Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32

Science Related Abstracts

32 Innovation Trends in Latin America Countries

Authors: José Carlos Rodríguez, Mario Gómez

Abstract:

This paper analyses innovation trends in Latin America countries by means of the number of patent applications filed by residents and non-residents during the period 1965 to 2012. Making use of patent data released by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), we search for the presence of multiple structural changes in patent application series in Argentina, Brazil Chile, and Mexico. These changes may suggest that firms’ innovative activity has been modified as a result of implementing a particular science, technology and innovation (STI) policy. Accordingly, the new regulations implemented in these countries during 1980s and 1990s have influenced their intellectual property regimes. The question conducting this research is thus how STI policies in these countries have affected their innovation activity? The results achieved in this research confirm the existence of multiple structural changes in the series of patent applications resulting from STI policies implemented in these countries.

Keywords: Science, Patents, innovation activity, econometric methods, Latin America countries, technology and innovation policy

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31 Gender and Science: Is the Association Universal?

Authors: Neelam Kumar

Abstract:

Science is stratified, with an unequal distribution of research facilities and rewards among scientists. Gender stratification is one of the most prevalent phenomena in the world of science. In most countries gender segregation, horizontal as well as vertical, stands out in the field of science and engineering. India is no exception. This paper aims to examine: (1) gender and science associations, historical as well as contemporary, (2) women’s enrolment and gender differences in selection of academic fields, (2) women as professional researchers, (3) career path and recognition/trajectories. The paper reveals that in recent years the gender–science relationship has changed, but is not totally free from biases. Women’s enrolment into various science disciplines has shown remarkable and steady increase in most parts of the world, including India, yet they remain underrepresented in the S&T workforce, although to a lesser degree than in the past.

Keywords: Gender, Women, Science, universal

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30 Innovation Trends in South Korea

Authors: José Carlos Rodríguez, Mario Gómez

Abstract:

This paper analyzes innovation trends in South Korea by means of the number of patent applications filed by residents and nonresidents during the period 1965 to 2012. Making use of patent data released by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), we search for the presence of multiple structural changes in patent application series in this country. These changes may suggest that firms’ innovative activity has been modified as a result of implementing some science, technology and innovation (STI) policies. Accordingly, the new regulations implemented in this country in the last decades have influenced its innovative activity. The question conducting this research is thus how STI policies in South Korea have influenced its innovation activity. The results confirm the existence of multiple structural changes in the series of patent applications resulting from alternative STI policies implemented during these years.

Keywords: Science, innovation activity, econometric methods, technology and innovation policy, Korea, patent applications, STI

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29 Factors Afecting the Academic Performance of In-Service Students in Science Educaction

Authors: Foster Chilufya

Abstract:

This study sought to determine factors that affect academic performance of mature age students in Science Education at University of Zambia. It was guided by Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. The theory provided relationship between achievement motivation and academic performance. A descriptive research design was used. Both Qualitative and Quantitative research methods were used to collect data from 88 respondents. Simple random and purposive sampling procedures were used to collect from the respondents. Concerning factors that motivate mature-age students to choose Science Education Programs, the following were cited: need for self-actualization, acquisition of new knowledge, encouragement from friends and family members, good performance at high school and diploma level, love for the sciences, prestige and desire to be promoted at places of work. As regards factors that affected the academic performance of mature-age students, both negative and positive factors were identified. These included: demographic factors such as age and gender, psychological characteristics such as motivation and preparedness to learn, self-set goals, self esteem, ability, confidence and persistence, student prior academic performance at high school and college level, social factors, institutional factors and the outcomes of the learning process. In order to address the factors that negatively affect academic performance of mature-age students, the following measures were identified: encouraging group discussions, encouraging interactive learning process, providing a conducive learning environment, reviewing Science Education curriculum and providing adequate learning materials. Based on these factors, it is recommended that, the School of Education introduces a program in Science Education specifically for students training to be teachers of science. Additionally, introduce majors in Physics Education, Biology Education, Chemistry Education and Mathematics Education relevant to what is taught in high schools.

