Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2788

Search results for: acid mine drainage

2788 Acid Mine Drainage Remediation Using Silane and Phosphate Coatings

Authors: M. Chiliza, H. P. Mbukwane, P Masita, H. Rutto

Abstract:

Acid mine drainage (AMD) one of the main pollutants of water in many countries that have mining activities. AMD results from the oxidation of pyrite and other metal sulfides. When these metals gets exposed to moisture and oxygen, leaching takes place releasing sulphate and Iron. Acid drainage is often noted by 'yellow boy,' an orange-yellow substance that occurs when the pH of acidic mine-influenced water raises above pH 3, so that the previously dissolved iron precipitates out. The possibility of using environmentally friendly silane and phosphate based coatings on pyrite to remediate acid mine drainage and prevention at source was investigated. The results showed that both coatings reduced chemical oxidation of pyrite based on Fe and sulphate release. Furthermore, it was found that silane based coating performs better when coating synthesis take place in a basic hydrolysis than in an acidic state.

Keywords: acid mine drainage, pyrite, silane, phosphate

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
2787 Treatment of Acid Mine Drainage with Metallurgical Slag

Authors: Sukla Saha, Alok Sinha

Abstract:

Acid mine drainage (AMD) refers to the production of acidified water from abandoned mines and active mines as well. The reason behind the generation of this kind of acidified water is the oxidation of pyrites present in the rocks in and around mining areas. Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, which is a sulfur oxidizing bacteria, helps in the oxidation process. AMD is extremely acidic in nature, (pH 2-3) with high concentration of several trace and heavy metals such as Fe, Al, Zn, Mn, Cu and Co and anions such as chloride and sulfate. AMD has several detrimental effect on aquatic organism and environment. It can directly or indirectly contaminate the ground water and surface water as well. The present study considered the treatment of AMD with metallurgical slag, which is a waste material. Slag helped to enhance the pH of AMD to 8.62 from 1.5 with 99% removal of trace metals such as Fe, Al, Mn, Cu and Co. Metallurgical slag was proven as efficient neutralizing material for the treatment of AMD.

Keywords: acid mine drainage, Heavy metals, metallurgical slag, Neutralization

Procedia PDF Downloads 27
2786 Treatment of Acid Mine Drainage with Modified Fly Ash

Authors: Sukla Saha, Alok Sinha

Abstract:

Acid mine drainage (AMD) is the generation of acidic water from active as well as abandoned mines. AMD generates due to the oxidation of pyrites present in the rock in mining areas. Sulfur oxidizing bacteria such as Thiobacillus ferrooxidans acts as a catalyst in this oxidation process. The characteristics of AMD is extreme low pH (2-3) with elevated concentration of different heavy metals such as Fe, Al, Zn, Mn, Cu and Co and anions such sulfate and chloride. AMD contaminate the ground water as well as surface water which leads to the degradation of water quality. Moreover, it carries detrimental effect for aquatic organism and degrade the environment. In the present study, AMD is treated with fly ash, modified with alkaline agent (NaOH). This modified fly ash (MFA) was experimentally proven as a very effective neutralizing agent for the treatment of AMD. It was observed that pH of treated AMD raised to 9.22 from 1.51 with 100g/L of MFA dose. Approximately, 99% removal of Fe, Al, Mn, Cu and Co took place with the same MFA dose. The treated water comply with the effluent discharge standard of (IS: 2490-1981).

Keywords: acid mine drainage, heavy metals, modified fly ash, neutralization

Procedia PDF Downloads 19
2785 Geochemical Controls of Salinity in a Typical Acid Mine Drainage Neutralized Groundwater System

Authors: Modreck Gomo

Abstract:

Although the dolomite and calcite carbonates can neutralize Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) and prevent leaching of metals, salinity still remains a huge problem. The study presents a conceptual discussion of geochemical controls of salinity in a typical calcite and dolomite AMD neutralised groundwater systems. Thereafter field evidence is presented to support the conceptual discussions. 1020 field data sets of from a groundwater system reported to be under circumneutral conditions from the neutralization effect of calcite and dolomite is analysed using correlation analysis and bivariate plots. Field evidence indicates that sulphate, calcium and magnesium are strongly and positively correlated to Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) which is used as measure of salinity. In this, a hydrogeochemical system, the dissolution of sulphate, calcium and magnesium form AMD neutralization process contributed 50%, 10% and 5% of the salinity.

Keywords: acid mine drainage, carbonates, neutralization, salinity

Procedia PDF Downloads 23
2784 Passive Neutralization of Acid Mine Drainage Using Locally Produced Limestone

Authors: Reneiloe Seodigeng, Malwandla Hanabe, Haleden Chiririwa, Hilary Rutto, Tumisang Seodigeng

Abstract:

Neutralisation of acid-mine drainage (AMD) using limestone is cost effective, and good results can be obtained. However, this process has its limitations; it cannot be used for highly acidic water which consists of Fe(III). When Fe(III) reacts with CaCO3, it results in armoring. Armoring slows the reaction, and additional alkalinity can no longer be generated. Limestone is easily accessible, so this problem can be easily dealt with. Experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of PVC pipe length on ferric and ferrous ions. It was found that the shorter the pipe length the more these dissolved metals precipitate. The effect of the pipe length on the hydrogen ions was also studied, and it was found that these two have an inverse relationship. Experimental data were further compared with the model prediction data to see if they behave in a similar fashion. The model was able to predict the behaviour of 1.5m and 2 m pipes in ferric and ferrous ion precipitation.

