Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 898

Search results for: SnO2 film

898 Multi-Layer Mn-Doped SnO2 Thin Film for Multi-State Resistive Switching

Authors: Zhemi Xu, Dewei Chu, Sean Li

Abstract:

Well self-assembled pure and Mn-doped SnO2 nanocubes were synthesized by interface thermodynamic method, which is ideal for highly homogeneous large scale thin film deposition on flexible substrates for various electric devices. Mn-doped SnO2 shows very good resistive switching with high On/Off ratio (over 103), endurance and retention characteristics. More important, the resistive state can be tuned by multi-layer fabrication by alternate pure SnO2 and Mn-doped SnO2 nanocube layer, which improved the memory capacity of resistive switching effectively. Thus, such a method provides transparent, multi-level resistive switching for next generation non-volatile memory applications.

Keywords: metal oxides, self-assembly nanoparticles, multi-level resistive switching, multi-layer thin film

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897 Superhydrophobic Behavior of SnO₂-TiO₂ Composite Thin Films

Authors: Debarun Dhar Purkayastha, Talinungsang

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SnO₂-TiO₂ nanocomposite thin films were prepared by the sol-gel method on borosilicate glass substrate. The films were annealed at a temperature of 300ᵒC, 400ᵒC, and 500ᵒC respectively for 2h in the air. The films obtained were further modified with stearic acid in order to decrease the surface energy. The X-ray diffraction patterns for the SnO₂-TiO₂ thin films after annealing at different temperatures can be indexed to the mixture of TiO₂ (rutile and anatase) and SnO₂ (tetragonal) phases. The average crystallite size calculated from Scherrer’s formula is found to be 6 nm. The SnO₂-TiO₂ thin films were hydrophilic which on modification with stearic acid exhibit superhydrophobic behavior. The increase in hydrophobicity of SnO₂ film with stearic acid modification is attributed to the change in surface energy of the film. The films exhibit superhydrophilic behavior under UV irradiation for 1h. Thus, it is observed that stearic acid modified surfaces are superhydrophobic but convert into superhydrophilic on being subjected to UV irradiation. SnO₂-TiO₂ thin films have potential for self-cleaning applications because of photoinduced hydrophilicity under UV irradiation.

Keywords: nanocomposite, self-cleaning, superhydrophobic, surface energy

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896 Fabrication of SnO₂ Nanotube Arrays for Enhanced Gas Sensing Properties

Authors: Hsyi-En Cheng, Ying-Yi Liou

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Metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS) gas sensors are widely used in the gas-detection market due to their high sensitivity, fast response, and simple device structures. However, the high working temperature of MOS gas sensors makes them difficult to integrate with the appliance or consumer goods. One-dimensional (1-D) nanostructures are considered to have the potential to lower their working temperature due to their large surface-to-volume ratio, confined electrical conduction channels, and small feature sizes. Unfortunately, the difficulty of fabricating 1-D nanostructure electrodes has hindered the development of low-temperature MOS gas sensors. In this work, we proposed a method to fabricate nanotube-arrays, and the SnO₂ nanotube-array sensors with different wall thickness were successfully prepared and examined. The fabrication of SnO₂ nanotube arrays incorporates the techniques of barrier-free anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template and atomic layer deposition (ALD) of SnO₂. First, 1.0 µm Al film was deposited on ITO glass substrate by electron beam evaporation and then anodically oxidized by five wt% phosphoric acid solution at 5°C under a constant voltage of 100 V to form porous aluminum oxide. As the Al film was fully oxidized, a 15 min over anodization and a 30 min post chemical dissolution were used to remove the barrier oxide at the bottom end of pores to generate a barrier-free AAO template. The ALD using reactants of TiCl4 and H₂O was followed to grow a thin layer of SnO₂ on the template to form SnO₂ nanotube arrays. After removing the surface layer of SnO₂ by H₂ plasma and dissolving the template by 5 wt% phosphoric acid solution at 50°C, upright standing SnO₂ nanotube arrays on ITO glass were produced. Finally, Ag top electrode with line width of 5 μm was printed on the nanotube arrays to form SnO₂ nanotube-array sensor. Two SnO₂ nanotube-arrays with wall thickness of 30 and 60 nm were produced in this experiment for the evaluation of gas sensing ability. The flat SnO₂ films with thickness of 30 and 60 nm were also examined for comparison. The results show that the properties of ALD SnO₂ films were related to the deposition temperature. The films grown at 350°C had a low electrical resistivity of 3.6×10-3 Ω-cm and were, therefore, used for the nanotube-array sensors. The carrier concentration and mobility of the SnO₂ films were characterized by Ecopia HMS-3000 Hall-effect measurement system and were 1.1×1020 cm-3 and 16 cm3/V-s, respectively. The electrical resistance of SnO₂ film and nanotube-array sensors in air and in a 5% H₂-95% N₂ mixture gas was monitored by Pico text M3510A 6 1/2 Digits Multimeter. It was found that, at 200 °C, the 30-nm-wall SnO₂ nanotube-array sensor performs the highest responsivity to 5% H₂, followed by the 30-nm SnO₂ film sensor, the 60-nm SnO₂ film sensor, and the 60-nm-wall SnO₂ nanotube-array sensor. However, at temperatures below 100°C, all the samples were insensitive to the 5% H₂ gas. Further investigation on the sensors with thinner SnO₂ is necessary for improving the sensing ability at temperatures below 100 °C.

Keywords: atomic layer deposition, nanotube arrays, gas sensor, tin dioxide

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895 Eu³⁺ Ions Doped-SnO₂ for Effective Degradation of Malachite Green Dye

Authors: Ritu Malik, Vijay K. Tomer, Satya P. Nehra, Anshu Nehra

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Visible light sensitive Eu³⁺ doped-SnO₂ nanoparticles were successfully synthesized via the hydrothermal method and extensively characterized by a combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and N₂ adsorption-desorption isotherms (BET). Their photocatalytic activities were evaluated using Malachite Green (MG) as decomposition objective by varying the concentration of Eu³⁺ in SnO₂. The XRD analysis showed that lanthanides phase was not observed on lower loadings of Eu³⁺ ions doped-SnO₂. Eu³⁺ ions can enhance the photocatalytic activity of SnO₂ to some extent as compared with pure SnO₂, and it was found that 3 wt% Eu³⁺ -doped SnO₂ is the most effective photocatalyst due to its lowest band gap, crystallite size and also the highest surface area. The photocatalytic tests indicate that at the optimum conditions, illumination time 40 min, pH 65, 0.3 g/L photocatalyst loading and 50 ppm dye concentration, the dye removal efficiency was 98%.