Keywords: Science, Performance, Academic, in-service

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28 The Position of Space weather in Africa-Education and Outreach

Authors: Babagana Abubakar, Alhaji Kuya

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Although the field of Space weather science is a young field among the space sciences, but yet history has it that activities related to this science began since the year 1859 when the great solar storm happened which resulted in the disruptions of telegraphs operations around the World at that particular time subsequently making it possible for the scientist Richard Carrington to be able to connect the Solar flare observed a day earlier before the great storm and the great deflection of the Earth’s Magnetic field (geometric storm) simultaneous with the telegraph disruption. However years later as at today with the advent of and the coming into existence of the Explorer 1, the Luna 1 and the establishments of the United States International Space Weather Program, International Geophysical Year (IGY) as well as the International Center for Space Weather Sciences and Education (ICSWSE) have made us understand the Space weather better and enable us well define the field of Space weather science. Despite the successes recorded in the development of Space sciences as a whole over the last century and the coming onboard of specialized bodies/programs on space weather like the International Space Weather Program and the ICSWSE, the majority of Africans including institutions, research organizations and even some governments are still ignorant about the existence of theSpace weather science,because apart from some very few countries like South Africa, Nigeria and Egypt among some few others the majority of the African nations and their academic institutions have no knowledge or idea about the existence of this field of Space science (Space weather).

Keywords: Education, Space, Science, Africa, Weather

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27 A Study on Pakistani Students’ Attitude towards Learning Mathematics and Science at Secondary Level

Authors: Aroona Hashmi

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Student’s success in Mathematics and Science depends upon their learning attitude towards both subjects. It also influences the participation rate of the learner. The present study was based on a survey of high school students about their attitude towards Mathematics and Science at Secondary level. Students of the both gender constitute the population of this study. Sample of the study was 276 students and 20 teachers from 10 Government schools from Lahore District. Questionnaire and interview were selected as tool for data collection. The results showed that Pakistani students’ positive attitude towards learning Mathematics and Science. There was a significance difference between the students’ attitude towards learning Mathematics and no significance difference was found in the students’ attitude towards learning Science at Secondary level.

Keywords: Mathematics, Science, attitude, secondary level

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26 Gendering Science, Technology and Innovation: The Case of R&D in Turkey

Authors: Setenay Nil Doğan, Ece Oztan

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Research and development (R&D) as a term denotes the innovative studies conducted systematically to increase knowledge and its practices. As R&D intensity of Turkey (0,84%) is quite below the EU average intensity score, it has displayed a continuous increase since the 2000s. Also, the development of human capital in R&D has been one of the basic aims of National Strategy of Science, Technology, and Innovation, and National Innovation System 2023 of Turkey. R&D is considered to one of the fields in which the gender gap is wide. The reflections of the analogy of leaky pipeline, a term used for vertical differentiation in academy can also be observed in those scientific activities related with the private sector. In the private sector, the gender gap becomes wider: the percentage of female researchers in the universities (41%) decreases to 24% in the private sector. Though half of the undergraduates and gradutes are female in Turkey, a widening gender gap is observed in terms of employment in R&D. Given this background, this paper will focus on gendered dynamics of careers in R&D through the interviews conducted with 25 female and 25 male employees, working in a university technopark and some of the large RD centers in Turkey working in several sectors such as electronics, automotive etc. Focusing on some aspects of gender differences in terms of career experiences in R&D and innovation, mobility, participation to the projects, patents and inclusion to other innovatory activities, home-work balance, it aims to explore the relationships between science, technology, innovation and gender.

Keywords: Innovation, Gender, Science, R&D, Technology

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25 The Effect of Contemporary Islamic Thought Liberalization to the Development of Science

Authors: Ibrahim Malik, Vita Fathimah Silondae, Askoning

Abstract:

The liberalization of Islamic thought is not only an impact on the views of Muslim community regarding worldview, but has touched the stage reconstruction of contemporary science. It can be seen from the emergence of Western and Eastern intellectual movements that try to reconstruct contemporary science arguing that scientific culture is not currently able to deliver audiences to change the order of the better society. Such Islamic thought liberalization has a huge influence on the multi-dimensional crisis in various sectors such as the economic, culture, politic, ecology, and other sectors. Therefore, this paper examines the effects of the liberalization of contemporary Islamic thought towards on the development of modern science. The method used in this paper is based on textual study of Al-Qur'an, Hadith (prophetic tradition), and the history of contemporary Islamic thought and comparing it with the reality of the development of science today. So, the influence of Islamic thought liberalization has created a crisis and stagnation of the development of scientific disciplines can be found.

Keywords: Islam, Science, liberalization, development of science

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24 The Locus of Action - Tinted Windows

Authors: Devleminck Steven, Debackere Boris

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This research is about the ways artists and scientists deal with (and endure) new meaning and comprehend and construct the world. The project reflects on the intense connection between comprehension and construction and their place of creation – the ‘locus of action’. It seeks to define a liquid form of understanding and analysis capable of approaching our complex liquid world as discussed by Zygmunt Bauman. The aim is to establish a multi-viewpoint theoretical approach based on the dynamic concept of the Flâneur as introduced by Baudelaire, replacing single viewpoint categorization. This is coupled with the concept of thickening as proposed by Clifford Geertz with its implication of interaction between multi-layers of meaning. Here walking and looking is introduced as a method or strategy, a model or map, providing a framework of understanding in conditions of hybridity and change.

