Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Search results for: Eutetranychus orientalis

13 Comparative Toxicity of Garlic Juice and Dicofol to Population of Citrus Mites

Authors: Y. Atibi, A. Boutaleb Joutei, T. Slimani

Abstract:

Insecticidal properties of Alliaceae are widely known, they are plant with varied biological properties. Garlic and onion are known for their positive effect on health, including the prevention of cardiovascular disease and some digestive cancers. These health benefits molecules are also responsible for pest potential control of Alliaceae. With these properties, we can consider using Alliaceae as acaricides. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of chemical and biopesticides on citrus mites, especially Tetranychus urticae, Panonychus citri and Eutetranychus orientalis. Chemical treatment (Dicofol) and biopesticides (Garlic juice + Alcohol) applied on this study to control the various stages of mites, have reduced the proliferation of mobile forms and reducing the number of eggs to acceptable levels. Garlic juice + alcohol revealed efficiency from 50 to 57.69 % against the mobile forms of T. urticae, however, it was effective against the mobile forms of P. citri and E. orientalis with an efficiency of 85.71 % and 100 % respectively, its action has also reduced the number of eggs of T. urticae and E. orientalis at low levels. Therefore, this biopesticide is conceivable viewpoint technical and economic as the infestation by mite is low.

Keywords: Alcohol, garlic juice, biopesticide, acaricide, mites, Tetranychus urticae, Panonychus citri, Eutetranychus orientalis

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12 Pesticide Residue Determination on Cumin Plant (Nigella orientalis L.) with LC-MS/MS and GC-MS

Authors: Nilda Ersoy, Sevinç Şener, Ayşe Yalçın Elidemir, Ebru Evcil, Ergün Döğen

Abstract:

In this study, pesticide residues were investigated in black cumin (Nigella orientalis L.) seeds grown in Turkey. GC-MS and LC-MS/MS analytical instruments are used in high precision when determining residue limits. A total of 100 pesticide active ingredients in LC-MS/MS devices have been performed in Nigella orientalis L. seeds samples. Also for the same aim, 103 pesticide active ingredients were analyzed in GC-MS. This study was conducted in 2012 and 2013. Sample residues were not found in detectable levels for two years.

Keywords: Pesticide, residue, black cumin, Nigella orientalis L

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11 Pesticide Residue Determination on Cumin Plant (Nigella orientalis L.) Grown through Agricultural Practices with LC-MS/MS and GC-MS

Authors: Nilda Ersoy, Sevinç Şener, Ayşe Yalçın Elidemir, Ebru Evcil, Ergün Döğen

Abstract:

In this study, pesticide residues were investigated in black cumin (Nigella orientalis L.) seeds which grown in Turkey. GC-MS and LC-MS/MS analytical instruments are used in high precision, when determining residue limits. A total of 100 pesticide active ingredients in LC-MS/MS devices have been performed in Nigella orientalis L. seeds samples. Moreover, for same aim, 103 pesticide active ingredients were analyzed in GC-MS. This study conducted in 2012 and 2013. Samples residues were not found in detectable levels for two years.

Keywords: Pesticide, residue, black cumin, Nigella orientalis L

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10 Examining the Role of Tree Species in Absorption of Heavy Metals; Case Study: Abidar Forest Park

Authors: Jahede Tekeykhah, Seyed Mohsen Hossini, Gholamali Jalali

Abstract:

Industrial and traffic activities cause large amounts of heavy metals enter into the atmosphere and the use of plant species can be effective in assessing and reducing air pollution by metals. This study aimed to investigate the adsorption level of heavy metals in leaves of Fraxinus rotundifolia, Robinia, Platanus orientalis, Platycladus orientalis and Pinus eldarica trees in Abidar forest park. For this purpose, samples leaves of the trees were prepared from the contaminated and control areas in each region in 3 stations with 3 replicates in mid-August and finally 90 samples were sent to the laboratory. Then, the concentrations of heavy metals were measured by graphite furnace. To do this, factorial experiment based on a completely randomized design with two factors of location on two levels (contaminated area and control area) and the factor of species on five levels (Fraxinus rotundifolia, Robinia, Platanus orientalis, Platycladus orientalis and Pinus eldarica) with three replications was used. The analysis of collected data was performed by SPSS software and Duncan's multiple range test was used to compare the means. The results showed that the accumulation of all metals in the leaves of most species in the infected area with a significant difference at 95% level was higher than the control area. In the contaminated area, with a significant difference at 5% level, the highest accumulations of metals were observed as the following: lead, cadmium, zinc and manganese in Platanus orientalis, nickel in Fraxinus rotundifolia and copper in Platycladus orientalis.