Keywords: acid mine drainage, neutralisation, limestone, mathematical modelling

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
2783 Improving the Ability of Constructed Wetlands to Treat Acid Mine Drainage

Authors: Chigbo Emmanuel Ikechukwu

Abstract:

Constructed wetlands are seen as a potential means of ameliorating the poor quality water that derives from coal and gold mining operations. However, the processes whereby a wetland environment is able to improve water quality are not well understood and techniques for optimising their performance poorly developed. A parameter that may be manipulated in order to improve the treatment capacity of a wetland is the substrate in which the aquatic plants are rooted. This substrate can provide an environment wherein sulphate reducing bacteria, which contribute to the removal of contaminants from the water, are able to flourish. The bacteria require an energy source which is largely provided by carbon in the substrate. This paper discusses the form in which carbon is most suitable for the bacteria and describes the results of a series of experiments in which different materials were used as substrate. Synthetic acid mine drainage was passed through an anaerobic bioreactor that contained either compost or cow manure. The effluent water quality was monitored with respect to time and the effect of the substrate composition discussed.

Keywords: constructed wetland, bacteria, carbon, acid mine drainage, sulphate

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
2782 Geochemistry of Natural Radionuclides Associated with Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) in a Coal Mining Area in Southern Brazil

Authors: Juliana A. Galhardi, Daniel M. Bonotto

Abstract:

Coal is an important non-renewable energy source of and can be associated with radioactive elements. In Figueira city, Paraná state, Brazil, it was recorded high uranium activity near the coal mine that supplies a local thermoelectric power plant. In this context, the radon activity (Rn-222, produced by the Ra-226 decay in the U-238 natural series) was evaluated in groundwater, river water and effluents produced from the acid mine drainage in the coal reject dumps. The samples were collected in August 2013 and in February 2014 and analyzed at LABIDRO (Laboratory of Isotope and Hydrochemistry), UNESP, Rio Claro city, Brazil, using an alpha spectrometer (AlphaGuard) adjusted to evaluate the mean radon activity concentration in five cycles of 10 minutes. No radon activity concentration above 100 Bq.L-1, which was a previous critic value established by the World Health Organization. The average radon activity concentration in groundwater was higher than in surface water and in effluent samples, possibly due to the accumulation of uranium and radium in the aquifer layers that favors the radon trapping. The lower value in the river waters can indicate dilution and the intermediate value in the effluents may indicate radon absorption in the coal particles of the reject dumps. The results also indicate that the radon activities in the effluents increase with the sample acidification, possibly due to the higher radium leaching and the subsequent radon transport to the drainage flow. The water samples of Laranjinha River and Ribeirão das Pedras stream, which, respectively, supply Figueira city and receive the mining effluent, exhibited higher pH values upstream the mine, reflecting the acid mine drainage discharge. The radionuclides transport indicates the importance of monitoring their activity concentration in natural waters due to the risks that the radioactivity can represent to human health.

Keywords: radon, radium, acid mine drainage, coal

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
2781 Evaluating Acid Buffering Capacity of Sewage Sludge Barrier for Inhibiting Remobilization of Heavy Metals in Tailing Impoundment

Authors: Huyuan Zhang, Yi Chen

Abstract:

Compacted sewage sludge has been proved to be feasible as a barrier material for tailing impoundment because of its low permeability and retardation of heavy metals. The long-term penetration of acid mine drainage, however, would acidify the barrier system and result in remobilization of previously immobilized heavy metal pollutants. In this study, the effect of decreasing pH on the mobility of three typical heavy metals (Zn, Pb, and Cu) is investigated by acid titration test on sewage sludge under various conditions. The remobilization of heavy metals is discussed based on the acid buffering capacity of sewage sludge-leachate system. Test results indicate that heavy metals are dramatically released out when pH is decreased below 6.2, and their amounts take the order of Zn > Cu > Pb. The acid buffering capacity of sewage sludge decreases with the solid-liquid ratio but increases with the anaerobic incubation time, and it is mainly governed by dissolution of contained carbonate and organics. These results reveal that the sewage sludge possesses enough acid buffering capacity to consume protons within the acid mine drainage. Thus, this study suggests that an explosive remobilization of heavy metals is not expected in a long-term perspective.

Keywords: acid buffering capacity, barrier, heavy metals, remobilization, sewage sludge

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
2780 Biosorption of Metal Ions from Sarcheshmeh Acid Mine Drainage by Immobilized Bacillus thuringiensis in a Fixed-Bed Column

Authors: V. Khosravi, F. D. Ardejani, A. Aryafar, M. Sedighi

Abstract:

Heavy metals have a damaging impact for the environment, animals and humans due to their extreme toxicity and removing them from wastewaters is a very important and interesting task in the field of water pollution control. Biosorption is a relatively new method for treatment of wastewaters and recovery of heavy metals. In this study, a continuous fixed bed study was carried out by using Bacillus thuringiensis as a biosorbent for the removal of Cu and Mn ions from Sarcheshmeh Acid Mine Drainage (AMD). The effect of operating parameters such as flow rate and bed height on the sorption characteristics of B. thuringiensis was investigated at pH 6.0 for each metal ion. The experimental results showed that the breakthrough time decreased with increasing flow rate and decreasing bed height. The data also indicated that the equilibrium uptake of both metals increased with decreasing flow rate and increasing bed height. BDST, Thomas, and Yoon–Nelson models were applied to experimental data to predict the breakthrough curves. All models were found suitable for describing the whole dynamic behavior of the column with respect to flow rate and bed height. In order to regenerate the adsorbent, an elution step was carried out with 1 M HCl and five adsorption-desorption cycles were carried out in continuous manner.

