-factors to treat the non-woven textile, and the bioluminescence property was explored using luminometer equipment. The investigation revealed photoluminescence property on cellulosic textile, and the emission peak was observed at a wavelength around 530 nm with an average corrected spectral intensity of 10×106 CPS/Microamps. In addition, the measurement of nonwoven textile using bioluminescence reaction system exhibited light intensity measured in the form of relative light units (RLU). The study enabled to explore the use of FMN as both photoluminescent and bioluminescent textile. Further investigation would require for stability study of the same to provide an eco-efficient approach to obtain luminescent textile.

Keywords: flavin mononucleotide, photoluminescence, bioluminescence, luminescent textile

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819 High Titer Cellulosic Ethanol Production Achieved by Fed-Batch Prehydrolysis Simultaneous Enzymatic Saccharification and Fermentation of Sulfite Pretreated Softwood

Authors: Chengyu Dong, Shao-Yuan Leu

Abstract:

Cellulosic ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass can reduce our reliance on fossil fuel, mitigate climate change, and stimulate rural economic development. The relative low ethanol production (60 g/L) limits the economic viable of lignocellulose-based biorefinery. The ethanol production can be increased up to 80 g/L by removing nearly all the non-cellulosic materials, while the capital of the pretreatment process increased significantly. In this study, a fed-batch prehydrolysis simultaneously saccharification and fermentation process (PSSF) was designed to converse the sulfite pretreated softwood (~30% residual lignin) to high concentrations of ethanol (80 g/L). The liquefaction time of hydrolysis process was shortened down to 24 h by employing the fed-batch strategy. Washing out the spent liquor with water could eliminate the inhibition of the pretreatment spent liquor. However, the ethanol yield of lignocellulose was reduced as the fermentable sugars were also lost during the process. Fed-batch prehydrolyzing the while slurry (i.e. liquid plus solid fraction) pretreated softwood for 24 h followed by simultaneously saccharification and fermentation process at 28 °C can generate 80 g/L ethanol production. Fed-batch strategy is very effectively to eliminate the “solid effect” of the high gravity saccharification, so concentrating the cellulose to nearly 90% by the pretreatment process is not a necessary step to get high ethanol production. Detoxification of the pretreatment spent liquor caused the loss of sugar and reduced the ethanol yield consequently. The tolerance of yeast to inhibitors was better at 28 °C, therefore, reducing the temperature of the following fermentation process is a simple and valid method to produce high ethanol production.

Keywords: cellulosic ethanol, sulfite pretreatment, Fed batch PSSF, temperature

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818 Effect of Substrate Temperature on Structure and Properties of Sputtered Transparent Conducting Film of La-Doped BaSnO₃

Authors: Alok Tiwari, Ming Show Wong

Abstract:

Lanthanum (La) doped Barium Tin Oxide (BaSnO₃) film is an excellent alternative for expensive Transparent Conducting Oxides (TCOs) film such as Indium Tin Oxide (ITO). However single crystal film of La-doped BaSnO₃ has been reported with a good amount of conductivity and transparency but in order to improve its reachability, it is important to grow doped BaSO₃ films on an inexpensive substrate. La-doped BaSnO₃ thin films have been grown on quartz substrate by Radio Frequency (RF) sputtering at a different substrate temperature (from 200⁰C to 750⁰C). The thickness of the film measured was varying from 360nm to 380nm with varying substrate temperature. Structure, optical and electrical properties have been studied. The carrier concentration is seen to be decreasing as we enhance the substrate temperature while mobility found to be increased up to 9.3 cm²/V-S. At low substrate temperature resistivity found was lower (< 3x10⁻³ ohm-cm) while sudden enhancement was seen as substrate temperature raises and the trend continues further with increasing substrate temperature. Optical transmittance is getting better with higher substrate temperature from 70% at 200⁰C to > 80% at 750⁰C. Overall, understanding of changes in microstructure, electrical and optical properties of a thin film by varying substrate temperature has been reported successfully.