Keywords: Heavy Metals, Absorption, airborne, Tree Species, Abidar Forest Park

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9 Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis in Trema orientalis: Effect of a Naturally-Occurring Symbiosis Receptor Kinase Mutant Allele

Authors: Yuda Purwana Roswanjaya, Wouter Kohlen, Rene Geurts

Abstract:

The Trema genus represents a group of fast-growing tropical tree species within the Cannabaceae. Interestingly, five species nested in this lineage -known as Parasponia- can establish rhizobium nitrogen-fixing root nodules, similar to those found in legumes. Parasponia and legumes use a conserved genetic network to control root nodule formation, among which are genes also essential for mycorrhizal symbiosis (the so-called common symbiotic pathway). However, Trema species lost several genes that function exclusively in nodulation, suggesting a loss-of the nodulation trait in Trema. Strikingly, in a Trema orientalis population found in Malaysian Borneo we identified a truncated SYMBIOSIS RECEPTOR KINASE (SYMRK) mutant allele lacking a large portion of the c-terminal kinase domain. In legumes this gene is essential for nodulation and mycorrhization. This raises the question whether Trema orientalis can still be mycorrhized. To answer this question, we established quantitative mycorrhization assay for Parasponia andersonii and Trema orientalis. Plants were grown in closed pots on half strength Hoagland medium containing 20 µM potassium phosphate in sterilized sand and inoculated with 125 spores of Rhizopagus irregularis (Agronutrion-DAOM197198). Mycorrhization efficiency was determined by analyzing the frequency of mycorrhiza (%F), the intensity of the mycorrhizal colonization (%M) and the arbuscule abundance (%A) in the root system. Trema orientalis RG33 can be mycorrhized, though with lower efficiency compared to Parasponia andersonii. From this we conclude that a functional SYMRK kinase domain is not essential for Trema orientalis mycorrhization. In ongoing experiments, we aim to investigate the role of SYMRK in Parasponia andersonii mycorrhization and nodulation. For this two Parasponia andersonii symrk CRISPR-Cas9 mutant alleles were created. One mimicking the TorSYMRKRG33 allele by deletion of exon 13-15, and a full Parasponia andersonii SYMRK knockout.

Keywords: endomycorrhization, Parasponia andersonii, symbiosis receptor kinase (SYMRK), Trema orientalis

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8 Heavy Metal Distribution in Tissues of Two Commercially Important Fish Species, Euryglossa orientalis and Psettodes erumei

Authors: Reza Khoshnood, Zahra Khoshnood, Ali Hajinajaf, Farzad Fahim, Behdokht Hajinajaf, Farhad Fahim

Abstract:

In 2013, 24 fish samples were taken from two fishery regions in Bandar-Abbas and Bandar-Lengeh, the fishing grounds north of Hormoz Strait (Persian Gulf) near the Iranian coastline. The two flat fishes were oriental sole (Euryglossa orientalis) and deep flounder (Psettodes erumei). Using the ROPME method (MOOPAM) for chemical digestion, Cd concentration was measured with a nonflame atomic absorption spectrophotometry technique. The average concentration of Cd in the edible muscle tissue of deep flounder was measured in Bandar-Abbas and was found to be 0.15±.06 µg g-1. It was 0.1±.05 µg.g-1 in Bandar-Lengeh. The corresponding values for oriental sole were 0.2±0.13 and 0.13±0.11 µg.g-1. The average concentration of Cd in the liver tissue of deep flounder in Bandar-Abbas was 0.22±.05 µg g-1 and that in Bandar-Lengeh was 0.2±0.04 µg.g-1. The values for oriental sole were 0.31±0.09 and 0.24±0.13 µg g-1 in Bandar-Abbas and Bandar-Lengeh, respectively.