Keywords: acid mine drainage, bacillus thuringiensis, biosorption, cu and mn ions, fixed bed

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
2779 Analyzing the Water Quality of Settling Pond after Revegetation at Ex-Mining Area

Authors: Iis Diatin, Yani Hadiroseyani, Muhammad Mujahid, Ahmad Teduh, Juang R. Matangaran

Abstract:

One of silica quarry managed by a mining company is located at Sukabumi District of West Java Province Indonesia with an area of approximately 70 hectares. Since 2013 this company stopped the mining activities. The company tries to restore the ecosystem post-mining with rehabilitation activities such as reclamation and revegetation of their ex-mining area. After three years planting the area the trees grown well. Not only planting some tree species but also some cover crop has covered the soil surface. There are two settling ponds located in the middle of the ex-mining area. Those settling pond were built in order to prevent the effect of acid mine drainage. Acid mine drainage (AMD) or the acidic water is created when sulphide minerals are exposed to air and water and through a natural chemical reaction produce sulphuric acid. AMD is the main pollutant at the open pit mining. The objective of the research was to analyze the effect of revegetation on water quality change at the settling pond. The physical and chemical of water quality parameter were measured and analysed at site and at the laboratory. Physical parameter such as temperature, turbidity and total organic matter were analyse. Also heavy metal and some other chemical parameter such as dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, pH, total ammonia nitrogen, nitrate and nitrite were analysed. The result showed that the acidity of first settling pond was higher than that of the second settling pond. Both settling pond water’s contained heavy metal. The turbidity and total organic matter were the parameter of water quality which become better after revegetation.

Keywords: acid mine drainage, ex-mining area, revegetation, settling pond, water quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
2778 Treatment of Acid Mine Lake by Ultrasonically Modified Fly Ash at Different Frequencies

Authors: Burcu Ileri, Deniz Sanliyuksel Yucel, Onder Ayyildiz

Abstract:

The oxidation of pyrite in water results in the formation of acid mine drainage, which typically forms extremely acid mine lake (AML) in the depression areas of abandoned Etili open-pit coal mine site, Northwest Turkey. Nine acid mine lakes of various sizes have been located in the Etili coal mine site. Hayirtepe AML is one of the oldest lake having a mean pH value of 2.9 and conductivity of 4550 μS/cm, and containing elevated concentrations of Al, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, and Zn. The water quality of the lake has been deteriorated due to its high chemical composition, in particular, increasing heavy metal pollution. In this study, fly ash (FA), a coal combustion by-product from fluidized bed thermal power plant in the northwestern part of Turkey, was used as an adsorbent for the treatment of Hayirtepe AML. The FA is a relatively abundant and cost effective material, but its use in adsorption processes usually require excessive adsorbent doses. To increase adsorption efficiency and lower the adsorbent dose, we modified the FA by means of ultrasonic treatment (20 kHz and 40 kHz). The images of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have demonstrated that ultrasonic treatment not only decreased the size of ash particles but also created pits and cracks on their surfaces which in turn led to a significant increase in the BET surface area. Both FA and modified fly ash were later tested for the removal of heavy metals from the AML. The effect of various operating parameters such as ultrasonic power, pH, ash dose, and adsorption contact time were examined to obtain the optimum conditions for the treatment process. The results have demonstrated that removal of heavy metals by ultrasound-modified fly ash requires much shorter treatment times and lower adsorbent doses than those attained by the unmodified fly ash. This research was financially supported by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK), (Project no: 116Y510).

Keywords: acid mine lake, heavy metal, modified fly ash, ultrasonic treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
2777 Performance Evaluation of Using Genetic Programming Based Surrogate Models for Approximating Simulation Complex Geochemical Transport Processes

Authors: Hamed K. Esfahani, Bithin Datta

Abstract:

Transport of reactive chemical contaminant species in groundwater aquifers is a complex and highly non-linear physical and geochemical process especially for real life scenarios. Simulating this transport process involves solving complex nonlinear equations and generally requires huge computational time for a given aquifer study area. Development of optimal remediation strategies in aquifers may require repeated solution of such complex numerical simulation models. To overcome this computational limitation and improve the computational feasibility of large number of repeated simulations, Genetic Programming based trained surrogate models are developed to approximately simulate such complex transport processes. Transport process of acid mine drainage, a hazardous pollutant is first simulated using a numerical simulated model: HYDROGEOCHEM 5.0 for a contaminated aquifer in a historic mine site. Simulation model solution results for an illustrative contaminated aquifer site is then approximated by training and testing a Genetic Programming (GP) based surrogate model. Performance evaluation of the ensemble GP models as surrogate models for the reactive species transport in groundwater demonstrates the feasibility of its use and the associated computational advantages. The results show the efficiency and feasibility of using ensemble GP surrogate models as approximate simulators of complex hydrogeologic and geochemical processes in a contaminated groundwater aquifer incorporating uncertainties in historic mine site.