Keywords: conductivity, perovskite, mobility, TCO film

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817 Biodegradation of Cellulosic Materials by Marine Fungi Isolated from South Corniche of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Fuad Ameen, Mohamed Moslem, Sarfaraz Hadi

Abstract:

Twenty-eight fungal isolates belonging to 12 genera were derived from debris, sediment and water samples collected from Avicennia marina stands 25km south of Jeddah city on the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia. Eight of these isolates were found to be able to grow in association cellulosic waste materials under in vitro conditions in the absence of any carbon source. Isolates were further tested for their potential to degrade paper and clothes wastes by co-cultivation under aeration on a rotary shaker. These fungi accumulated significantly higher biomass, produced ligninolytic and cellulase enzymes, and liberated larger volumes of CO2. These observations indicated that the selected isolates were able to break down and consume the waste materials.

Keywords: biodegradation, enzyme activity, waste materials, mangrove

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816 Application of Acinetobacter sp. KKU44 for Cellulase Production from Agricultural Waste

Authors: Surasak Siripornadulsil, Nutt Poomai, Wilailak Siripornadulsil

Abstract:

Due to a high ethanol demand, the approach for effective ethanol production is important and has been developed rapidly worldwide. Several agricultural wastes are highly abundant in celluloses and the effective cellulose enzymes do exist widely among microorganisms. Accordingly, the cellulose degradation using microbial cellulose to produce a low-cost substrate for ethanol production has attracted more attention. In this study, the cellulose producing bacterial strain has been isolated from rich straw and identified by 16S rDNA sequence analysis as Acinetobacter sp. KKU44. This strain is able to grow and exhibit the cellulose activity. The optimal temperature for its growth and cellulose production is 37 °C. The optimal temperature of bacterial cellulose activity is 60 °C. The cellulose enzyme from Acinetobacter sp. KKU44 is heat-tolerant enzyme. The bacterial culture of 36 h. showed highest cellulose activity at 120 U/mL when grown in LB medium containing 2% (w/v). The capability of Acinetobacter sp. KKU44 to grow in cellulosic agricultural wastes as a sole carbon source and exhibiting the high cellulose activity at high temperature suggested that this strain could be potentially developed further as a cellulose degrading strain for a production of low-cost substrate used in ethanol production.

Keywords: cellulose enzyme, bagasse, rice straw, rice husk, acinetobacter sp. KKU44

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815 Humidity Sensing Behavior of Graphene Oxide on Porous Silicon Substrate

Authors: Amirhossein Hasani, Shamin Houshmand Sharifi

Abstract:

In this work, we investigate humidity sensing behavior of the graphene oxide with porous silicon substrate. By evaporation method, aluminum interdigital electrodes have been deposited onto porous silicon substrate. Then, by drop-casting method graphene oxide solution was deposited onto electrodes. The porous silicon was formed by electrochemical etching. The experimental results showed that using porous silicon substrate, we obtained two times larger sensitivity and response time compared with the results obtained with silicon substrate without porosity.

Keywords: graphene oxide, porous silicon, humidity sensor, electrochemical

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814 The Effect of Spent Mushroom Substrate on Blood Metabolites in Kurdish Male Lambs

Authors: Alireza Vakili, Shahab Ehtesham, Mohsen Danesh Mesgaran

Abstract:

The objective of this study was use different levels of spent mushroom substrate as a suitable substitute for wheat straw in the ration of male lambs. In this study 20 male lambs with the age of 90 days and initial average weight of 33± 1.7 kg were used. The animals were divided separately into single boxes with four treatments (control treatment, spent mushroom substrate 15%, spent mushroom substrate 25% and spent mushroom substrate 35%) and five replications. The experiment period was 114 days being 14 days adaptation and 90 days for breeding. On the days 36 and 94, blood samples were taken from the jugular vein. In order to carry out the trial, 20 male lambs received the four experimental diets in completely randomized design. The statistical analyses were carried out by using the GLM procedure of SAS 9.1. Means among treatments were compared by Tukey test. The results of the study showed that there was no significant differences between the serum biochemical and hematological contents of the lambs in the four treatments (p>0.05). It was concluded that spent mushroom substrate consumption has no harmful effect on the blood parameters of Kurdish male lambs.