Keywords: Trace Metal, Euryglossa orientalis, Psettodes erumei, Persian Gulf

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7 Effects of Oil Pollution on Euryglossa orientalis and Psettodes erumei in the Persian Gulf

Authors: Majid Afkhami, Maryam Ehsanpour, Reza Khoshnood, Zahra Khoshnood, Rastin Afkhami

Abstract:

Marine pollution is a global environmental problem. Different human activities on land, in the water and in the air contribute to the contamination of seawater, sediments and organisms with potentially toxic substances. Contaminants can be natural substances or artificially produced compounds. After discharge into the sea, contaminants can stay in the water in dissolved form or they can be removed from the water column through sedimentation to the bottom sediments. Histopathological alterations can be used as indicators for the effects of various anthropogenic pollutants on organisms and are a reflection of the overall health of the entire population in the ecosystem. These histo pathological biomarkers are closely related to other biomarkers of stress since many pollutants have to undergo metabolic activation in order to be able to provoke cellular change in the affected organism. In order to make evaluation of the effects of oil pollution, some heavy metals bioaccumulation and explore their histopathological effects on hepatocytes of Oriental sole (Euryglossa orientalis) and Deep flounder (Psettodes erumei), fishes caught from two areas of north coast of the Persian Gulf: Bandar Abbass and Bandar Lengeh. Concentrations of Ni and V in liver of both species in two sampling regions were in following order: Bandar abbass Bandar lengeh; also between two species, these quantities were higher in P. erumei than E. orientalis in both sampling regions. Histopathology of the liver shows some cellular alterations including: degeneration, necrosis and tissue disruption, and histopathological effects were severe in P. erumei than E. orientalis. Results showed that Bandar Abbass region was more polluted than Bandar Lengeh, and because Ni and V were oil pollution indicators, and two flat fishes were benthic, they can receive considerable amount of oil pollution through their biological activities like feeding. Also higher amounts of heavy metal concentrations and major histopathological effects in E. orientalis showed strong relationship between benthic habitat of the fish and amounts of received pollutants from water and sediments, because E. orientalis is more related to the bottom than P. erumei.

Keywords: Heavy Metals, Oil Pollution, Persian Gulf, flatfishes

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6 Role of Climatic Conditions on Pacific Bluefin Tuna Thunnus orientalis Stock Structure

Authors: Ashneel Ajay Singh, Kazumi Sakuramoto, Naoki Suzuki, Kalla Alok, Nath Paras

Abstract:

Bluefin (Thunnus orientalis) tuna is one of the most economically valuable tuna species in the world. In recent years the stock has been observed to decline. It is suspected that the stock-recruitment relationship and population structure is influenced by environmental and climatic variables. This study was aimed at investigating the influence of environmental and climatic conditions on the trajectory of the different life stages of the North Pacific bluefin tuna. Exploratory analysis was performed for the North Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) on the time series of the bluefin tuna cohorts (age-0, 1, 2,…,9, 10+). General Additive Modeling (GAM) was used to reconstruct the recruitment (R) trajectory. The spatial movement of the SST was also monitored from 1953 to 2012 in the distribution area of the bluefin tuna. Exploratory analysis showed significance influence of the North Pacific Sea Surface temperature (SST) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) on the time series of the age-0 group. Other age group (1, 2,…,9, 10+) time series did not exhibit any significant correlations. PDO showed most significant relationship in the months of October to December. Although the stock-recruitment relationship is of biological significance, the recruits (age-0) showed poor correlation with the Spawning Stock Biomass (SSB). Indeed the most significant model incorporated the SSB, SST and PDO. The results show that the stock-recruitment relationship of the North Pacific bluefin tuna is multi-dimensional and cannot be adequately explained by the SSB alone. SST and PDO forcing of the population structure is of significant importance and needs to be accounted for when making harvesting plans for bluefin tuna in the North Pacific.