Keywords: geochemical transport simulation, acid mine drainage, surrogate models, ensemble genetic programming, contaminated aquifers, mine sites

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
2776 Application of Acid Base Accounting to Predict Post-Mining Drainage Quality in Coalfields of the Main Karoo Basin and Selected Sub-Basins, South Africa

Authors: Lindani Ncube, Baojin Zhao, Ken Liu, Helen Johanna Van Niekerk

Abstract:

Acid Base Accounting (ABA) is a tool used to assess the total amount of acidity or alkalinity contained in a specific rock sample, and is based on the total S concentration and the carbonate content of a sample. A preliminary ABA test was conducted on 14 sandstone and 5 coal samples taken from coalfields representing the Main Karoo Basin (Highveld, Vryheid and Molteno/Indwe Coalfields) and the Sub-basins (Witbank and Waterberg Coalfields). The results indicate that sandstone and coal from the Main Karoo Basin have the potential of generating Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) as they contain sufficient pyrite to generate acid, with the final pH of samples relatively low upon complete oxidation of pyrite. Sandstone from collieries representing the Main Karoo Basin are characterised by elevated contents of reactive S%. All the studied samples were characterised by an Acid Potential (AP) that is less than the Neutralizing Potential (NP) except for two samples. The results further indicate that the sandstone from the Main Karoo Basin is prone to acid generation as compared to the sandstone from the Sub-basins. However, the coal has a relatively low potential of generating any acid. The application of ABA in this study contributes to an understanding of the complexities governing water-rock interactions. In general, the coalfields from the Main Karoo Basin have much higher potential to produce AMD during mining processes than the coalfields in the Sub-basins.

Keywords: Main Karoo Basin, sub-basin, coal, sandstone, acid base accounting (ABA)

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
2775 Co-Disposal of Coal Ash with Mine Tailings in Surface Paste Disposal Practices: A Gold Mining Case Study

Authors: M. L. Dinis, M. C. Vila, A. Fiúza, A. Futuro, C. Nunes

Abstract:

The present paper describes the study of paste tailings prepared in laboratory using gold tailings, produced in a Finnish gold mine with the incorporation of coal ash. Natural leaching tests were conducted with the original materials (tailings, fly and bottom ashes) and also with paste mixtures that were prepared with different percentages of tailings and ashes. After leaching, the solid wastes were physically and chemically characterized and the results were compared to those selected as blank – the unleached samples. The tailings and the coal ash, as well as the prepared mixtures, were characterized, in addition to the textural parameters, by the following measurements: grain size distribution, chemical composition and pH. Mixtures were also tested in order to characterize their mechanical behavior by measuring the flexural strength, the compressive strength and the consistency. The original tailing samples presented an alkaline pH because during their processing they were previously submitted to pressure oxidation with destruction of the sulfides. Therefore, it was not possible to ascertain the effect of the coal ashes in the acid mine drainage. However, it was possible to verify that the paste reactivity was affected mostly by the bottom ash and that the tailings blended with bottom ash present lower mechanical strength than when blended with a combination of fly and bottom ash. Surface paste disposal offer an attractive alternative to traditional methods in addition to the environmental benefits of incorporating large-volume wastes (e.g. bottom ash). However, a comprehensive characterization of the paste mixtures is crucial to optimize paste design in order to enhance engineer and environmental properties.

Keywords: coal ash, mine tailings, paste blends, surface disposal

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
2774 Pervious Concrete for Road Intersection Drainage

Authors: Ivana Barišić, Ivanka Netinger Grubeša, Ines Barjaktarić

Abstract:

Road performance and traffic safety are highly influenced by improper water drainage system performance, particularly within intersection areas. So, the aim of the presented paper is the evaluation of pervious concrete made with two types and two aggregate fractions for potential utilization in intersection drainage areas. Although the studied pervious concrete mixtures achieved proper drainage but lower strength characteristics, this pervious concrete has a good potential for enhancing pavement drainage systems if it is embedded on limited intersection areas.

Keywords: drainage, intersection, pervious concrete, road

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
2773 Neutralization of Sulphurous Waste (AMD) Using Recycled Waste Concrete

Authors: Ercument Koc, Banu Yaylali, Gulsen Tozsin, Haci Deveci

Abstract:

Re-using of concrete waste materials for the neutralization of acid mine drainage (AMD) can protect the environment and contribute the national economy. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevention of AMD formation and heavy metal release using concrete wastes which are alkaline and generated by demolition of buildings within the urban renewal process. Shake flask test was conducted to determine the neutralization effects. Concrete wastes are rich in CaCO3 and they are used as a pH regulator for AMD neutralization. The results showed that pH of the AMD increased from 3.33 to 6.84 with the application of concrete waste materials.

Keywords: AMD, neutralization, sulphurous waste, urban renewal

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
2772 Coal Mining Safety Monitoring Using Wsn

Authors: Somdatta Saha

Abstract:

The main purpose was to provide an implementable design scenario for underground coal mines using wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The main reason being that given the intricacies in the physical structure of a coal mine, only low power WSN nodes can produce accurate surveillance and accident detection data. The work mainly concentrated on designing and simulating various alternate scenarios for a typical mine and comparing them based on the obtained results to arrive at a final design. In the Era of embedded technology, the Zigbee protocols are used in more and more applications. Because of the rapid development of sensors, microcontrollers, and network technology, a reliable technological condition has been provided for our automatic real-time monitoring of coal mine. The underground system collects temperature, humidity and methane values of coal mine through sensor nodes in the mine; it also collects the number of personnel inside the mine with the help of an IR sensor, and then transmits the data to information processing terminal based on ARM.