Keywords: Science, Liquid, Art, Action, place, Negotiation, locus

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23 How Context and Problem Based Learning Effects Students Behaviors in Teaching Thermodynamics

Authors: Mukadder Baran, Mustafa Sözbilir

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The purpose of this paper is to investigate the applicabillity of the Context- and Problem-Based Learning (CPBL) in general chemistry course to the subject of “Thermodynamics” but also the influence of CPBL on students’ achievement, retention of knowledge, their interest, attitudes, motivation and problem-solving skills. The study group included 13 freshman students who were selected with the sampling method appropriate to the purpose among those taking the course of General Chemistry within the Program of Medical Laboratory Techniques at Hakkari University. The application was carried out in the Spring Term of the academic year of 2012-2013. As the data collection tool, Lesson Observation form were used. In the light of the observations held, it was revealed that CPBL increased the students’ intragroup and intergroup communication skills as well as their self-confidence and developed their skills in time management, presentation, reporting, and technology use; and that they were able to relate chemistry to daily life. Depending on these findings, it could be suggested that the area of use of CPBL be widened; that seminars related to constructive methods be organized for teachers. In this way, it is believed that students will not be passive in the group any longer. In addition, it was concluded that in order to avoid the negative effects of the socio-cultural structure on the education system, research should be conducted in places where there is socio-cultural obstacles, and appropriate solutions should be suggested and put into practice.

Keywords: Education, Chemistry, Science, context-based learning

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22 Science Education in Nigeria: Issues and Challenges

Authors: Ogbeta I. Joseph, Habiba B. A. Awwalu, Otokiti Jimoh

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This paper entitled science education in Nigeria issues and challenges highlighted the role of science education to the development of science and technology in Nigeria. Science embraces every attempt of human to explore and manage the natural world, the contribution of science education to the technological development of the nation, the role of science education in ICT development, the importance of mathematics in the development of science education, the paper also analyzed the challenges facing the development of science education to include corruption, insecurity, and political instability, the paper concluded by encouraging the government and other stakeholders in educational sector to pay more attention to the teaching and learning of science in our schools. Therefore recommended the development that emphasizes should be on the teaching and learning of science base subjects in the school.

Keywords: Education, Challenges, Science, technology and national development

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21 The Need for Interdisciplinary Approach in Studying Archaeology: An Evolving Cultural Science

Authors: Inalegwu Stephany Akipu

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Archaeology being the study of mans past using the materials he left behind has been argued to be classified under sciences while some scholars are of the opinion that it does not deserve the status of being referred to as ‘science’. However divergent the opinions of scholars may be on the classification of Archaeology as a science or in the humanities, the discipline has no doubt, greatly aided in shaping the history of man’s past. Through the different stages that the discipline has transgressed, it has encountered some challenges. This paper therefore, attempts to highlight the need for the inclusion of branches of other disciplines when using Archaeology in reconstructing man’s history. The objective of course, is to add to the existing body of knowledge but specifically to expose the incomparable importance of archaeology as a discipline and to place it on such a high scale that it will not be regulated to the background as is done in some Nigerian Universities. The paper attempts a clarification of some conceptual terms and discusses the developmental stages of archaeology. It further describes the present state of the discipline and concludes with the disciplines that need to be imbibed in the use of Archaeology which is an evolving cultural science to obtain the aforementioned interdisciplinary approach.

Keywords: Archaeology, Evolution, Interdisciplinary, Cultural, Science

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20 The Importance of Science and Technology Education in Skill Acquisition for Self Dependence

Authors: Olaje Monday Olaje

Abstract:

Science and technology has been prove to be the back bone for economic development of any country, and for Nigeria, it has more critical role to play. This paper examines the importance of science and technology education for national development and self dependence for Nigerian citizens. A historical overview of the interconnectivity of science and technology and self dependence is heighted. The current situation and challenges facing science and technology education are also highlighted to bring out the theoretical importance of science and technology education for self dependence which actually has not been practically achieved. Recommendations are also made at the of the study so as to skill acquisition through science and technology for self dependence.