Keywords: alternative food, nutrition, sheep performance, spent mushroom substrate

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813 Recycled Cellulosic Fibers and Lignocellulosic Aggregates for Sustainable Building Materials

Authors: N. Stevulova, I. Schwarzova, V. Hospodarova, J. Junak, J. Briancin

Abstract:

Sustainability is becoming a priority for developers and the use of environmentally friendly materials is increasing. Nowadays, the application of raw materials from renewable sources to building materials has gained a significant interest in this research area. Lignocellulosic aggregates and cellulosic fibers are coming from many different sources such as wood, plants and waste. They are promising alternative materials to replace synthetic, glass and asbestos fibers as reinforcement in inorganic matrix of composites. Natural fibers are renewable resources so their cost is relatively low in comparison to synthetic fibers. With the consideration of environmental consciousness, natural fibers are biodegradable so their using can reduce CO2 emissions in the building materials production. The use of cellulosic fibers in cementitious matrices have gained importance because they make the composites lighter at high fiber content, they have comparable cost - performance ratios to similar building materials and they could be processed from waste paper, thus expanding the opportunities for waste utilization in cementitious materials. The main objective of this work is to find out the possibility of using different wastes: hemp hurds as waste of hemp stem processing and recycled fibers obtained from waste paper for making cement composite products such as mortars based on cellulose fibers. This material was made of cement mortar containing organic filler based on hemp hurds and recycled waste paper. In addition, the effects of fibers and their contents on some selected physical and mechanical properties of the fiber-cement plaster composites have been investigated. In this research organic material have used to mortars as 2.0, 5.0 and 10.0 % replacement of cement weight. Reference sample is made for comparison of physical and mechanical properties of cement composites based on recycled cellulosic fibers and lignocellulosic aggregates. The prepared specimens were tested after 28 days of curing in order to investigate density, compressive strength and water absorbability. Scanning Electron Microscopy examination was also carried out.

Keywords: Hemp hurds, organic filler, recycled paper, sustainable building materials

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812 The Effect of Enzymatic Keratin Hydrolysate on the Susceptibility of Cellulosic-Elastomeric Material to Biodecomposition

Authors: Y. H. Tshela Ntumba, A. Przepiórkowska, M. Prochoń

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Polymeric materials have become an integral part of every aspect of today's industry. They have wide applications, inter alia, in areas such as medicine, food industry and agriculture. In agriculture, for example, they are used for the production of pots, irrigation systems and for soil mulching. The aim of this study was the attempt to produce a biodecomposable agricultural mat, by coating cotton fabric with a blend of carboxylated styrene-butadiene latex (LBSK) containing the enzymatic hydrolyzate of keratin from cattle hair, which would serve as a material for mulching. The production of such material allows the beneficial management of burdensome tannery waste constituted by keratin from cattle hair and at the same time, the production of agricultural mats that much faster undergo decomposition than commonly used polyethylene mats.

Keywords: agricultural mat, biodecomposition, biodegradation, carboxylated butadiene-styrene latex, cellulosic-elastomeric material, keratin hydrolyzate, mulching, protein hydrolyzate

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811 Effect of Substrate Temperature on Some Physical Properties of Doubly doped Tin Oxide Thin Films