Keywords: ARM, embedded board, wireless sensor network (Zigbee)

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
2771 Strategic Mine Planning: A SWOT Analysis Applied to KOV Open Pit Mine in the Democratic Republic of Congo

Authors: Patrick May Mukonki

Abstract:

KOV pit (Kamoto Oliveira Virgule) is located 10 km from Kolwezi town, one of the mineral rich town in the Lualaba province of the Democratic Republic of Congo. The KOV pit is currently operating under the Katanga Mining Limited (KML), a Glencore-Gecamines (a State Owned Company) join venture. Recently, the mine optimization process provided a life of mine of approximately 10 years withnice pushbacks using the Datamine NPV Scheduler software. In previous KOV pit studies, we recently outlined the impact of the accuracy of the geological information on a long-term mine plan for a big copper mine such as KOV pit. The approach taken, discussed three main scenarios and outlined some weaknesses on the geological information side, and now, in this paper that we are going to develop here, we are going to highlight, as an overview, those weaknesses, strengths and opportunities, in a global SWOT analysis. The approach we are taking here is essentially descriptive in terms of steps taken to optimize KOV pit and, at every step, we categorized the challenges we faced to have a better tradeoff between what we called strengths and what we called weaknesses. The same logic is applied in terms of the opportunities and threats. The SWOT analysis conducted in this paper demonstrates that, despite a general poor ore body definition, and very rude ground water conditions, there is room for improvement for such high grade ore body.

Keywords: mine planning, mine optimization, mine scheduling, SWOT analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
2770 Application of Remote Sensing Technique on the Monitoring of Mine Eco-Environment

Authors: Haidong Li, Weishou Shen, Guoping Lv, Tao Wang

Abstract:

Aiming to overcome the limitation of the application of traditional remote sensing (RS) technique in the mine eco-environmental monitoring, in this paper, we first classified the eco-environmental damages caused by mining activities and then introduced the principle, classification and characteristics of the Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) technique. The potentiality of LiDAR technique in the mine eco-environmental monitoring was analyzed, particularly in extracting vertical structure parameters of vegetation, through comparing the feasibility and applicability of traditional RS method and LiDAR technique in monitoring different types of indicators. The application situation of LiDAR technique in extracting typical mine indicators, such as land destruction in mining areas, damage of ecological integrity and natural soil erosion. The result showed that the LiDAR technique has the ability to monitor most of the mine eco-environmental indicators, and exhibited higher accuracy comparing with traditional RS technique, specifically speaking, the applicability of LiDAR technique on each indicator depends on the accuracy requirement of mine eco-environmental monitoring. In the item of large mine, LiDAR three-dimensional point cloud data not only could be used as the complementary data source of optical RS, Airborne/Satellite LiDAR could also fulfill the demand of extracting vertical structure parameters of vegetation in large areas.

Keywords: LiDAR, mine, ecological damage, monitoring, traditional remote sensing technique

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
2769 Feasibility Study of Mine Tailing’s Treatment by Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans DSM 26636

Authors: M. Gómez-Ramírez, A. Rivas-Castillo, I. Rodríguez-Pozos, R. A. Avalos-Zuñiga, N. G. Rojas-Avelizapa

Abstract:

Among the diverse types of pollutants produced by anthropogenic activities, metals represent a serious threat, due to their accumulation in ecosystems and their elevated toxicity. The mine tailings of abandoned mines contain high levels of metals such as arsenic (As), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and lead (Pb), which do not suffer any degradation process, they are accumulated in environment. Abandoned mine tailings potentially could contaminate rivers and aquifers representing a risk for human health due to their high metal content. In an attempt to remove the metals and thereby mitigate the environmental pollution, an environmentally friendly and economical method of bioremediation has been introduced. Bioleaching has been actively studied over the last several years, and it is one of the bioremediation solutions used to treat heavy metals contained in sewage sludge, sediment and contaminated soil. Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, an extremely acidophilic, chemolithoautotrophic, gram-negative, rod shaped microorganism, which is typically related to Cu mining operations (bioleaching), has been well studied for industrial applications. The sulfuric acid produced plays a major role in bioleaching. Specifically, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans strain DSM 26636 has been able to leach Al, Ni, V, Fe, Mg, Si, and Ni contained in slags from coal combustion wastes. The present study reports the ability of A. thiooxidans DSM 26636 for the bioleaching of metals contained in two different mine tailing samples (MT1 and MT2). It was observed that Al, Fe, and Mn were removed in 36.3±1.7, 191.2±1.6, and 4.5±0.2 mg/kg for MT1, and in 74.5±0.3, 208.3±0.5, and 20.9±0.1 for MT2. Besides, < 1.5 mg/kg of Au and Ru were also bioleached from MT1; in MT2, bioleaching of Zn was observed at 55.7±1.3 mg/kg, besides removal of < 1.5 mg/kg was observed for As, Ir, Li, and 0.6 for Os in this residue. These results show the potential of strain DSM 26636 for the bioleaching of metals that came from different mine tailings.

