Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

SDS-PAGE Related Abstracts

6 Effects of Microbial Biofertilization on Nodulation, Nitrogen Fixation, and Yield of Lablab purpureus

Authors: Benselama Amel, Ounane S. Mohamed, Bekki Abdelkader


A collection of 20 isolates from fresh Nodules of the legume plant Lablab purpureus was isolated. These isolates have been authenticated by seedling inoculation grown in jars containing sand. The results obtained after two months of culture have revealed that the 20 isolates (100% of the isolates) are able to nodulate their host plants. The results obtained were analyzed statistically by ANOVA using the software statistica and had shown that the effect of the inoculation has significantly improved all the growth parameters (the height of the plant and the dry weight of the aerial parts and roots, and the number of nodules). We have evaluated the tolerance of all strains of the collection to the major stress factors as the salinity, pH and extreme temperature. The osmotolerance reached a concentration up to 1710mm of NaCl. The strains were also able to grow on a wide range of pH, ranging from 4.5 to 9.5, and temperature, between 4°C and 40°C. Also, we tested the effect of the acidity, aluminum and ferric deficit on the Lablab-rhizobia symbiosis. Lablab purpureus has not been affected by the presence of high concentrations of aluminum. On the other hand, iron deficiency has caused a net decrease in the dry biomass of the aerial part. The results of all the phenotypic characters have been treated by the statistical Minitab software, the numerical analysis had shown that these bacterial strains are divided into two distinct groups at a level of similarity of 86 %. The SDS-PAGE was carried out to determine the profile of the total protein of the strains. The coefficients of similarity of polypeptide bands between the isolates and strains reference (Bradyrhizobium, Mesorizobium sp.) confirm that our strain belongs to the groups of rhizobia.

Keywords: Symbiosis, rhizobia, SDS-PAGE, phenotypic characterization, Lablab purpureus

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5 Investigation on Porcine Follicular Fluid Protein Pattern of Medium and Large Follicles

Authors: Mayuva Areekijseree, Mayuree Pumipaiboon, Hatairuk Tungkasen, Somrudee Phetchrid, Suwapat Jaidee, Supinya Yoomak, Chantana Kankamol


Ovaries of reproductive female pigs were obtained from local slaughterhouses in Nakorn Pathom Province, Thailand. Follicular fluid of medium follicle (5-6 diameters) and large follicles (7-8 mm and 10 mm in diameter) were aspirated and collected by sterile technique and analyzed protein pattern. The follicular fluid protein bands were found by SDS-PAGE which has no protein band in difference compared to standard protein band. So we chose protein band molecular weight 50, 62-65, 75-80, 90, 120-160, and >220 kDa were analyzed by LC/MS/MS. The result was found immunoglobulin gamma chain, keratin, transferrin, heat shock protein, and plasminogen precursor, ceruloplasmin, and hemopexin, and protease, respectively. All proteins play important roles in promotion and regulation on growth and development of reproductive cells. The result of this study found many proteins which were useful and important for in vitro oocyte maturation and embryonic development of cell technology in animals. The further study will be use porcine follicular fluid protein of medium and large follicles as feeder cells in in vitro condition to promote oocyte and embryo maturation.

Keywords: SDS-PAGE, porcine oocyte, follicular fluid protein, LC/MS/MS

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4 Identification and Characterization of Small Peptides Encoded by Small Open Reading Frames using Mass Spectrometry and Bioinformatics