Authors: Ahmet Battal, Demet Tatar, Bahattin Düzgün

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Various transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) are mostly used much applications due to many properties such as cheap, high transmittance/electrical conductivity etc. One of the clearest among TCOs, indium tin oxide (ITO), is the most widely used in many areas. However, as ITO is expensive and very low regarding reserve, other materials with suitable properties (especially SnO2 thin films) are be using instead of it. In this report, tin oxide thin films doubly doped with antimony and fluorine (AFTO) were deposited by spray at different substrate temperatures on glass substrate. It was investigated their structural, optical, electrical and luminescence properties. The substrate temperature was varied from 320 to 480 ˚C at the interval of 40 (±5) ºC. X-ray results were shown that the films are polycrystalline with tetragonal structure and oriented preferentially along (101), (200) and (210) directions. It was observed that the preferential orientations of crystal growth are not dependent on substrate temperature, but the intensity of preferential orientation was increased with increasing substrate temperature until 400 ºC. After this substrate temperature, they decreased. So, substrate temperature impact structure of these thin films. It was known from SEM analysis, the thin films have rough and homogenous and the surface of the films was affected by the substrate temperature i.e. grain size are increasing with increasing substrate temperature until 400 ºC. Also, SEM and AFM studies revealed the surface of AFTO thin films to be made of nanocrystalline particles. The average transmittance of the films in the visible range is 70-85%. Eg values of the films were investigated using the absorption spectra and found to be in the range 3,20-3,93 eV. The electrical resistivity decreases with increasing substrate temperature, then the electrical resistivity increases. PL spectra were found as a function of substrate temperature. With increasing substrate temperature, emission spectra shift a little bit to a UV region. Finally, tin oxide thin films were successfully prepared by this method and a spectroscopic characterization of the obtained films was performed. It was found that the films have very good physical properties. It was concluded that substrate temperature impacts thin film structure.

Keywords: thin films, spray pyrolysis, SnO2, doubly doped

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810 Continuous Production of Prebiotic Pectic Oligosaccharides from Sugar Beet Pulp in a Continuous Cross Flow Membrane Bioreactor

Authors: Neha Babbar, S. Van Roy, W. Dejonghe, S. Sforza, K. Elst

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Pectic oligosaccharides (a class of prebiotics) are non-digestible carbohydrates which benefits the host by stimulating the growth of healthy gut micro flora. Production of prebiotic pectic oligosaccharides (POS) from pectin rich agricultural residues involves a cutting of long chain polymer of pectin to oligomers of pectin while avoiding the formation of monosaccharides. The objective of the present study is to develop a two-step continuous biocatalytic membrane reactor (MER) for the continuous production of POS (from sugar beet pulp) in which conversion is combined with separation. Optimization of the ratio of POS/monosaccharides, stability and productivities of the process was done by testing various residence times (RT) in the reactor vessel with diluted (10 RT, 20 RT, and 30 RT) and undiluted (30 RT, 40 RT and 60 RT) substrate. The results show that the most stable processes (steady state) were 20 RT and 30 RT for diluted substrate and 40 RT and 60 RT for undiluted substrate. The highest volumetric and specific productivities of 20 g/L/h and 11 g/gE/h; 17 g/l/h and 9 g/gE/h were respectively obtained with 20 RT (diluted substrate) and 40 RT (undiluted substrate). Under these conditions, the permeates of the reactor test with 20 RT (diluted substrate) consisted of 80 % POS fractions while that of 40 RT (undiluted substrate) resulted in 70% POS fractions. A two-step continuous biocatalytic MER for the continuous POS production looks very promising for the continuous production of tailor made POS. Although both the processes i.e 20 RT (diluted substrate) and 40 RT (undiluted substrate) gave the best results, but for an Industrial application it is preferable to use an undiluted substrate.

Keywords: pectic oligosaccharides, membrane reactor, residence time, specific productivity, volumetric productivity

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809 The Potential of Sown Pastures as Feedstock for Biofuels in Brazil

Authors: Danilo G. De Quadros

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Biofuels are a priority in the renewable energy agenda. The utilization of tropical grasses to ethanol production is a real opportunity to Brazil reaches the world’s leadership in biofuels production because there are 100 million hectares of sown pastures, which represent 20% of all land and 80% of agricultural areas. Basically, nowadays tropical grasses are used to raise livestock. The results obtained in this research could bring tremendous advance not only to national technology and economy but also to improve social and environmental aspects. Thus, the objective of this work was to estimate, through well-established international models, the potential of biofuels production using sown tropical pastures as feedstocks and to compare the results with sugarcane ethanol, considering state-of-art of conversion technology, advantages and limitations factors. There were used data from national and international literature about forage yield and biochemical conversion yield. Some scenarios were studied to evaluate potential advantages and limitations for cellulosic ethanol production, since non-food feedstock appeal to conversion strategies, passing through harvest, densification, logistics, environmental impacts (carbon and water cycles, nutrient recycling and biodiversity), and social aspects. If Brazil used only 1% of sown pastures to ethanol production by biochemical pathway, with average dry matter yield of 15 metric tons per hectare per year (there are results of 40 tons), resulted annually in 721 billion liters, that represents 10 times more than sugarcane ethanol projected by the Government in 2030. However, more research is necessary to take the results to commercial scale with competitive costs, considering many strategies and methods applied in ethanol production using cellulosic feedstock.