Keywords: A. thiooxidans, bioleaching, metals, mine tailings

Procedia PDF Downloads 94
2768 The Effect of Additive Acid on the Phytoremediation Efficiency

Authors: G. Hosseini, A. Sadighzadeh, M. Rahimnejad, N. Hosseini, Z. Jamalzadeh

Abstract:

Metal pollutants, especially heavy metals from anthropogenic sources such as metallurgical industries’ waste including mining, smelting, casting or production of nuclear fuel, including mining, concentrate production and uranium processing ends in the environment contamination (water and soil) and risk to human health around the facilities of this type of industrial activity. There are different methods that can be used to remove these contaminants from water and soil. These are very expensive and time-consuming. In this case, the people have been forced to leave the area and the decontamination is not done. For example, in the case of Chernobyl accident, an area of 30 km around the plant was emptied of human life. A very efficient and cost-effective method for decontamination of the soil and the water is phytoremediation. In this method, the plants preferentially native plants which are more adaptive to the regional climate are well used. In this study, three types of plants including Alfalfa, Sunflower and wheat were used to Barium decontamination. Alfalfa and Sunflower were not grown good enough in Saghand mine’s soil sample. This can be due to non-native origin of these plants. But, Wheat rise in Saghand Uranium Mine soil sample was satisfactory. In this study, we have investigated the effect of 4 types of acids inclusive nitric acid, oxalic acid, acetic acid and citric acid on the removal efficiency of Barium by Wheat. Our results indicate the increase of Barium absorption in the presence of citric acid in the soil. In this paper, we will present our research and laboratory results.

Keywords: phytoremediation, heavy metal, wheat, soil

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
2767 The Effect of Proper Drainage on the Cost of Building and Repairing Roads

Authors: Seyed Abbas Tabatabaei, Saeid Amini, Hamid Reza Ghafouri

Abstract:

One of the most important factors in flexible pavement failure is the lack of proper drainage along the roads. Water on the Paving Systems is one of the main parameters of pavement failure. Though, if water is discharged without delay and prior to discharge in order to prevent damaging the pavement the lifetime of the pavement will be considerably increased. In this study, duration of water stay and materials properties in pavement systems and the effects of aggregate gradation, and hydraulic conductivity of the drainage rate and Effects of subsurface drainage systems, drainage and reduction in the lifetime of the pavement have been studied. The study conducted in accordance with the terms offered can be concluded as under. The more hydraulic conductivity the less drainage time and the use of sub-surface drainage system causes two to three times of the pavement lifetime. In this research it has been tried by study and calculate the drained and undrained pavements lifetime by considering the effectiveness of water and drainage coefficient on flexible materials modulus and by using KENLAYER software to compare the present value cost of these pavements has been paid for a 20 year lifetime design. In this study, 14 pavement sections have been considered, of which 7 sections have been drained and 7 other not. Results show that drained pavements have more initial costs but the failure severity is so little in them and have longer lifetime for a 20 year lifetime design, the drained pavements seem so economic.

Keywords: drainage, base and sub-base, elasticity modulus, aggregation

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
2766 The Evaluation of Heavy Metal Pollution Degree in the Soils Around the Zangezur Copper and Molybdenum Combine

Authors: K. A. Ghazaryan, G. A. Gevorgyan, H. S. Movsesyan, N. P. Ghazaryan, K. V. Grigoryan

Abstract:

The heavy metal pollution degree in the soils around the Zangezur copper and molybdenum combine in Syunik Marz, Armenia was aessessed. The results of the study showed that heavy metal pollution degree in the soils mainly decreased with increasing distance from the open mine and the ore enrichment combine which indicated that the open mine and the ore enrichment combine were the main sources of heavy metal pollution. The only exception was observed in the northern part of the open mine where pollution degree in the sites (along the open mine) situated 600 meters far from the mine was higher than that in the sites located 300 meters far from the mine. This can be explained by the characteristics of relief and air currents as well as the weak vegetation cover of these sites and the characteristics of soil structure. According to geo-accumulation index (I-geo), contamination factor (Cf), contamination degree (Cd) and pollution load index (PLI) values, the pollution degree in the soils around the open mine and the ore enrichment combine was higher than that in the soils around the tailing dumps which was due to the proper and accurate operation of the Artsvanik tailing damp and the recultivation of the Voghji tailing dump. The high Cu and Mo pollution of the soils was conditioned by the character of industrial activities, the moving direction of air currents as well as the physicochemical peculiarities of the soils.

