Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Search results for: acaricide

6 Toxicity of the Chlorfenapyr: Growth Inhibition and Induction of Oxidative Stress on a Freshwater Protozoan, Paramecium Sp.

Authors: Houria Berrebbah, Houneïda Benbouzid, Mohammed-Réda Djebar

Abstract:

The toxicological impacts of the increasing number of synthetic compounds present in the aquatic environment are assessed predominantly in laboratory studies where test organisms are exposed to a range of concentrations of single compounds. The bio-indicator Paramecium sp., characterized by a short life cycle, rapid multiplication and normal behavior that may be affected by the presence of pollutants. We therefore investigated the inhibitory effect of a newly synthesized acaricide: the chlorfenapyr tested at concentrations of 250, 300, and 350 µM on a pure culture of Paramecium sp. during 6 day. Paramecia treated with different concentrations of Chlorfenapyr illustrate strong inhibition of cell growth from the second day of treatment. Low levels of glutathione, increased glutathione S-transferase and the decrease in respiratory metabolism, recorded in the presence of different concentrations of Chlorfenapyr, involve the activation of detoxification system.

Keywords: Detoxification, Paramecium sp, chlorfenapyr, oxidative enzymes

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5 Evaluation of South African Plants with Acaricide Activity against Ticks

Authors: G. Fouché, J. N. Eloff, K. Wellington

Abstract:

Acaricides are commonly used to control ticks but are toxic, harmful to the environment and too expensive to resource-limited farmers. Traditionally, many communities in South Africa rely on a wide range of indigenous practices to keep their livestock healthy. One of these health care practices includes the use of medicinal plants and this offers an alternative to conventional medicine. An investigation was conducted at the CSIR in South Africa, and selected indigenous plants used in communities were scientifically evaluated for the management of ticks in animals. 17 plants were selected from 239 plants used traditionally in South Africa. Two different organic extracts were prepared from the 17 samples, resulting in 34 plant samples. These were tested for efficacy against two tick species, namely Rhipicephalus microplus and Rhipicephalus turanicus. The plant extracts were also screened against Vero cells and most were found to have low cytotoxicity. This study has shown that there is potential for the development of botanicals as natural acaricides against ticks that are non-toxic and environmentally benign.

Keywords: Plant Extracts, South Africa, ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

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4 Comparative Toxicity of Garlic Juice and Dicofol to Population of Citrus Mites

Authors: T. Slimani, Y. Atibi, A. Boutaleb Joutei

Abstract:

Insecticidal properties of Alliaceae are widely known, they are plant with varied biological properties. Garlic and onion are known for their positive effect on health, including the prevention of cardiovascular disease and some digestive cancers. These health benefits molecules are also responsible for pest potential control of Alliaceae. With these properties, we can consider using Alliaceae as acaricides. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of chemical and biopesticides on citrus mites, especially Tetranychus urticae, Panonychus citri and Eutetranychus orientalis. Chemical treatment (Dicofol) and biopesticides (Garlic juice + Alcohol) applied on this study to control the various stages of mites, have reduced the proliferation of mobile forms and reducing the number of eggs to acceptable levels. Garlic juice + alcohol revealed efficiency from 50 to 57.69 % against the mobile forms of T. urticae, however, it was effective against the mobile forms of P. citri and E. orientalis with an efficiency of 85.71 % and 100 % respectively, its action has also reduced the number of eggs of T. urticae and E. orientalis at low levels. Therefore, this biopesticide is conceivable viewpoint technical and economic as the infestation by mite is low.

Keywords: Alcohol, garlic juice, biopesticide, acaricide, mites, Tetranychus urticae, Panonychus citri, Eutetranychus orientalis

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3 Composition and Acaricidal Activity of Elettaria cardamomum Essential Oil Against Oligonychus afrasiaticus

Authors: Abid Hussain, Muhammad Rizwan-ul-Haq, Hassan Al-Ayedh, Ahmed M. Al-Jabr

Abstract:

Oligonychus afrasiaticus, is an important pest that devastates date palms (Phoenix dactylifera). They caused serious damage to date palm fruits. They start feeding on dates at Kimri stage (greenish color dates with high sugar and moisture level) resulting severe fruit losses and rendering them unfit for human consumption. Currently, acaricides are the only tool available to Saudi growers to prevent O. afrasiaticus damage. Many acaricides are available in the Saudi markets in order to control the mites on date palm trees but their efficacy against O. afrasiaticus is questionable. The intensive use of acaricides has led to resistance in many mite species around the globe and their control becomes exceedingly challenging. The current investigation explored for the first time the acaricidal potential of Elettaria cardamomum essential oil for the environmentally safe management of date mites in the laboratory. E. cardamomum exhibited acaricidal activities in a dose dependent manner. GC-MS fractionation of E. cardamomum detected numerous compounds. Among the identified compounds, Guaniol caused 100% mortality compared to other identified compounds including (+)-α-Pinene, Camphene, (-)-B-Pinene, 3-Carene, (R)-(+)-Limonene, and Citral. Our laboratory results showed that E. cardamomum and its constituents especially Guaniol are promising for the eco-friendly management of date mites, O. afrasiaticus, although their field efficacy remains to be evaluated.