Keywords: biofuels, biochemical pathway, cellulosic ethanol, sustainability

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808 Mathematical Modeling of Bi-Substrate Enzymatic Reactions in the Presence of Different Types of Inhibitors

Authors: Rafayel Azizyan, Valeri Arakelyan, Aram Gevorgyan, Varduhi Balayan, Emil Gevorgyan

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Currently, mathematical and computer modeling are widely used in different biological studies to predict or assess behavior of such complex systems as biological ones. This study deals with mathematical and computer modeling of bi-substrate enzymatic reactions, which play an important role in different biochemical pathways. The main objective of this study is to represent the results from in silico investigation of bi-substrate enzymatic reactions in the presence of uncompetitive inhibitors, as well as to describe in details the inhibition effects. Four models of uncompetitive inhibition were designed using different software packages. Particularly, uncompetitive inhibitor to the first [ES1] and the second ([ES1S2]; [FS2]) enzyme-substrate complexes have been studied. The simulation, using the same kinetic parameters for all models allowed investigating the behavior of reactions as well as determined some interesting aspects concerning influence of different cases of uncompetitive inhibition. Besides that shown, that uncompetitive inhibitors exhibit specific selectivity depending on mechanism of bi-substrate enzymatic reaction.

Keywords: mathematical modeling, bi-substrate enzymatic reactions, reversible inhibition

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807 In2S3 Buffer Layer Properties for Thin Film Solar Cells Based on CIGS Absorber

Authors: A. Bouloufa, K. Djessas

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In this paper, we reported the effect of substrate temperature on the structural, electrical and optical properties of In2S3 thin films deposited on soda-lime glass substrates by physical vapor deposition technique at various substrate temperatures. The In2Se3 material used for deposition was synthesized from its constituent elements. It was found that all samples exhibit one phase which corresponds to β-In2S3 phase. Values of band gap energy of the films obtained at different substrate temperatures vary in the range of 2.38-2.80 eV and decrease with increasing substrate temperature.

Keywords: buffer layer, In2S3, optical properties, PVD, structural properties

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806 Surface Integration Effect on Mechanical and Piezoelectric Properties of ZnO

Authors: A. Khan, M. Hussain, S. Afgun

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In the present work, the effect of the surface integration on the piezoelectric properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods has been investigated. ZnO nanorods were grown by using aqueous chemical growth method on two samples of graphene coated pet plastic substrate. First substrate’s surface was integrated with ZnO nanoparticles while the other substrate was used without ZnO nanoparticles. Various important parameters were analyzed, the growth density and morphological analysis were taken into account through surface scanning electron microscopy; it was observed that the growth density of nanorods on the integrated surface was much higher than the nonintegrated substrate. The crystal quality of growth orientation was analyzed by X-ray diffraction technique. Mechanical stability of ZnO nanorods on an integrated substrate was more appropriate than the nonintegrated substrate. The generated amount of piezoelectric potential from the integrated substrate was two times higher than the nonintegrated substrate. This shows that the layer of nanoparticles plays a crucial role in the enhancement of piezoelectric potential. Besides this, it also improves the performance of fabricated devices like its mechanical stability and piezoelectric properties. Additionally, the obtained results were compared with the other two samples used for the growth of ZnO nanorods on silver coated glass substrates for similar measurement. The consistency of the results verified the importance of surface integration effect. This study will help us to fabricate improved performance devices by using surface integrated substrates.