Keywords: photocatalyst, visible light, lanthanide, SnO₂

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894 Adsorbed Probe Molecules on Surface for Analyzing the Properties of Cu/SnO2 Supported Catalysts

Authors: Neha Thakur, Pravin S. More

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The interaction of CO, H2 and LPG with Cu-dosed SnO2 catalysts was studied by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). With increasing Cu loading, pronounced and progressive red shifts of the C–O stretching frequency associated with molecular CO adsorbed on the Cu/SnO2 component were observed. This decrease in n(CO) correlates with enhancement of CO dissociation at higher temperatures on Cu promoted SnO2 catalysts under conditions, where clean Cu is almost ineffective. In the conclusion, the capability of our technique is discussed, and a technique for enhancing the sensitivity in our technique is proposed.

Keywords: FTIR, spectroscopic, dissociation, n(CO)

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893 Preparation and Characterization of Transparent and Conductive SnO2 Thin Films by Spray Pyrolysis

Authors: V. Jelev, P. Petkov, P. Shindov

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Thin films of undoped and As-doped tin oxide (As:SnO2) were obtained on silicon and glass substrates at 450°- 480°C by spray pyrolysis technique. Tin chloride (SnCl4.5H2O) and As oxide (3As2O5.5H2O) were used as a source for Sn and As respectively. The As2O5 concentration was varied from 0 to 10 mol% in the starting water-alcoholic solution. The characterization of the films was provided with XRD, CEM, AFM and UV-VIS spectroscopy. The influence of the synthesis parameters (the temperature of the substrate, solution concentration, gas and solution flow rates, deposition time, nozzle-to substrate distance) on the optical, electrical and structural properties of the films was investigated. The substrate temperature influences on the surface topography, structure and resistivity of the films. Films grown at low temperatures (<300°C) are amorphous whereas this deposited at higher temperatures have certain degree of polycrystallinity. Thin oxide films deposited at 450°C are generally polycrystalline with tetragonal rutile structure. The resistivity decreases with dopant concentration. The minimum resistivity was achieved at dopant concentration about 2.5 mol% As2O5 in the solution. The transmittance greater than 80% and resistivity smaller than 7.5.10-4Ω.cm were achieved in the films deposited at 480°C. The As doped films (SnO2: As) deposited on silicon substrates was used for preparation of a large area position sensitive photodetector (PSD), acting on the base of a lateral photovoltaic effect. The position characteristic of PSD is symmetric to the zero and linear in the 80% of the active area. The SnO2 films are extremely stable under typical environmental conditions and extremely resistant to chemical etching.

Keywords: metal oxide film, SnO2 film, position sensitive photodetectors (PSD), lateral photovoltaic effect

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892 Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue Dye Using Pure and Ag-Doped SnO₂ Nanoparticles as Catalyst

Authors: M. S. Abd El-Sadek, Mahmoud A. Omar, Gharib M. Taha

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Photodegradation of methylene blue in the presence of tin dioxide (SnO₂) nanoparticles under solar light irradiation are known to be an effective photocatalytic process. In this study, pure and silver (Ag) doped tin dioxide (SnO₂) nanoparticles were prepared at calcination temperature (800ºC) by a modified sol-gel method and studied for their photocatalytic activity with methylene blue as a test contaminant. The characterization of undoped and doped SnO₂ photocatalyst was studied by X-rays diffraction patterns (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Microanalysis (EDX). The catalytic degradation of methylene blue in aqueous media was studied using UV-Vis spectrophotometer to monitor the degradation process by measuring its absorption spectra. The main absorption peak of methylene blue is observed at λ= 664 nm. The change in the percent of silver in the catalyst affects the photoactivity of SnO₂ on the degradation of methylene blue. The photoactivity of pure SnO₂ was found to be a maximum at dose 0.2 gm of the catalyst with 100 ml of 5 ppm methylene blue in the water. Within 210 min of photodegradation (under sunlight) after leaving the reaction for 90 minutes in the dark to avoid the effect of adsorption, the pure SnO₂ at calcination temperature 800ºC exhibited the best photocatalytic degradation with removal percentage of 93.66% on methylene blue degradation under solar light.

Keywords: SnO₂ nanoparticles, methylene blue degradation, photocatalysis, silver doped-SnO₂

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891 WO₃-SnO₂ Sensors for Selective Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds for Breath Analysis

Authors: Arpan Kumar Nayak, Debabrata Pradhan

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A simple, single-step and one-pot hydrothermal method was employed to synthesize WO₃-SnO₂ mixed nanostructured metal oxides at 200°C in 12h. The SnO₂ nanoparticles were found to be uniformly decorated on the WO₃ nanoplates. Though it is widely known that noble metals such as Pt, Pd doping or decoration on metal oxides improve the sensing response and sensitivity, we varied the SnO₂ concentration in the WO₃-SnO₂ mixed oxide and demonstrated their performance in ammonia, ethanol and acetone sensing. The sensing performance of WO₃-(x)SnO₂ [x = 0.27, 0.54, 1.08] mixed nanostructured oxides was found to be not only superior to that of pristine oxides but also higher/better than that of reported noble metal-based sensors. The sensing properties (selectivity, limit of detection, response and recovery times) are measured as a function of operating temperature (150-350°C). In particular, the gas selectivity is found to be highly temperature-dependent with optimum performance obtained at 200°C, 300°C and 350°C for ammonia, ethanol, and acetone, respectively. The present results on cost effective WO₃-SnO₂ sensors can find potential application in human breath analysis by noninvasive detection.