Keywords: recruitment, Pacific decadal oscillation, sea surface temperature, spawning stock biomass, pacific bluefin tuna, Thunnus orientalis, cohorts, general additive model

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5 The Effects of Copper and Cadmium on Germination and Seedling Growth of Oriental Beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) Seeds

Authors: Handan Ucun Özel, Halil Barış Özel

Abstract:

The toxic effects of copper and cadmium on seed germination, seedling, root, shoot length, and seedling dry biomass of oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) was evaluated under laboratory conditions compared to control values. Copper and cadmium treatments at 50, 100, 150, and 200 mg/l affect seed germination and seedling growth of oriental beech as compared to control. Copper treatments at 50, 100, 150, and 200 mg/l concentrations produced significant (p < 0.01) effects on seed germination and seedling length of oriental beech while copper treatment at 150 mg/l significantly affected root growth and seedling dry biomass as compared to control. Similarly, cadmium treatments from 50 to 200 mg/l affected the seed germination, root, shoot length, and seedling dry biomass of oriental beech as compared to control. Cadmium treatments showed an adverse effect on seedlings of oriental beech as compared to copper, copper and cadmium treatments at 200mg/l exhibited the lowest percentage of tolerance in seedlings of oriental beech as compared to control.

Keywords: Toxicity, Copper, cadmium, oriental beech

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4 Breeding Biology of the House Crow Corvus splendens at Hazara University, Garden Campus, Mansehra, Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Awais

Abstract:

Study on the nesting biology of the House Crow Corvus splendens was conducted at Hazara University, Garden Campus (125 acres), Mansehra during the 2013 breeding season (June to September). Details about nest locations, tree characteristics, nest and egg characteristics were recorded. Mean nest density of House Crow was 2.4 nests/ acre. Mean tree and nest height were 14.8±6.30 and 11.8±5.42m. Mean tree canopy spread 9.5±2.48m. Mean maximum and minimum nest diameters were 42.3±2.08 and 39.0±1.73cm respectively while maximum and minimum diameters of nest cup were 15.6±1.52 and 13.3±1.15cm respectively. Nest depth and nest cup depth were measured 19.3±2.08 and 8.3±1.15cm respectively. Mean nest weight was 1.4±0.24 kg. Mean clutch size was 4.0 (ranged 1–6). Mean egg length was 38.6±0.69mm, breadth 26.0±0.69mm, egg volume 13.3±0.83cm3 and egg shape index 1.42±0.83. Mean egg weight was 12.3±0.70g. Egg and nest success was calculated 55.1% and 69.0%. Hatchlings and fledglings produced per nest were 2.20 and 1.44 respectively. Main reasons for reproductive failures were unhatched eggs, poor nest construction, bad weather conditions and observer’s disturbance.

Keywords: Breeding, Corvus splendens, fledglings, Hazara university, house crow, Mansehra, populus orientalis

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3 Study on Developmental and Pathogenesis Related Genes Expression Deregulation in Brassica compestris Infected with 16Sr-IX Associated Phytoplasma

Authors: Samina Jam Nazeer Ahmad, Samia Yasin, Ijaz Ahmad, Muhammad Tahir, Jam Nazeer Ahmad

Abstract:

Phytoplasmas are phloem-inhibited plant pathogenic bacteria that are transferred by insect vectors. Among biotic factors, Phytoplasma infection induces abnormality influencing the physiology as well as morphology of plants. In 16Sr-IX group phytoplasma-infected brassica compestris, flower abnormalities have been associated with changes in the expression of floral development genes. To determine whether methylation was involved in down-regulation of flower development, the process of DNA methylation and Demethylation was investigated as a possible mechanism for regulation of floral gene expression in phytoplasma infected Brassica transmitted by Orosious orientalis vector by using RT-PCR, MSRE-PCR, Southern blotting, Bisulfite Sequencing, etc. Transcriptional expression of methylated genes was found to be globally down-regulated in plants infected with phytoplasma, but not severely in those infested by insect vectors and variation in expression was found in genes involved in methylation. These results also showed that genes particularly orthologous to Arabidopsis APETALA3 involved in petal formation and flower development was down-regulated severely in phytoplasma-infected brassica and with the fact that phytoplasma and insect induce variation in developmental gene expression. The DNA methylation status of flower developmental gene in phytoplasma infected plants with 5-azacytidine restored gene expression strongly suggesting that DNA methylation was involved in down-regulation of floral development genes in phytoplasma infected brassica.