Keywords: ZnO nanorods, surface integration, mechanical properties, harvesting piezoelectricity

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805 Device for Thermal Depolymerisation of Organic Substrates Prior to Methane Fermentation

Authors: Marcin Dębowski, Mirosław Krzemieniewski, Marcin Zieliński

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This publication presents a device designed to depolymerise and structurally change organic substrate, for use in agricultural biogas plants or sewage treatment plants. The presented device consists of a heated tank equipped with an inlet valve for the crude substrate and an outlet valve for the treated substrate. The system also includes a gas conduit, which is at its tip equipped with a high-pressure solenoid valve and a vacuum relief solenoid valve. A conduit behind the high-pressure solenoid valve connects to the vacuum tank equipped with the outlet valve. The substrate introduced into the device is exposed to agents such as high temperature and cavitation produced by abrupt, short-term reduction of pressure within the heated tank. The combined effect of these processes is substrate destruction rate increase of about 20% when compared to using high temperature alone, and about 30% when compared to utilizing only cavitation. Energy consumption is greatly reduced, as the pressure increase is generated by heating the substrate. Thus, there is a 18% reduction of energy consumption when compared to a device designed to destroy substrate through high temperature alone, and a 35% reduction if compared to using cavitation as the only means of destruction.

Keywords: thermal depolymerisation, organic substrate, biogas, pre-treatment

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804 Characterization of the Microorganisms Associated with Pleurotus ostractus and Pleurotus tuber-Regium Spent Mushroom Substrate

Authors: Samuel E. Okere, Anthony E. Ataga

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Introduction: The microbial ecology of Pleurotus osteratus and Pleurotus tuber–regium spent mushroom substrate (SMS) were characterized to determine other ways of its utilization. Materials and Methods: The microbiological properties of the spent mushroom substrate were determined using standard methods. This study was carried out at the Microbiology Laboratory University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. Results: Quantitative microbiological analysis revealed that Pleurotus osteratus spent mushroom substrate (POSMS) contained 7.9x10⁵ and 1.2 x10³ cfu/g of total heterotrophic bacteria and total fungi count respectively while Pleurotus tuber-regium spent mushroom substrate (PTSMS) contained 1.38x10⁶ and 9.0 x10² cfu/g of total heterotrophic bacteria count and total fungi count respectively. The fungi species encountered from Pleurotus tuber-regium spent mushroom substrate (PTSMS) include Aspergillus and Cladosporum species, while Aspergillus and Penicillium species were encountered from Pleurotus osteratus spent mushroom substrate (POSMS). However, the bacteria species encountered from Pleurotus tuber-regium spent mushroom substrate include Bacillus, Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Actinobacter, and Pseudomonas species while Bacillus, Actinobacteria, Aeromonas, Lactobacillus and Aerococcus species were encountered from Pleurotus osteratus spent mushroom substrate (POSMS). Conclusion: Therefore based on the findings from this study, it can be concluded that spent mushroom substrate contain microorganisms that can be utilized both in bioremediation of oil-polluted soils as they contain important hydrocarbon utilizing microorganisms such as Penicillium, Aspergillus and Bacillus species and also as sources of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) such as Pseudomonas and Bacillus species which can induce resistance on plants. However, further studies are recommended, especially to molecularly characterize these microorganisms.

Keywords: characterization, microorganisms, mushroom, spent substrate

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803 Effect of Surface Preparation of Concrete Substrate on Bond Tensile Strength of Thin Bonded Cement Based Overlays

Authors: S. Asad Ali Gillani, Ahmed Toumi, Anaclet Turatsinze

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After a certain period of time, the degradation of concrete structures is unavoidable. For large concrete areas, thin bonded cement-based overlay is a suitable rehabilitation technique. Previous research demonstrated that durability of bonded cement-based repairs is always a problem and one of its main reasons is deboning at interface. Since durability and efficiency of any repair system mainly depend upon the bond between concrete substrate and repair material, the bond between concrete substrate and repair material can be improved by increasing the surface roughness. The surface roughness can be improved by performing surface treatment of the concrete substrate to enhance mechanical interlocking which is one of the basic mechanisms of adhesion between two surfaces. In this research, bond tensile strength of cement-based overlays having substrate surface prepared using different techniques has been characterized. In first step cement based substrate was prepared and then cured for three months. After curing two different types of the surface treatments were performed on this substrate; cutting and sandblasting. In second step overlay was cast on these prepared surfaces, which were cut and sandblasted surfaces. The overlay was also cast on the surface without any treatment. Finally, bond tensile strength of cement-based overlays was evaluated in direct tension test and the results are discussed in this paper.