Keywords: gas sensing, mixed oxides, nanoplates, ammonia, ethanol, acetone

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890 Sensing Characteristics of Gold Nanoparticles Decorated Sputtered Tin Oxide Thin Films as Nitrogen Oxide Sensor

Authors: Qasem Drmosh, Zain Yamai, Amar Mohamedkhair, Abdulmajid Hendi

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In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the reduction of the nitrogen oxides NOx (NO2, NO) gases resulting from automotive or combustion emissions. Recently, metal additives in nanometer dimension onto the surface of SnO2 nanorods, nanowires and nanotubes sensitizer to further increase the sensor response have been used. In contrast, there is a lack study focused on modifying the surface of SnO2 thin films by nanoparticles. The challenge in case of thin films is how to fabricate these nanoparticles on the surfaces in cost-effective method, high purity as well as without hampering electrical and topographical properties. Here in this report, a simple and facile strategy has been demonstrated to acquire high sensitive and fast response NO2 gas sensor. Structural, electrical, morphological, optical, and compositional properties of the fabricated sensors were investigated through different analytical technique including X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field emission scanning emission microscope (FESEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The sensing performance of the prepared sensors are studied at different temperatures for various concentrations of NO2 and compared with pristine SnO2 film.

Keywords: NO2 sensor, SnO2, sputtering, thin films

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889 Physical Characterization of SnO₂ Films Prepared by the Rheotaxial Growth and Thermal Oxidation (RGTO) Method

Authors: A. Kabir, D. Boulainine, I. Bouanane, N. Benslim, B. Boudjema, C. Sedrati

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SnO₂ is an n-type semiconductor with a direct gap of about 3.6 eV. It is largely used in several domains such as nanocrystalline photovoltaic cells. Due to its interesting physic-chemical properties, this material was elaborated in thin film forms using different deposition techniques. It was found that SnO₂ properties were directly affected by the deposition method parameters. In this work, the RGTO method (Rheotaxial Growth and Thermal Oxidation) was used to deposit elaborate SnO₂ thin films. This technique consists on thermal oxidation of the Sn films deposited onto a substrate heated to a temperature close to Sn melting point (232°C). Such process allows the preparation of high porosity tin oxide films which are very suitable for the gas sensing. The films structural, morphological and optical properties pre and post thermal oxidation were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-Visible spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) respectively. XRD patterns showed a polycrystalline structure of the cassiterite phase of SnO₂. The grain growth was found affected by the oxidation temperature. This grain size evolution was confronted to existing grain growth models in order to understand the growth mechanism. From SEM images, the as deposited Sn film was formed of difference diameter spherical agglomerations. As a function of the oxidation temperature, these spherical agglomerations shape changed due to the introduction of oxygen ions. The deformed spheres started to interconnect by forming bridges between them. The volume porosity, determined from the UV-Visible reflexion spectra, Changes as a function of the oxidation temperature. The variation of the crystalline fraction, determined from FTIR spectra, correlated with the variation of both the grain size and the volume porosity.

Keywords: tin oxide, RGTO, grain growth, volume porosity, crystalline fraction

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888 Dielectrophoretic Characterization of Tin Oxide Nanowires for Biotechnology Application

Authors: Ahmad Sabry Mohamad, Kai F. Hoettges, Michael Pycraft Hughes

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This study investigates nanowires using Dielectrophoresis (DEP) in non-aqueous suspension of Tin (IV) Oxide (SnO2) nanoparticles dispersed in N,N-dimenthylformamide (DMF). The self assembly of nanowires in DEP impedance spectroscopy can be determined. In this work, dielectrophoretic method was used to measure non-organic molecules for estimating the permittivity and conductivity characteristic of the nanowires. As in aqueous such as salt solution has been dominating the transport of SnO2, which are the wire growth threshold, depend on applied voltage. While DEP assembly of nanowires depend on applied frequency, the applications of dielectrophoretic collection are measured using impedance spectroscopy.

Keywords: dielectrophoresis, impedance spectroscopy, nanowires, N, N-dimenthylformamide, SnO2

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887 Fe Modified Tin Oxide Thin Film Based Matrix for Reagentless Uric Acid Biosensing

Authors: Kashima Arora, Monika Tomar, Vinay Gupta

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Biosensors have found potential applications ranging from environmental testing and biowarfare agent detection to clinical testing, health care, and cell analysis. This is driven in part by the desire to decrease the cost of health care and to obtain precise information more quickly about the health status of patient by the development of various biosensors, which has become increasingly prevalent in clinical testing and point of care testing for a wide range of biological elements. Uric acid is an important byproduct in human body and a number of pathological disorders are related to its high concentration in human body. In past few years, rapid growth in the development of new materials and improvements in sensing techniques have led to the evolution of advanced biosensors. In this context, metal oxide thin film based matrices due to their bio compatible nature, strong adsorption ability, high isoelectric point (IEP) and abundance in nature have become the materials of choice for recent technological advances in biotechnology. In the past few years, wide band-gap metal oxide semiconductors including ZnO, SnO₂ and CeO₂ have gained much attention as a matrix for immobilization of various biomolecules. Tin oxide (SnO₂), wide band gap semiconductor (Eg =3.87 eV), despite having multifunctional properties for broad range of applications including transparent electronics, gas sensors, acoustic devices, UV photodetectors, etc., it has not been explored much for biosensing purpose. To realize a high performance miniaturized biomolecular electronic device, rf sputtering technique is considered to be the most promising for the reproducible growth of good quality thin films, controlled surface morphology and desired film crystallization with improved electron transfer property. Recently, iron oxide and its composites have been widely used as matrix for biosensing application which exploits the electron communication feature of Fe, for the detection of various analytes using urea, hemoglobin, glucose, phenol, L-lactate, H₂O₂, etc. However, to the authors’ knowledge, no work is being reported on modifying the electronic properties of SnO₂ by implanting with suitable metal (Fe) to induce the redox couple in it and utilizing it for reagentless detection of uric acid. In present study, Fe implanted SnO₂ based matrix has been utilized for reagentless uric acid biosensor. Implantation of Fe into SnO₂ matrix is confirmed by energy-dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis. Electrochemical techniques have been used to study the response characteristics of Fe modified SnO₂ matrix before and after uricase immobilization. The developed uric acid biosensor exhibits a high sensitivity to about 0.21 mA/mM and a linear variation in current response over concentration range from 0.05 to 1.0 mM of uric acid besides high shelf life (~20 weeks). The Michaelis-Menten kinetic parameter (Km) is found to be relatively very low (0.23 mM), which indicates high affinity of the fabricated bioelectrode towards uric acid (analyte). Also, the presence of other interferents present in human serum has negligible effect on the performance of biosensor. Hence, obtained results highlight the importance of implanted Fe:SnO₂ thin film as an attractive matrix for realization of reagentless biosensors towards uric acid.