Keywords: Toxicity, cardamom, old world date mite, natural acaricide

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2 Studies on Efficacy of Some Acaricidal Molecules against Mites in Polyhouse Capsicum

Authors: C. S. Patil, P. N. Guru

Abstract:

The experiment was conducted during Kharif 2016 at Hingoni, Ahmednagar (dist.), Maharashtra (India) to evaluate the novel molecules of acaricides against mites in polyhouse capsicum. The study was planned with randomized block design (RBD) and included nine treatments replicated thrice with 30 m² each plot size. The crop (var. Bachata) was raised according to the standard package of practices except plant protection measures. The molecules viz., spiromesifen 22.9SC (95 gm a.i. ha⁻¹), fenpyroximate 5EC (15 gm a.i. ha⁻¹), hexythiazox 5.45EC (15 gm a.i. ha⁻¹), diafenthiuron 50WP (300 gm a.i. ha⁻¹), chlorfenapyr 10SC (75 gm a.i. ha⁻¹) were compared with a standard acaricide, dicofol 18.5EC (500 gm a.i. ha⁻¹) and biopesticides like Verticillium lecanii (2 g/l), Metarhizium anisopliae (2 g/l) and Neem oil 10,000ppm (2ml/l). In total three sprays were given after 30, 50 and 70 days after transplanting (DAT) at an interval of 20 days. The insecticidal solutions were prepared in water by diluting required concentration of chemical and applied using knapsack sprayer with hollow cone nozzle @ 500L of solution per hectare. The mites were counted per 4 cm² in three leaves from randomly selected five plants in each plot at 1 day before treatment (precount) and 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 15 days after treatment. The results revealed that fenpyroximate 5EC found best by recording significantly least mite population (2.72/4 cm² leaf area) followed by hexythiazox 5.45EC and spiromesifen 22.9SC (3.78 and 3.82 per 4 cm² leaf area, respectively) and followed by remaining treatments chlorfenapyr 10SC (4.13/4 cm² leaf area), diafenthiuron 50WP (4.32/4 cm² leaf area), and dicofol 18.5EC (4.48/4 cm² leaf area). Among the biopesticides tested Neem oil and Verticillium lecanii were found to be superior to Metarhizium anisopliae. Overall, newer molecules like fenpyroximate, hexythiazox, spiromesifen, diafenthiuron, and Chlorfenapyr can be used for the effective management of mites under polyhouse capsicum.

Keywords: mites, Capsicum, acaricides, spiromesifen

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1 Resistance of Field Populations of Rhipicephalus bursa (Acari:Ixodidae) to Lambda-Cyhalothrin Acaricide in Mazandaran Province, North of Iran

Authors: Seyed Hassan Nikookar, Mahmoud Fazeli-Dinan, Seyyed Payman Ziapour, Ahmadali Enayati, Sadegh Kheiri, Farzaneh Sahraei-Rostami, Reza Ali Mohammadpour, Mohsen Aarabi, Fatemeh Asgarian, Mohammad Sarafrazi

Abstract:

Rhipicephalus bursa (R. bursa) is a two-host ixodid tick with wide distribution in north of Iran especially in domestic animals of Mazandaran Province. The prolonged or incorrect use of chemical insecticides has led to build up of resistance in hard ticks in many areas of the world. Lack of basic information on resistance status of R. bursa was the reason behind this study to determine the susceptibility status of the species to lambda-cyhalothrin insecticide in Mazandaran Province. From May 2013 to March 2014, R. bursa ticks were collected on sheep, goat and cattle in different districts of Mazandaran Province. The engorged female ticks were reared in a controlled insectary for producing 12-18 days old larvae for larval packet test (LPT) bioassay against discriminant doses of lambda-cyhalothrin 5% EC (MAC SILAT®). 80% of ten pooled tick populations were susceptible to lambda-cyhalothrin as resistance ratios (RR50s) varied from 1 to 2.94 when compared with the most susceptible population NH-16. Only GK-12 and BF-6 populations (from plain areas of Galugah and Fereydunkenar Counties, respectively) were classified as resistant level I at LC50 level. Population NK-2 (from woodland areas of Kojour district in Nowshahr County) showed the highest resistance ratio of RR99 = 4.32 and 30% of tick populations were resistant at LC99 level. Our research showed initiation of lambda-cyhalothrin resistance in Rhipicephalus bursa populations in Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran. This is considered a warning to policy makers for disease control in the study area. This research is a part of the PhD thesis of SP. Ziapour by grant No. 92-89 in Student Research Committee, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Iran.

Keywords: Iran, Rhipicephalus bursa, hard tick, lambda-cyhalothrin resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 226