Keywords: concrete substrate, surface preparation, overlays, bond tensile strength

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802 Substrate Coupling in Millimeter Wave Frequencies

Authors: Vasileios Gerakis, Fontounasios Christos, Alkis Hatzopoulos

Abstract:

A study of the impact of metal guard rings on the coupling between two square metal pads is presented. The structure is designed over a bulk silicon substrate with epitaxial layer, so the coupling through the substrate is also involved. A lightly doped profile is adopted and is simulated by means of an electromagnetic simulator for various pad distances and different metal layers, assuming a 65 nm bulk CMOS technology. The impact of various guard ring design (geometrical) parameters is examined. Furthermore, the increase of isolation (resulting in reduction of the noise coupling) between the pads by cutting the ring, or by using multiple rings, is also analyzed. S parameters are used to compare the various structures.

Keywords: guard rings, metal pad coupling, millimeter wave frequencies, substrate noise,

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801 Device for Thermo-Magnetic Depolymerisation of Plant Biomass Prior to Methane Fermentation

Authors: Mirosław Krzemieniewski, Marcin Zieliński, Marcin Dębowski

Abstract:

This publication presents a device for depolymerisation of plant substrates applicable to agricultural biogas plants and closed-chamber sewage treatment plants where sludge fermentation is bolstered with plant mass. The device consists of a tank with a cover equipped with a heating system, an inlet for the substrate, and an outlet for the depolymerised substrate. Within the tank, a magnet shaft encased in a spiral casing is attached, equipped on its upper end with an internal magnetic disc. A motoreducer is mounted on an external magnetic disc located on the centre of the cover. Depolymerisation of the plant substrate allows for substrate destruction at much lower power levels than by conventional means. The temperature within the reactor can be lowered by 40% in comparison to existing designs. During the depolymerisation process, free radicals are generated within the magnetic field, oxidizing the conditioned substrate and promoting biodegradation. Thus, the fermentation time in the fermenters is reduced by approximately 20%.

Keywords: depolymerisation, pre-treatment, biomass, fermentation

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800 Improving the Ability of Constructed Wetlands to Treat Acid Mine Drainage

Authors: Chigbo Emmanuel Ikechukwu

Abstract:

Constructed wetlands are seen as a potential means of ameliorating the poor quality water that derives from coal and gold mining operations. However, the processes whereby a wetland environment is able to improve water quality are not well understood and techniques for optimising their performance poorly developed. A parameter that may be manipulated in order to improve the treatment capacity of a wetland is the substrate in which the aquatic plants are rooted. This substrate can provide an environment wherein sulphate reducing bacteria, which contribute to the removal of contaminants from the water, are able to flourish. The bacteria require an energy source which is largely provided by carbon in the substrate. This paper discusses the form in which carbon is most suitable for the bacteria and describes the results of a series of experiments in which different materials were used as substrate. Synthetic acid mine drainage was passed through an anaerobic bioreactor that contained either compost or cow manure. The effluent water quality was monitored with respect to time and the effect of the substrate composition discussed.

Keywords: constructed wetland, bacteria, carbon, acid mine drainage, sulphate

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799 Peeling Behavior of Thin Elastic Films Bonded to Rigid Substrate of Random Surface Topology

Authors: Ravinu Garg, Naresh V. Datla

Abstract:

We study the fracture mechanics of peeling of thin films perfectly bonded to a rigid substrate of any random surface topology using an analytical formulation. A generalized theoretical model has been developed to determine the peel strength of thin elastic films. It is demonstrated that an improvement in the peel strength can be achieved by modifying the surface characteristics of the rigid substrate. Characterization study has been performed to analyze the effect of different parameters on effective peel force from the rigid surface. Different surface profiles such as circular and sinusoidal has been considered to demonstrate the bonding characteristics of film-substrate interface. Condition for the instability in the debonding of the film is analyzed, where the localized self-debonding arises depending upon the film and surface characteristics. This study is towards improved adhesion strength of thin films to rigid substrate using different textured surfaces.