Keywords: Fe implanted tin oxide, reagentless uric acid biosensor, rf sputtering, thin film

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886 Optical Characterization and Surface Morphology of SnO2 Thin Films Prepared by Spin Coating Technique

Authors: J. O. Ajayi, S. S. Oluyamo, D. B. Agunbiade

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In this work, tin oxide thin films (SnO2) were prepared using the spin coating technique. The effects of precursor concentration on the thin film properties were investigated. Tin oxide was synthesized from anhydrous Tin (II) Chloride (SnCl2) dispersed in Methanol and Acetic acid. The metallic oxide (SnO2) films deposited were characterized using the UV Spectrophotometer and the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). From the absorption spectra, absorption increases with decrease in precursor concentration. Absorbance in the VIS region is lower than 0 % at higher concentration. The optical transmission spectrum shows that transmission increases as the concentration of precursor decreases and the maximum transmission in visible region is about 90% for films prepared with 0.2 M. Also, there is increase in the reflectance of thin films as concentration of precursor increases. The films have high transparency (more than 85%) and low reflectance (less than 40%) in the VIS region. Investigation showed that the direct band gap value increased from 3.79eV, to 3.82eV as the precursor concentration decreased from 0.6 M to 0.2 M. Average direct bandgap energy for all the tin oxide films was estimated to be 3.80eV. The effect of precursor concentration was directly observed in crystal outgrowth and surface particle densification. They were found to increase proportionately with higher concentration.

Keywords: anhydrous TIN (II) chloride, densification, NIS- VIS region, spin coating technique

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885 UV-Enhanced Room-Temperature Gas-Sensing Properties of ZnO-SnO2 Nanocomposites Obtained by Hydrothermal Treatment

Authors: Luís F. da Silva, Ariadne C. Catto, Osmando F. Lopes, Khalifa Aguir, Valmor R. Mastelaro, Caue Ribeiro, Elson Longo

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Gas detection is important for controlling industrial, and vehicle emissions, agricultural residues, and environmental control. In last decades, several semiconducting oxides have been used to detect dangerous or toxic gases. The excellent gas-sensing performance of these devices have been observed at high temperatures (~250 °C), which forbids the use for the detection of flammable and explosive gases. In this way, ultraviolet light activated gas sensors have been a simple and promising alternative to achieve room temperature sensitivity. Among the semiconductor oxides which exhibit a good performance as gas sensor, the zinc oxide (ZnO) and tin oxide (SnO2) have been highlighted. Nevertheless, their poor selectivity is the main disadvantage for application as gas sensor devices. Recently, heterostructures combining these two semiconductors (ZnO-SnO2) have been studied as an alternative way to enhance the gas sensor performance (sensitivity, selectivity, and stability). In this work, we investigated the influence of mass ratio Zn:Sn on the properties of ZnO-SnO2 nanocomposites prepared by hydrothermal treatment for 4 hours at 200 °C. The crystalline phase, surface, and morphological features were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron (HR-TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements. The gas sensor measurements were carried out at room-temperature under ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation using different ozone levels (0.06 to 0.61 ppm). The XRD measurements indicate the presence of ZnO and SnO2 crystalline phases, without the evidence of solid solution formation. HR-TEM analysis revealed that a good contact between the SnO2 nanoparticles and the ZnO nanorods, which are very important since interface characteristics between nanostructures are considered as challenge to development new and efficient heterostructures. Electrical measurements proved that the best ozone gas-sensing performance is obtained for ZnO:SnO2 (50:50) nanocomposite under UV light irradiation. Its sensitivity was around 6 times higher when compared to SnO2 pure, a traditional ozone gas sensor. These results demonstrate the potential of ZnO-SnO2 heterojunctions for the detection of ozone gas at room-temperature when irradiated with UV light irradiation.

Keywords: hydrothermal, zno-sno2, ozone sensor, uv-activation, room-temperature

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884 Synthesis, Characterization and Photocatalytic Applications of Ag-Doped-SnO₂ Nanoparticles by Sol-Gel Method

Authors: M. S. Abd El-Sadek, M. A. Omar, Gharib M. Taha

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In recent years, photocatalytic degradation of various kinds of organic and inorganic pollutants using semiconductor powders as photocatalysts has been extensively studied. Owing to its relatively high photocatalytic activity, biological and chemical stability, low cost, nonpoisonous and long stable life, Tin oxide materials have been widely used as catalysts in chemical reactions, including synthesis of vinyl ketone, oxidation of methanol and so on. Tin oxide (SnO₂), with a rutile-type crystalline structure, is an n-type wide band gap (3.6 eV) semiconductor that presents a proper combination of chemical, electronic and optical properties that make it advantageous in several applications. In the present work, SnO₂ nanoparticles were synthesized at room temperature by the sol-gel process and thermohydrolysis of SnCl₂ in isopropanol by controlling the crystallite size through calculations. The synthesized nanoparticles were identified by using XRD analysis, TEM, FT-IR, and Uv-Visible spectroscopic techniques. The crystalline structure and grain size of the synthesized samples were analyzed by X-Ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and the XRD patterns confirmed the presence of tetragonal phase SnO₂. In this study, Methylene blue degradation was tested by using SnO₂ nanoparticles (at different calculations temperatures) as a photocatalyst under sunlight as a source of irradiation. The results showed that the highest percentage of degradation of Methylene blue dye was obtained by using SnO₂ photocatalyst at calculations temperature 800 ᵒC. The operational parameters were investigated to be optimized to the best conditions which result in complete removal of organic pollutants from aqueous solution. It was found that the degradation of dyes depends on several parameters such as irradiation time, initial dye concentration, the dose of the catalyst and the presence of metals such as silver as a dopant and its concentration. Percent degradation was increased with irradiation time. The degradation efficiency decreased as the initial concentration of the dye increased. The degradation efficiency increased as the dose of the catalyst increased to a certain level and by further increasing the SnO₂ photocatalyst dose, the degradation efficiency is decreased. The best degradation efficiency on which obtained from pure SnO₂ compared with SnO₂ which doped by different percentage of Ag.