Keywords: Armenia, Zangezur copper and molybdenum combine, soil, heavy metal pollution degree

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
2765 Potential of Hyperion (EO-1) Hyperspectral Remote Sensing for Detection and Mapping Mine-Iron Oxide Pollution

Authors: Abderrazak Bannari

Abstract:

Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) from mine wastes and contaminations of soils and water with metals are considered as a major environmental problem in mining areas. It is produced by interactions of water, air, and sulphidic mine wastes. This environment problem results from a series of chemical and biochemical oxidation reactions of sulfide minerals e.g. pyrite and pyrrhotite. These reactions lead to acidity as well as the dissolution of toxic and heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, etc.) from tailings waste rock piles, and open pits. Soil and aquatic ecosystems could be contaminated and, consequently, human health and wildlife will be affected. Furthermore, secondary minerals, typically formed during weathering of mine waste storage areas when the concentration of soluble constituents exceeds the corresponding solubility product, are also important. The most common secondary mineral compositions are hydrous iron oxide (goethite, etc.) and hydrated iron sulfate (jarosite, etc.). The objectives of this study focus on the detection and mapping of MIOP in the soil using Hyperion EO-1 (Earth Observing - 1) hyperspectral data and constrained linear spectral mixture analysis (CLSMA) algorithm. The abandoned Kettara mine, located approximately 35 km northwest of Marrakech city (Morocco) was chosen as study area. During 44 years (from 1938 to 1981) this mine was exploited for iron oxide and iron sulphide minerals. Previous studies have shown that Kettara surrounding soils are contaminated by heavy metals (Fe, Cu, etc.) as well as by secondary minerals. To achieve our objectives, several soil samples representing different MIOP classes have been resampled and located using accurate GPS ( ≤ ± 30 cm). Then, endmembers spectra were acquired over each sample using an Analytical Spectral Device (ASD) covering the spectral domain from 350 to 2500 nm. Considering each soil sample separately, the average of forty spectra was resampled and convolved using Gaussian response profiles to match the bandwidths and the band centers of the Hyperion sensor. Moreover, the MIOP content in each sample was estimated by geochemical analyses in the laboratory, and a ground truth map was generated using simple Kriging in GIS environment for validation purposes. The acquired and used Hyperion data were corrected for a spatial shift between the VNIR and SWIR detectors, striping, dead column, noise, and gain and offset errors. Then, atmospherically corrected using the MODTRAN 4.2 radiative transfer code, and transformed to surface reflectance, corrected for sensor smile (1-3 nm shift in VNIR and SWIR), and post-processed to remove residual errors. Finally, geometric distortions and relief displacement effects were corrected using a digital elevation model. The MIOP fraction map was extracted using CLSMA considering the entire spectral range (427-2355 nm), and validated by reference to the ground truth map generated by Kriging. The obtained results show the promising potential of the proposed methodology for the detection and mapping of mine iron oxide pollution in the soil.

Keywords: hyperion eo-1, hyperspectral, mine iron oxide pollution, environmental impact, unmixing

Procedia PDF Downloads 122
2764 Characterization and Geochemical Modeling of Cu and Zn Sorption Using Mixed Mineral Systems Injected with Iron Sulfide under Sulfidic-Anoxic Conditions I: Case Study of Cwmheidol Mine Waste Water, Wales, United Kingdom

Authors: D. E. Egirani, J. E. Andrews, A. R. Baker

Abstract:

This study investigates sorption of Cu and Zn contained in natural mine wastewater, using mixed mineral systems in sulfidic-anoxic condition. The mine wastewater was obtained from disused mine workings at Cwmheidol in Wales, United Kingdom. These contaminants flow into water courses. These water courses include River Rheidol. In this River fishing activities exist. In an attempt to reduce Cu-Zn levels of fish intake in the watercourses, single mineral systems and 1:1 mixed mineral systems of clay and goethite were tested with the mine waste water for copper and zinc removal at variable pH. Modelling of hydroxyl complexes was carried out using phreeqc method. Reactions using batch mode technique was conducted at room temperature. There was significant differences in the behaviour of copper and zinc removal using mixed mineral systems when compared  to single mineral systems. All mixed mineral systems sorb more Cu than Zn when tested with mine wastewater.

Keywords: Cu- Zn, hydroxyl complexes, kinetics, mixed mineral systems, reactivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 384
2763 Determination of the Optimum Size of Building Stone Blocks: Case Study of Delichai Travertine Mine

Authors: Hesam Sedaghat Nejad, Navid Hosseini, Arash Nikvar Hassani

Abstract:

Determination of the optimum block size with high profitability is one of the significant parameters in designation of the building stone mines. The aim of this study was to determine the optimum dimensions of building stone blocks in Delichai travertine mine of Damavand in Tehran province through combining the effective parameters proven in determination of the optimum dimensions in building stones such as the spacing of joints and gaps, extraction tools constraints with the help of modeling by Gemcom software. To this end, following simulation of the topography of the mine, the block model was prepared and then in order to use spacing joints and discontinuities as a limiting factor, the existing joints set was added to the model. Since only one almost horizontal joint set with a slope of 5 degrees was available, this factor was effective only in determining the optimum height of the block, and thus to determine the longitudinal and transverse optimum dimensions of the extracted block, the power of available loader in the mine was considered as the secondary limiting factor. According to the aforementioned factors, the optimal block size in this mine was measured as 3.4×4×7 meter.