Authors: Su Mon Saw, Joe Rothnagel


Short open reading frames (sORFs) located in 5’UTR of mRNAs are known as uORFs. Characterization of uORF-encoded peptides (uPEPs) i.e., a subset of short open reading frame encoded peptides (sPEPs) and their translation regulation lead to understanding of causes of genetic disease, proteome complexity and development of treatments. Existence of uORFs within cellular proteome could be detected by LC-MS/MS. The ability of uORF to be translated into uPEP and achievement of uPEP identification will allow uPEP’s characterization, structures, functions, subcellular localization, evolutionary maintenance (conservation in human and other species) and abundance in cells. It is hypothesized that a subset of sORFs are translatable and that their encoded sPEPs are functional and are endogenously expressed contributing to the eukaryotic cellular proteome complexity. This project aimed to investigate whether sORFs encode functional peptides. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and bioinformatics were thus employed. Due to probable low abundance of sPEPs and small in sizes, the need for efficient peptide enrichment strategies for enriching small proteins and depleting the sub-proteome of large and abundant proteins is crucial for identifying sPEPs. Low molecular weight proteins were extracted using SDS-PAGE from Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK293) cells and Strong Cation Exchange Chromatography (SCX) from secreted HEK293 cells. Extracted proteins were digested by trypsin to peptides, which were detected by LC-MS/MS. The MS/MS data obtained was searched against Swiss-Prot using MASCOT version 2.4 to filter out known proteins, and all unmatched spectra were re-searched against human RefSeq database. ProteinPilot v5.0.1 was used to identify sPEPs by searching against human RefSeq, Vanderperre and Human Alternative Open Reading Frame (HaltORF) databases. Potential sPEPs were analyzed by bioinformatics. Since SDS PAGE electrophoresis could not separate proteins <20kDa, this could not identify sPEPs. All MASCOT-identified peptide fragments were parts of main open reading frame (mORF) by ORF Finder search and blastp search. No sPEP was detected and existence of sPEPs could not be identified in this study. 13 translated sORFs in HEK293 cells by mass spectrometry in previous studies were characterized by bioinformatics. Identified sPEPs from previous studies were <100 amino acids and <15 kDa. Bioinformatics results showed that sORFs are translated to sPEPs and contribute to proteome complexity. uPEP translated from uORF of SLC35A4 was strongly conserved in human and mouse while uPEP translated from uORF of MKKS was strongly conserved in human and Rhesus monkey. Cross-species conserved uORFs in association with protein translation strongly suggest evolutionary maintenance of coding sequence and indicate probable functional expression of peptides encoded within these uORFs. Translation of sORFs was confirmed by mass spectrometry and sPEPs were characterized with bioinformatics.

Keywords: Bioinformatics, SDS-PAGE, HEK293 cells, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, ProteinPilot, Strong Cation Exchange Chromatography, sPEPs

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3 Cumulus-Oocyte Complexes and Follicular Fluid Proteins of Pig during Folliculogenesis

Authors: Hatairuk Tungkasen, Mayuva Youngsabanant-Areekijseree, Panomporn Wisuthseriwong, Siyaporn Namsongsan, Chanikarn Srinark


The objective of the present study was to evaluate the morphology of porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes (pCOCs) and follicular fluid during follicular development. The samples were obtained from local slaughterhouses in Nakorn Pathom Province, Thailand. Pigs were classified as either in the follicular phase or luteal phase. Porcine follicles (n = 3,510) were categorized as small (1-3 mm in diameters; n=2,910), medium (4-6 mm in diameters; n=530) and large (7-8 mm in diameters; n=70). Then pCOCs and follicular fluid were collected. Finally, we found that the oocytes can be categorized into intact cumulus cells layer oocyte, multi-cumulus cells layer oocyte, partial cumulus cells layer oocyte, completely denuded oocyte and degenerated oocyte. They showed high percentage of intact and multi-cumulus cells layer oocytes from small follicles (54.68%) medium follicles (69.06%) and large follicles (68.57%), which have high potential to develop into matured oocytes in vitro. Protein composition of the follicular fluid was separated by SDS-PAGE technique. The result shows that the protein molecular weight in the small and medium follicles are 23, 50, 66, 75, 92, 100, 132, 163, 225 and >225 kDa. Meanwhile, protein molecular weight in large follicles are 12, 16, 23, 50, 66, 75, 92, 100, 132, 163, 225 and >225 kDa. All proteins play an important role in promotion and regulation on development, maturation of oocytes and regulation of ovulation. We conclude that the results of discovery can be used porcine secretion proteins for supplement in IVM/IVF technology. Acknowledgements: The project was funded by a grant from Silpakorn University Research and Development Institute (SURDI) and Faculty of Science, Silpakorn University, Thailand.