Keywords: SnO₂ nanoparticles, a sol-gel method, photocatalytic applications, methylene blue, degradation efficiency

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883 Chemical Synthesis and Microwave Sintering of SnO2-Based Nanoparticles for Varistor Films

Authors: Glauco M. M. M. Lustosa, João Paulo C. Costa, Leinig Antônio Perazolli, Maria Aparecida Zaghete

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SnO2 has electrical conductivity due to the excess of electrons and structural defects, being its electrical behavior highly dependent on sintering temperature and chemical composition. The addition of metals modifiers into the crystalline structure can improve and controlling the behavior of some semiconductor oxides that can therefore develop different applications such as varistors (ceramic with non-ohmic behavior between current and voltage, i.e. conductive during normal operation and resistive during overvoltage). The polymeric precursor method, based on the complexation reaction between metal ion and policarboxylic acid and then polymerized with ethylene glycol, was used to obtain nanopowders ceramic. The metal immobilization reduces its segregation during the decomposition of the polyester resulting in a crystalline oxide with high chemical homogeneity. The preparation of films from ceramics nanoparticles using electrophoretic deposition method (EPD) brings prospects for a new generation of smaller size devices with easy integration technology. EPD allows to control time and current and therefore it can have control of the thickness, surface roughness and the film density, quickly and with low production costs. The sintering process is key to control size and grain boundary density of the film. In this step, there is the diffusion of metals that promote densification and control of intrinsic defects or change these defects which will form and modify the potential barrier in the grain boundary. The use of microwave oven for sintering is an advantageous process due to the fast and homogeneous heating rate, promoting the diffusion and densification without irregular grain growth. This research was done a comparative study of sintering temperature by use of zinc as modifier agent to verify the influence on sintering step aiming to promote densification and grain growth, which influences the potential barrier formation and then changed the electrical behavior. SnO2-nanoparticles were obtained with 1 %mol of ZnO + 0.05 %mol of Nb2O5 (SZN), deposited as film through EPD (voltage 2 kV, time of 10 min) on Si/Pt substrate. Sintering was made in a microwave oven at 800, 900 and 1000 °C. For complete coverage of the substrate by nanoparticles with low surface roughness and uniform thickness was added 0.02 g of solid iodine in alcoholic suspension SnO2 to increase particle surface charge. They were also used magneto in EPD system that improved the deposition rate forming a compact film. Using a scanning electron microscope of high resolution (SEM_FEG) it was observed nanoparticles with average size between 10-20 nm, after sintering the average size was 150 to 200 nm and thickness of 5 µm. Also, it was verified that the temperature at 1000 °C was the most efficient in sintering. The best sintering time was also recorded and determined as 40 minutes. After sintering, the films were recovered with Cr3+ ions layer by EPD, then the films were again thermally treated. The electrical characterizations (nonlinear coefficient of 11.4, voltage rupture of ~60 V and leakage current = 4.8x10−6 A), allow considering the new methodology suitable for prepare SnO2-based varistor applied for development of electrical protection devices for low voltage.

Keywords: chemical synthesis, electrophoretic deposition, microwave sintering, tin dioxide

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882 Synthesis and Characterization of SnO2: Ti Thin Films Spray-Deposited on Optical Glass

Authors: Demet Tatar, Bahattin Düzgün

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In this study, we have newly developed titanium-tin oxide (TiSnO) thin films as the transparent conducting oxides materials by the spray pyrolysis technique. Tin oxide thin films doped with different Ti content were successfully grown by spray pyrolysis and they were characterized as a function of Ti content. The effect of Ti contents on the crystalline structure and optical properties of the as-deposited SnO2:Ti films was systematically investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), UV-vis spectrometer and photoluminecenc spectrophotometer. The X-ray diffraction patterns taken at room temperature showed that the films are polycrystalline. The preferred directions of crystal growth appeared in the difractogram of SnO2: Ti (TiTO) films were correspond to the reflections from the (110), (200), (211) and (301) planes. The grain size varies from 21.8 to 27.8 nm for (110) preferred plane. SEM and AFM study reveals the surface of TiTO to be made of nanocrystalline particles. The highest visible transmittance (570 nm) of the deposited films is 80 % for 20 wt % titanium doped tin oxide films. The obtained results revealed that the structures and optical properties of the films were greatly affected by doping levels. These films are useful as conducting layers in electro chromic and photovoltaic devices.

Keywords: transparent conducting oxide, gas sensors, SnO2, Ti, optoelectronic, spray pyrolysis

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881 Design and Fabrication of ZSO Nanocomposite Thin Film Based NO2 Gas Sensor

Authors: Bal Chandra Yadav, Rakesh K. Sonker, Anjali Sharma, Punit Tyagi, Vinay Gupta, Monika Tomar

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In the present study, ZnO doped SnO2 thin films of various compositions were deposited on the surface of a corning substrate by dropping the two sols containing the precursors for composite (ZSO) with subsequent heat treatment. The sensor materials used for selective detection of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were designed from the correlation between the sensor composition and gas response. The available NO2 sensors are operative at very high temperature (150-800 °C) with low sensing response (2-100) even in higher concentrations. Efforts are continuing towards the development of NO2 gas sensor aiming with an enhanced response along with a reduction in operating temperature by incorporating some catalysts or dopants. Thus in this work, a novel sensor structure based on ZSO nanocomposite has been fabricated using chemical route for the detection of NO2 gas. The structural, surface morphological and optical properties of prepared films have been studied by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Atomic force microscopy (AFM), Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and UV-visible spectroscopy respectively. The effect of thickness variation from 230 nm to 644 nm of ZSO composite thin film has been studied and the ZSO thin film of thickness ~ 460 nm was found to exhibit the maximum gas sensing response ~ 2.1×103 towards 20 ppm NO2 gas at an operating temperature of 90 °C. The average response and recovery times of the sensor were observed to be 3.51 and 6.91 min respectively. Selectivity of the sensor was checked with the cross-exposure of vapour CO, acetone, IPA, CH4, NH3 and CO2 gases. It was found that besides the higher sensing response towards NO2 gas, the prepared ZSO thin film was also highly selective towards NO2 gas.