Keywords: building stone, optimum block size, Delichay travertine mine, loader power

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
2762 Adsorptive Performance of Surface Modified Montmorillonite in Vanadium Removal from Real Mine Water

Authors: Opeyemi Atiba-Oyewo, Taile Y. Leswfi, Maurice S. Onyango, Christian Wolkersdorfer

Abstract:

This paper describes the preparation of surface modified montmorillonite using hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HDTMA-Br) for the removal of vanadium from mine water. The adsorbent before and after adsorption was characterised by Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), while the amount of vanadium adsorbed was determined by ICP-OES. The batch adsorption method was employed using vanadium concentrations in solution ranging from 50 to 320 mg/L and vanadium tailings seepage water from a South African mine. Also, solution pH, temperature and sorbent mass were varied. Results show that the adsorption capacity was affected by solution pH, temperature, sorbent mass and the initial concentration. Electrical conductivity of the mine water before and after adsorption was measured to estimate the total dissolved solids in the mine water. Equilibrium isotherm results revealed that vanadium sorption follows the Freundlich isotherm, indicating that the surface of the sorbent was heterogeneous. The pseudo-second order kinetic model gave the best fit to the kinetic experimental data compared to the first order and Elovich models. The results of this study may be used to predict the uptake efficiency of South Africa montmorillonite in view of its application for the removal of vanadium from mine water. However, the choice of this adsorbent for the uptake of vanadium or other contaminants will depend on the composition of the effluent to be treated.

Keywords: adsorption, vanadium, modified montmorillonite, equilibrium, kinetics, mine water

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
2761 Characterization and Optimization of Culture Conditions for Sulphur Oxidizing Bacteria after Isolation from Rhizospheric Mustard Soil, Decomposing Sites and Pit House

Authors: Suman Chaudhary, Rinku Dhanker, Tanvi, Sneh Goyal

Abstract:

Sulphur oxidizing bacteria (SOB) have marked their significant role in perspectives of maintaining healthy environment as researchers from all over the world tested and apply these in waste water treatment plants, bioleaching of heavy metals, deterioration of bridge structures, concrete and for bioremediation purposes, etc. Also, these SOB are well adapted in all kinds of environment ranging from normal soil, water habitats to extreme natural sources like geothermal areas, volcanic eruptions, black shale and acid rock drainage (ARD). SOB have been isolated from low pH environment of anthropogenic origin like acid mine drainage (AMD) and bioleaching heaps, hence these can work efficiently in different environmental conditions. Besides having many applications in field of environment science, they may be proven to be very beneficial in area of agriculture as sulphur is the fourth major macronutrients required for the growth of plants. More amount of sulphur is needed by pulses and oilseed crops with respect to the cereal grains. Due to continuous use of land for overproduction of more demanding sulphur utilizing crops and without application of sulphur fertilizers, its concentration is decreasing day by day, and thus, sulphur deficiency is becoming a great problem as it affects the crop productivity and quality. Sulphur is generally found in soils in many forms which are unavailable for plants (cannot be use by plants) like elemental sulphur, thiosulphate which can be taken up by bacteria and converted into simpler forms usable by plants by undergoing a series of transformations. So, keeping the importance of sulphur in view for various soil types, oilseed crops and role of microorganisms in making them available to plants, we made an effort to isolate, optimize, and characterize SOB. Three potential strains of bacteria were isolated, namely SSF7, SSA21, and SSS6, showing sulphate production of concentration, i.e. 2.268, 3.102, and 2.785 mM, respectively. Also, these were optimized for various culture conditions like carbon, nitrogen source, pH, temperature, and incubation time, and characterization was also done.

Keywords: sulphur oxidizing bacteria, isolation, optimization, characterization, sulphate production

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
2760 Degradation Model for UK Railway Drainage System

Authors: Yiqi Wu, Simon Tait, Andrew Nichols

Abstract:

Management of UK railway drainage assets is challenging due to the large amounts of historical assets with long asset life cycles. A major concern for asset managers is to maintain the required performance economically and efficiently while complying with the relevant regulation and legislation. As the majority of the drainage assets are buried underground and are often difficult or costly to examine, it is important for asset managers to understand and model the degradation process in order to foresee the upcoming reduction in asset performance and conduct proactive maintenance accordingly. In this research, a Markov chain approach is used to model the deterioration process of rail drainage assets. The study is based on historical condition scores and characteristics of drainage assets across the whole railway network in England, Scotland, and Wales. The model is used to examine the effect of various characteristics on the probabilities of degradation, for example, the regional difference in probabilities of degradation, and how material and shape can influence the deterioration process for chambers, channels, and pipes.

Keywords: deterioration, degradation, markov models, probability, railway drainage

Procedia PDF Downloads 16
2759 Hydraulic Performance of Urban Drainage System Using SWMM: A Case Study of Siti Khadijah Retention Pond in Palembang City

Authors: Muhammad B. Al Amin, Nyimas S. Rika, Dwi F. Yanto, Marcelina

Abstract:

Siti Khadijah retention pond is located beside of Siti Khadijah Islamic Hospital on Demang Lebar Daun Street in Palembang City. This retention pond is functioned as storage for runoff from drainage channels in the surrounding area before entering Sekanak River, which is one of Musi River tributaries. However, in recent years, the developments in the surrounding area into paved area trigger to increase runoff discharge that causes the pond can no longer store it adequately. This study aimed to investigate the hydraulic performance of drainage system in the area around Siti Khadijah retention pond. A SWMM model was used to simulate runoff discharge into the pond and out from the pond, so the water level fluctuation within the pond and its capacity could be determined. Besides that, the water depth within drainage channels was simulated as well. The results showed that capacity of retention pond and some drainage channels already inadequate, so the area around it potentially to be flooded. Thus, it is necessary to increase the capacity of the retention pond and drainage channels.

Keywords: flood, retention pond, SWMM, urban drainage system

Procedia PDF Downloads 257