Keywords: follicular fluid, SDS-PAGE, porcine oocyte, porcine follicles

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2 Follicular Fluid Proteins and Cells Study on Small, Medium, and Large Follicles of Large White Pig

Authors: Mayuree Pumipaiboon, S. Sengsai, Mayuva Youngsabanant-Areekijseree, Chanikarn Srinark


Our project was aimed at morphology of oocytes, follicle cells and follicular fluid proteins study of Large White pig (at local slaughter house in Nakhon Pathom Province). The porcine oocytes and follicular fluid of healthy small follicles (1-2 mm), medium follicles (3-6 mm in diameters) and large follicles (7-8 mm and 10 mm in diameter) were aspirated and collected from the ovary by sterile technique. Then, the oocytes and the follicle cells were separated from the fluid. The oocytes were round shape and surrounded by zona pellucida with numerous layers of cumulus cells. Based on the number of cumulus cell layers surrounding oocytes, the oocytes were classified into 5 types, which were intact-, multi-, partial-cumulus layer oocyte, completely denuded oocyte and degenerative oocyte. The collected oocytes showed high percentages of intact- and multi- cumulus cell layers in the small follicles (53.48%) medium follicles (56.94%) and large follicles (56.52%) which have high potential to develop into mature oocytes in vitro. Proteins from follicular fluid of 3 size follicles were separated by SDS-PAGE and LC/MS/MS. The molecular weight of follicular fluid proteins from the small follicles were 24, 60-65, 79, 110, 140, 160, and > 220 kDa. Meanwhile, the follicular fluid protein from medium and large follicle contained 52, 65, 79, 90, 110, 120, 160, 190 and > 220 kDa. Almost all proteins played important roles in promoting and regulating growth and development of oocytes and ovulation. This finding was an initial tool for in vitro testing and applied biotechnology research. Acknowledgements: The project was funded by a grant from Silpakorn University Research & Development Institute (SURDI) and Faculty of Science, Silpakorn University, Thailand.

Keywords: Reproductive Biology, SDS-PAGE, porcine oocyte, follicular fluid protein, LC/MS/MS

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1 Gene Expression and Staining Agents: Exploring the Factors That Influence the Electrophoretic Properties of Fluorescent Proteins

Authors: Elif Tugce Aksun Tumerkan, Chris Lowe, Hannah Krupa


Fluorescent proteins are self-sufficient in forming chromophores with a visible wavelength from 3 amino acids sequence within their own polypeptide structure. This chromophore – a molecule that absorbs a photon of light and exhibits an energy transition equal to the energy of the absorbed photon. Fluorescent proteins (FPs) consisted of a chain of 238 amino acid residues and composed of 11 beta strands shaped in a cylinder surrounding an alpha helix structure. A better understanding of the system of the chromospheres and the increasing advance in protein engineering in recent years, the properties of FPs offers the potential for new applications. They have used sensors and probes in molecular biology and cell-based research that giving a chance to observe these FPs tagged cell localization, structural variation and movement. For clarifying functional uses of fluorescent proteins, electrophoretic properties of these proteins are one of the most important parameters. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis is used for determining electrophoretic properties commonly. While there are many techniques are used for determining the functionality of protein-based research, SDS-PAGE analysis can only provide a molecular level assessment of the proteolytic fragments. Before SDS-PAGE analysis, fluorescent proteins need to successfully purified. Due to directly purification of the target, FPs is difficult from the animal, gene expression is commonly used which must be done by transformation with the plasmid. Furthermore, used gel within electrophoresis and staining agents properties have a key role. In this review, the different factors that have the impact on the electrophoretic properties of fluorescent proteins explored. Fluorescent protein separation and purification are the essential steps before electrophoresis that should be done very carefully. For protein purification, gene expression process and following steps have a significant function. For successful gene expression, the properties of selected bacteria for expression, used plasmid are essential. Each bacteria has own characteristics which are very sensitive to gene expression, also used procedure is the important factor for fluorescent protein expression. Another important factors are gel formula and used staining agents. Gel formula has an effect on the specific proteins mobilization and staining with correct agents is a key step for visualization of electrophoretic bands of protein. Visuality of proteins can be changed depending on staining reagents. Apparently, this review has emphasized that gene expression and purification have a stronger effect than electrophoresis protocol and staining agents.

Keywords: Cell Biology, Gene expression, SDS-PAGE, staining agents

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