Keywords: ZSO nanocomposite thin film, ZnO tetrapod structure, NO2 gas sensor, sol-gel method

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880 Elaboration and Characterization of MEH-PPV/PCBM Composite Film Doped with TiO2 Nanoparticles for Photovoltaic Application

Authors: Wided Zerguine, Farid Habelhames

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The performance of photovoltaic devices with a light absorber consisting of a single-type conjugated polymer is poor, due to a low photo-generation yield of charge carriers, strong radiative recombination’s and low mobility of charge carriers. Recently, it has been shown that ultra-fast photoinduced charge transfer can also occur between a conjugated polymer and a metal oxide semiconductor such as SnO2, TiO2, ZnO, Nb2O5, etc. This has led to the fabrication of photovoltaic devices based on composites of oxide semiconductor nanoparticles embedded in a conjugated polymer matrix. In this work, Poly [2-methoxy-5-(20-ethylhexyloxy)-p-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV), (6,6)-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (n-type) were dissolved, mixed and deposited by physical methods (spin-coating) on indium tin-oxide (ITO) substrate. The incorporation of the titanium dioxide nanoparticles changed the morphology and increased the roughness of polymers film (MEH-PPV/PCBM), and the photocurrent density of the composite (MEH-PPV/PCBM +n-TiO2) was higher than that of single MEHPPV/ PCBM film. The study showed that the presence of n-TiO2 particles in the polymeric film improves the photoelectrochemical properties of MEH-PPV/PCBM composite.

Keywords: photocurrent density, organic nanostructures, hybrid coating, conducting polymer, titanium dioxide

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879 Analysis of Casting Call Process in Thai Film Industry

Authors: Panprae Bunyapukkna

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The purpose of this research is to analyze the process that most of the Thai film industries commonly use in order to find the right cast to play the role. The result proved that most of the low-budget film productions find the cast by asking from the crew’s friends or friend of friend. Therefore, finding the cast in low-budget film productions normally has only few people shown up for the auditions and sometimes either none of them has acting knowledge or their appearances do not match the character. However, since most of the low-budget film productions do not have much ability to find members of the cast, thus some of them still will be selected. On the other hand, most of the high-budget film productions use modeling companies to find the cast for them. However, most of modeling agencies in Thailand seek and select their cast members from the cast’s appearances or talents rather than the knowledge of acting.

Keywords: casting for film, modeling business, acting, film, performing arts, film business

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878 Electronic States at SnO/SnO2 Heterointerfaces

Authors: A. Albar, U. Schwingenschlogel

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Device applications of transparent conducting oxides require a thorough understanding of the physical and chemical properties of the involved interfaces. We use ab-initio calculations within density functional theory to investigate the electronic states at the SnO/SnO2 hetero-interface. Tin dioxide and monoxide are transparent materials with high n-type and p-type mobilities, respectively. This work aims at exploring the modifications of the electronic states, in particular the charge transfer, in the vicinity of the hetero-interface. The (110) interface is modeled by a super-cell approach in order to minimize the mismatch between the lattice parameters of the two compounds. We discuss the electronic density of states as a function of the distance to the interface.

Keywords: density of states, ab-initio calculations, interface states, charge transfer

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877 Temperature Coefficients of the Refractive Index for Ge Film

Authors: Lingmao Xu, Hui Zhou

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Ge film is widely used in infrared optical systems. Because of the special requirements of space application, it is usually used in low temperature. The refractive index of Ge film is always changed with the temperature which has a great effect on the manufacture of high precision infrared optical film. Specimens of Ge single film were deposited at ZnSe substrates by EB-PVD method. During temperature range 80K ~ 300K, the transmittance of Ge single film within 2 ~ 15 μm were measured every 20K by PerkinElmer FTIR cryogenic testing system. By the full spectrum inversion method fitting, the relationship between refractive index and wavelength within 2 ~ 12μm at different temperatures was received. It can be seen the relationship consistent with the formula Cauchy, which can be fitted. Then the relationship between refractive index of the Ge film and temperature/wavelength was obtained by fitting method based on formula Cauchy. Finally, the designed value obtained by the formula and the measured spectrum were compared to verify the accuracy of the formula.

Keywords: infrared optical film, low temperature, thermal refractive coefficient, Ge film

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876 High Capacity SnO₂/Graphene Composite Anode Materials for Li-Ion Batteries

Authors: Hilal Köse, Şeyma Dombaycıoğlu, Ali Osman Aydın, Hatem Akbulut

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Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have become promising power sources for a wide range of applications, such as mobile communication devices, portable electronic devices and electrical/hybrid vehicles due to their long cycle life, high voltage and high energy density. Graphite, as anode material, has been widely used owing to its extraordinary electronic transport properties, large surface area, and high electrocatalytic activities although its limited specific capacity (372 mAh g-1) cannot fulfil the increasing demand for lithium-ion batteries with higher energy density. To settle this problem, many studies have been taken into consideration to investigate new electrode materials and metal oxide/graphene composites are selected as a kind of promising material for lithium ion batteries as their specific capacities are much higher than graphene. Among them, SnO₂, an n-type and wide band gap semiconductor, has attracted much attention as an anode material for the new-generation lithium-ion batteries with its high theoretical capacity (790 mAh g-1). However, it suffers from large volume changes and agglomeration associated with the Li-ion insertion and extraction processes, which brings about failure and loss of electrical contact of the anode. In addition, there is also a huge irreversible capacity during the first cycle due to the formation of amorphous Li₂O matrix. To obtain high capacity anode materials, we studied on the synthesis and characterization of SnO₂-Graphene nanocomposites and investigated the capacity of this free-standing anode material in this work. For this aim, firstly, graphite oxide was obtained from graphite powder using the method described by Hummers method. To prepare the nanocomposites as free-standing anode, graphite oxide particles were ultrasonicated in distilled water with SnO2 nanoparticles (1:1, w/w). After vacuum filtration, the GO-SnO₂ paper was peeled off from the PVDF membrane to obtain a flexible, free-standing GO paper. Then, GO structure was reduced in hydrazine solution. Produced SnO2- graphene nanocomposites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. CR2016 cells were assembled in a glove box (MBraun-Labstar). The cells were charged and discharged at 25°C between fixed voltage limits (2.5 V to 0.2 V) at a constant current density on a BST8-MA MTI model battery tester with 0.2C charge-discharge rate. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) was performed at the scan rate of 0.1 mVs-1 and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements were carried out using Gamry Instrument applying a sine wave of 10 mV amplitude over a frequency range of 1000 kHz-0.01 Hz.