Keywords: debonding, fracture mechanics, peel test, thin film adhesion

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
798 Investigation on Dry Sliding Wear for Laser Cladding of Stellite 6 Produced on a P91 Steel Substrate

Authors: Alain Kusmoko, Druce Dunne, Huijun Li

Abstract:

Stellite 6 was deposited by laser cladding on a chromium bearing substrate (P91) with energy inputs of 1 kW (P91-1) and 1.8 kW (P91-1.8). The chemical compositions and microstructures of these coatings were characterized by atomic absorption spectroscopy, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The microhardness of the coatings was measured and the wear mechanism of the coatings was assessed using a pin-on-plate (reciprocating) wear testing machine. The results showed less cracking and pore development for Stellite 6 coatings applied to the P91 steel substrate with the lower heat input (P91-1). Further, the Stellite coating for P91-1 was significantly harder than that obtained for P91-1.8. The wear test results indicated that the weight loss for P91-1 was much lower than for P91-1.8. It is concluded that the lower hardness of the coating for P91-1.8, together with the softer underlying substrate structure, markedly reduced the wear resistance of the Stellite 6 coating.

Keywords: friction and wear, laser cladding, P91 steel, Stellite 6 coating

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
797 Municipal Sewage Sludge as Co-Substrate in Anaerobic Digestion of Vegetable Waste and Biogas Yield

Authors: J. V. Thanikal, M. Torrijos, Philipe Sousbie, S. M. Rizwan, R. Senthil Kumar, Hatem Yezdi

Abstract:

Co-digestion is one of the advantages of anaerobic digestion process because; several wastes having complimentary characteristics can be treated in a single process. The anaerobic co-digestion process, which can be defined as the simultaneous treatment of two –or more – organic biodegradable waste streams by anaerobic digestion offers great potential for the proper disposal of the organic fraction of solid waste coming from source or separate collection systems. The results of biogas production for sewage sludge, when used as a single substrate, were low (350ml/d), and also the biodegradation rate was slow. Sewage sludge as a co-substrate did not show much effect on biogas yield. The vegetable substrates (Potato, Carrot, Spinach) with a total charge of 27–36 g VS, with a HRT starting from 3 days and ending with 1 day, shown a considerable increase in biogas yield 3.5-5 l/d.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, co-digestion, vegetable substrate, sewage sludge

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796 Studying the Effect of Silicon Substrate Intrinsic Carrier Concentration on Performance of ZnO/Si Solar Cells

Authors: Syed Sadique Anwer Askari, Mukul Kumar Das

Abstract:

Zinc Oxide (ZnO) solar cells have drawn great attention due to the enhanced efficiency and low-cost fabrication process. In this study, ZnO thin film is used as the active layer, hole blocking layer, antireflection coating (ARC) as well as transparent conductive oxide. To improve the conductivity of ZnO, top layer of ZnO is doped with aluminum, for top contact. Intrinsic carrier concentration of silicon substrate plays an important role in enhancing the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of ZnO/Si solar cell. With the increase of intrinsic carrier concentration PCE decreased due to increase in dark current in solar cell. At 80nm ZnO and 160µm Silicon substrate thickness, power conversion efficiency of 26.45% and 21.64% is achieved with intrinsic carrier concentration of 1x109/cm3, 1.4x1010/cm3 respectively.

Keywords: hetero-junction solar cell, solar cell, substrate intrinsic carrier concentration, ZnO/Si

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795 Fractional-Order Modeling of GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors for Switching Applications

Authors: Anwar H. Jarndal, Ahmed S. Elwakil

Abstract:

In this paper, a fraction-order model for pad parasitic effect of GaN HEMT on Si substrate is developed and validated. Open de-embedding structure is used to characterize and de-embed substrate loading parasitic effects. Unbiased device measurements are implemented to extract parasitic inductances and resistances. The model shows very good simulation for S-parameter measurements under different bias conditions. It has been found that this approach can improve the simulation of intrinsic part of the transistor, which is very important for small- and large-signal modeling process.

Keywords: fractional-order modeling, GaNHEMT, si-substrate, open de-embedding structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 229