Keywords: phytoplasma, DNA Methylation, genes expression, flower development

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2 The Influence of Forest Management Histories on Dead and Habitat Trees in the Old Growth Forest in Northern Iran

Authors: Kiomars Sefidi

Abstract:

Dead and habitat tree such as fallen logs, snags, stumps and cracks and loos bark etc. is regarded as an important ecological component of forests on which many forest dwelling species depend, yet its relation to management history in Caspian forest has gone unreported. The aim of research was to compare the amounts of dead tree and habitat in the forests with historically different intensities of management, including: forests with the long term implication of management (PS), the short-term implication of management (NS) which were compared with semi virgin forest (GS). The number of 405 individual dead and habitat trees were recorded and measured at 109 sampling locations. ANOVA revealed volume of the dead tree in the form and decay classes significantly differ within sites and dead volume in the semi virgin forest significantly higher than managed sites. Comparing the amount of dead and habitat tree in three sites showed that dead tree volume related with management history and significantly differ in three study sites. Also, the numbers of habitat trees including cavities, Cracks and loose bark and Fork split trees significantly vary among sites. Reaching their highest in virgin site and their lowest in the site with the long term implication of management, it was concluded that forest management cause reduction of the amount of dead and habitat tree. Forest management history affect the forest's ability to generate dead tree especially in a large size, thus managing this forest according to ecological sustainable principles require a commitment to maintaining stand structure that allow, continued generation of dead tree in a full range of size.

Keywords: Sustainable management, Forest biodiversity, Iran, cracks trees, fork split trees, Fagus orientalis

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1 The Efficiency of Mechanization in Weed Control in Artificial Regeneration of Oriental Beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky.)

Authors: Tuğrul Varol, Halil Barış Özel

Abstract:

In this study which has been conducted in Akçasu Forest Range District of Devrek Forest Directorate; 3 methods (cover removal with human force, cover removal with Hitachi F20 Excavator, and cover removal with agricultural equipment mounted on a Ferguson 240S agriculture tractor) utilized in weed control efforts in regeneration of degraded oriental beech forests have been compared. In this respect, 3 methods have been compared by determining certain work hours and standard durations of unit areas (1 hectare). For this purpose, evaluating the tasks made with human and machine force from the aspects of duration, productivity and costs, it has been aimed to determine the most productive method in accordance with the actual ecological conditions of research field. Within the scope of the study, the time studies have been conducted for 3 methods used in weed control efforts. While carrying out those studies, the performed implementations have been evaluated by dividing them into business stages. Also, the actual data have been used while calculating the cost accounts. In those calculations, the latest formulas and equations which are also used in developed countries have been utilized. The variance of analysis (ANOVA) was used in order to determine whether there is any statistically significant difference among obtained results, and the Duncan test was used for grouping if there is significant difference. According to the measurements and findings carried out within the scope of this study, it has been found during living cover removal efforts in regeneration efforts in demolished oriental beech forests that the removal of weed layer in 1 hectare of field has taken 920 hours with human force, 15.1 hours with excavator and 60 hours with an equipment mounted on a tractor. On the other hand, it has been determined that the cost of removal of living cover in unit area (1 hectare) was 3220.00 TL for man power, 788.70 TL for excavator and 2227.20 TL for equipment mounted on a tractor. According to the obtained results, it has been found that the utilization of excavator in weed control effort in regeneration of degraded oriental beech regions under actual ecological conditions of research field has been found to be more productive from both of aspects of duration and costs. These determinations carried out should be repeated in weed control efforts in degraded forest fields with different ecological conditions, it is compulsory for finding the most efficient weed control method. These findings will light the way of technical staff of forestry directorate in determination of the most effective and economic weed contol method. Thus, the more actual data will be used while preparing the weed control budgets, and there will be significant contributions to national economy. Also the results of this and similar studies are very important for developing the policies for our forestry in short and long term.

Keywords: Cost Analysis, Productivity, Weed control, Mechanization, artificial regeneration, oriental beech, man power

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