Keywords: SnO₂-graphene, nanocomposite, anode, Li-ion battery

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875 Synthesis and Characterization of Non-Aqueous Electrodeposited ZnSe Thin Film

Authors: S. R. Kumar, Shashikant Rajpal

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A nanocrystalline thin film of ZnSe was successfully electrodeposited on copper substrate using a non-aqueous solution and subsequently annealed in air at 400°C. XRD analysis indicates the polycrystalline deposit of (111) plane in both the cases. The sharpness of the peak increases due to annealing of the film and average grain size increases to 20 nm to 27nm. SEM photograph indicate that grains are uniform and densely distributed over the surface. Due to annealing the average grain size increased by 20%. The EDS spectroscopy shows the ratio of Zn & Se is 1.1 in case of annealed film. AFM analysis indicates the average roughness of the film reduces from 181nm to 165nm due to annealing of the film. The bandgap also decreases from 2.71eV to 2.62eV.

Keywords: electrodeposition, non-aqueous medium, SEM, XRD

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874 Production of Nanocomposite Electrical Contact Materials Ag-SnO2, W-Cu and Cu-C in Thermal Plasma

Authors: A. V. Samokhin, A. A. Fadeev, M. A. Sinaiskii, N. V. Alekseev, A. V. Kolesnikov

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Composite materials where metal matrix is reinforced by ceramic or metal particles are of great interest for use in the manufacturing of electrical contacts. Significant improvement of the composite physical and mechanical properties as well as increase of the performance parameters of composite-based products can be achieved if the nanoscale structure in the composite materials is obtained by using nanosized powders as starting components. The results of nanosized composite powders synthesis (Ag-SnO2, W-Cu and Cu-C) in the DC thermal plasma flows are presented in this paper. The investigations included the following processes: - Recondensation of micron powder mixture Ag + SnO2 in a nitrogen plasma; - The reduction of the oxide powders mixture (WO3 + CuO) in a hydrogen-nitrogen plasma; - Decomposition of the copper formate and copper acetate powders in nitrogen plasma. The calculations of equilibrium compositions of multicomponent systems Ag-Sn-O-N, W-Cu-O-H-N and Cu-O-C-H-N in the temperature range of 400-5000 K were carried to estimate basic process characteristics. Experimental studies of the processes were performed using a plasma reactor with a confined jet flow. The plasma jet net power was in the range of 2 - 13 kW, and the feedstock flow rate was up to 0.35 kg/h. The obtained powders were characterized by TEM, HR-TEM, SEM, EDS, ED-XRF, XRD, BET and QEA methods. Nanocomposite Ag-SnO2 (12 wt. %). Processing of the initial powder mixture (Ag-SnO2) in nitrogen thermal plasma stream allowed to produce nanopowders with a specific surface area up to 24 m2/g, consisting predominantly of particles with size less than 100 nm. According to XRD results, tin was present in the obtained products as SnO2 phase, and also as intermetallic phases AgxSn. Nanocomposite W-Cu (20 wt .%). Reduction of (WO3+CuO) mixture in the hydrogen-nitrogen plasma provides W-Cu nanopowder with particle sizes in the range of 10-150 nm. The particles have mainly spherical shape and structure tungsten core - copper shell. The thickness of the shell is about several nanometers, the shell is composed of copper and its oxides (Cu2O, CuO). The nanopowders had 1.5 wt. % oxygen impurity. Heat treatment in a hydrogen atmosphere allows to reduce the oxygen content to less than 0.1 wt. %. Nanocomposite Cu-C. Copper nanopowders were found as products of the starting copper compounds decomposition. The nanopowders primarily had a spherical shape with a particle size of less than 100 nm. The main phase was copper, with small amount of Cu2O and CuO oxides. Copper formate decomposition products had a specific surface area 2.5-7 m2/g and contained 0.15 - 4 wt. % carbon; and copper acetate decomposition products had the specific surface area 5-35 m2/g, and carbon content of 0.3 - 5 wt. %. Compacting of nanocomposites (sintering in hydrogen for Ag-SnO2 and electric spark sintering (SPS) for W-Cu) showed that the samples having a relative density of 97-98 % can be obtained with a submicron structure. The studies indicate the possibility of using high-intensity plasma processes to create new technologies to produce nanocomposite materials for electric contacts.

Keywords: electrical contact, material, nanocomposite, plasma, synthesis

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873 Nazi Propaganda and the 1930 Berlin Film Premiere of “All Quiet on the Western Front”

Authors: Edward C. Smith

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Historical narration in literature and film is an act that necessarily develops and deforms history, whether consciously or unconsciously. Such “translation” suffers or thrives depending on its historical context and on the ability of the artist/artists to make choices that enhance or diminish social and political reality. This “translation” and its challenges is examined from within the historical and political context of the 1930 Berlin film premiere of “All Quiet on the Western Front,” a film based on Erich Maria Remarque’s 1928 best-selling novel. Both the film and the novel appeared during a period in which the “aestheticization” of reality predominated. This was an era in early 20th-century European society in which life was conceived of as innately artistic and structured like an art form. The emergence of this modern consciousness, one in which memory and history surrendered their former authority, enabled conservative propaganda of the period to denounce all art that did not adhere conceptually to its political tenets, with “All Quiet” becoming yet another of its “victims.”

Keywords: documentary and propaganda film, film and TV audiences, international literature in film studies, popular culture and film

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872 Synthesis of Crosslinked Konjac Glucomannan and Kappa Carrageenan Film with Glutaraldehyde

Authors: Sperisa Distantina, Fadilah, Mujtahid Kaavessina

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Crosslinked konjac glucomannan and kappa carrageenan film were prepared by chemical crosslinking using glutaraldehyde (GA) as the crosslinking agent. The effect crosslinking on the swelling degree was investigated. Konjac glucomanan and its mixture with kappa carragenan film was immersed in GA solution and then thermally cured. The obtained crosslinked film was washed and soaked in the ethanol to remove the unreacted GA. The obtained film was air dried at room temperature to a constant weight. The infrared spectra and the value of swelling degree of obtained crosslinked film showed that glucomannan and kappa carrageenan was able to be crosslinked using glutaraldehyde by film immersion and curing method without catalyst. The crosslinked films were found to be pH sensitive, indicating a potential to be used in drug delivery polymer system.

Keywords: crosslinking, glucomannan, carrageenan, swelling

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871 Thai’s Film after Political Crisis in October 14, 1973 and Political Crisis between 2005-2014

Authors: Pison Suwanpakdee

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The objective of presenting this article is to analyze between Thai’s film and Thai society in political crisis, to study the development and trend of the film which reflects society in Thailand from political crisis of 14 October 1973 and the present day political crisis using a comparative study of the two era, both the similarities and differences in the film reflects the society in an era of change.

Keywords: film, political, neorealism, Thailand

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870 A Self-Heating Gas Sensor of SnO2-Based Nanoparticles Electrophoretic Deposited

Authors: Glauco M. M. M. Lustosa, João Paulo C. Costa, Sonia M. Zanetti, Mario Cilense, Leinig Antônio Perazolli, Maria Aparecida Zaghete

Abstract:

The contamination of the environment has been one of the biggest problems of our time, mostly due to developments of many industries. SnO2 is an n-type semiconductor with band gap about 3.5 eV and has its electrical conductivity dependent of type and amount of modifiers agents added into matrix ceramic during synthesis process, allowing applications as sensing of gaseous pollutants on ambient. The chemical synthesis by polymeric precursor method consists in a complexation reaction between tin ion and citric acid at 90 °C/2 hours and subsequently addition of ethyleneglycol for polymerization at 130 °C/2 hours. It also prepared polymeric resin of zinc, cobalt and niobium ions. Stoichiometric amounts of the solutions were mixed to obtain the systems (Zn, Nb)-SnO2 and (Co, Nb) SnO2 . The metal immobilization reduces its segregation during the calcination resulting in a crystalline oxide with high chemical homogeneity. The resin was pre-calcined at 300 °C/1 hour, milled in Atritor Mill at 500 rpm/1 hour, and then calcined at 600 °C/2 hours. X-Ray Diffraction (XDR) indicated formation of SnO2 -rutile phase (JCPDS card nº 41-1445). The characterization by Scanning Electron Microscope of High Resolution showed spherical ceramic powder nanostructured with 10-20 nm of diameter. 20 mg of SnO2 -based powder was kept in 20 ml of isopropyl alcohol and then taken to an electrophoretic deposition (EPD) system. The EPD method allows control the thickness films through the voltage or current applied in the electrophoretic cell and by the time used for deposition of ceramics particles. This procedure obtains films in a short time with low costs, bringing prospects for a new generation of smaller size devices with easy integration technology. In this research, films were obtained in an alumina substrate with interdigital electrodes after applying 2 kV during 5 and 10 minutes in cells containing alcoholic suspension of (Zn, Nb)-SnO2 and (Co, Nb) SnO2 of powders, forming a sensing layer. The substrate has designed integrated micro hotplates that provide an instantaneous and precise temperature control capability when a voltage is applied. The films were sintered at 900 and 1000 °C in a microwave oven of 770 W, adapted by the research group itself with a temperature controller. This sintering is a fast process with homogeneous heating rate which promotes controlled growth of grain size and also the diffusion of modifiers agents, inducing the creation of intrinsic defects which will change the electrical characteristics of SnO2 -based powders. This study has successfully demonstrated a microfabricated system with an integrated micro-hotplate for detection of CO and NO2 gas at different concentrations and temperature, with self-heating SnO2 - based nanoparticles films, being suitable for both industrial process monitoring and detection of low concentrations in buildings/residences in order to safeguard human health. The results indicate the possibility for development of gas sensors devices with low power consumption for integration in portable electronic equipment with fast analysis. Acknowledgments The authors thanks to the LMA-IQ for providing the FEG-SEM images, and the financial support of this project by the Brazilian research funding agencies CNPq, FAPESP 2014/11314-9 and CEPID/CDMF- FAPESP 2013/07296-2.

Keywords: chemical synthesis, electrophoretic deposition, self-heating, gas sensor

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869 Effect of Substrate Temperature on Some Physical Properties of Doubly doped Tin Oxide Thin Films

Authors: Ahmet Battal, Demet Tatar, Bahattin Düzgün

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Various transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) are mostly used much applications due to many properties such as cheap, high transmittance/electrical conductivity etc. One of the clearest among TCOs, indium tin oxide (ITO), is the most widely used in many areas. However, as ITO is expensive and very low regarding reserve, other materials with suitable properties (especially SnO2 thin films) are be using instead of it. In this report, tin oxide thin films doubly doped with antimony and fluorine (AFTO) were deposited by spray at different substrate temperatures on glass substrate. It was investigated their structural, optical, electrical and luminescence properties. The substrate temperature was varied from 320 to 480 ˚C at the interval of 40 (±5) ºC. X-ray results were shown that the films are polycrystalline with tetragonal structure and oriented preferentially along (101), (200) and (210) directions. It was observed that the preferential orientations of crystal growth are not dependent on substrate temperature, but the intensity of preferential orientation was increased with increasing substrate temperature until 400 ºC. After this substrate temperature, they decreased. So, substrate temperature impact structure of these thin films. It was known from SEM analysis, the thin films have rough and homogenous and the surface of the films was affected by the substrate temperature i.e. grain size are increasing with increasing substrate temperature until 400 ºC. Also, SEM and AFM studies revealed the surface of AFTO thin films to be made of nanocrystalline particles. The average transmittance of the films in the visible range is 70-85%. Eg values of the films were investigated using the absorption spectra and found to be in the range 3,20-3,93 eV. The electrical resistivity decreases with increasing substrate temperature, then the electrical resistivity increases. PL spectra were found as a function of substrate temperature. With increasing substrate temperature, emission spectra shift a little bit to a UV region. Finally, tin oxide thin films were successfully prepared by this method and a spectroscopic characterization of the obtained films was performed. It was found that the films have very good physical properties. It was concluded that substrate temperature impacts thin film structure.

Keywords: thin films, spray pyrolysis, SnO2, doubly doped

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