Keywords: Education, Science, Acquisition, Technology, self-dependence

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19 The Convergence between Science Practical Work and Scientific Discourse: Lessons Learnt from Using a Practical Activity to Encourage Student Discourse

Authors: Abraham Motlhabane

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In most practical-related science lessons, the focus is on completing the experimental procedure as directed by the teacher. However, the scientific discourse among learners themselves and teacher–learner discourse about scientific processes, scientific inquiry and the nature of science should play an important role in the teaching and learning of science. This means the incorporation of inquiry-based activities aimed at sparking debates about scientific concepts. This article analyses a science lesson presented by a teacher to his colleagues acting as learners. Six lessons were presented and transcribed. One of the lessons has been used for this study as the basis for the events as they unfolded during the lesson. Data was obtained through direct observations and the use of a predetermined observation schedule. Field notes were compiled during teacher preparations and the presentation of the lessons.

Keywords: Scientific, Science, discourse, practical work, inquiry

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18 The Influence of Modern Islamic Thought Liberalization to the Improvement of Science

Authors: Muhammad Ilham Agus Salim

Abstract:

The liberalization of Islamic thought is not only an impact on the views of Muslim community regarding worldview, but has touched the stage reconstruction of contemporary general science. It can be seen from the emergence of Western and Eastern intellectual movements that try to reconstruct contemporary science arguing that scientific culture is not currently able to deliver audiences to change the order of the better society. Such Islamic thought liberalization has a huge influence on the multidimensional crisis in various sectors such as the economic, culture, politic, ecology, and other sectors. Therefore, this paper examines the effects of the liberalization of contemporary Islamic thought towards on the development of modern science. The method used in this paper is based on textual study of Al -Qur'an, Hadith (prophetic tradition), and the history of contemporary Islamic thought and comparing it with the reality of the development of science today. So the influence of Islamic thought liberalization has created a crisis and stagnation of the development of scientific disciplines can be found.

Keywords: Islam, Science, liberalization, al-Qur’an textual studies

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17 Nature, Elixir of Architecture: A Contemplation on Human, Nature and Architecture in Islam

Authors: A. Kabiri-Samani, M. J. Seddighi

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There is no doubt that a key factor in the manifestation of architecture is the interaction of human and nature. Explaining the type of relationship defined by “the architect” between architecture and nature opens a window towards understanding the theoretical conceptions of the architect as the creator of “architecture”. Now, if these theoretical foundations are put under scrutiny from the viewpoint of Islam, and an architect considers the relationship of human and nature within the context of Islam, he would let nature to manifest itself in architecture. The reasons for such a relationship is explicable in terms of the degree and nature of knowledge of the architect about nature; while the way it comes to existence is explained by defining the force of nature – ruling the entire nature – and its acts. It is by the scientific command of the architect and his mastery in the hermetic force of nature that the material bodies of buildings evolve from artificial to natural. Additionally, the presence of nature creates hermetic architectural spaces for the spiritual development of humans while serving for living at different levels.

Keywords: Cognition, Islam, Science, Nature, presence, elixir

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16 Slow pace towards Teaching Mathematical Science in Nepal: A Historical Perspective

Authors: Dammar Bahadur Adhikari

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Mathematics teaching begins with human civilization. The rular used to choose mathematician as prime adviser in many tribes and country. Mathematics was powerful tool for understanding economial situation and strength of rular. In ancient Nepal teaching of mathematics starts with informal education provided by religious leaders there after in modern education system seems to follow the world’s educational system. The aim of this paper is to present a brief historical background of the Nepalese mathematicians up to nineteenth century and highlight the transformation in mathematical science in the line with modern world. Secondary data and formal papers and informal publications were studied to explore the present situation of education. The study concluded that there is remarcable change in quality of education and there are sufficient human powers in the mathematical sciences in Nepal.

Keywords: Mathematics, Human Development, Science, traditional, Nepal

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15 What Defines Acceptable European Values for Georgia

Authors: Tamari Beridze, Maia Kipiani, Natalia Tchanturia, Bella Goderdzishvili, Sophio Beridze, Natia Kuparadze

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Europe has concrete examples how small nations can survive and maintain their identity in its area. Values are eternal guides of our life and source of its perfection. European values are universal and relevant for every epoch, society or state. Values, such as personal freedom, human dignity, sovereignty of law, national or cultural identity are universal and eternal. Even superficial review of history of Georgian culture clearly shows that western values, including fundamental human rights. This paper discusses the approach and findings of choice of values in Georgia. Georgia is still quite far away from perfectly established values. Georgia has walked the hardest road till XXI century. Country survived miraculously many times. The study shows that the only way to survive is to strengthen national, traditional values and should not forget global factors. It is clear that for achievement of goals is important European education, legislative and economic reforms, peacefully and democratically develop Georgia.

Keywords: Society, Democracy, Science, Well-being, Human Dignity, economical reforms, European values, sovereignty of law

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14 The Development of Student Core Competencies through the STEM Education Opportunities in Classroom

Authors: M. Rodionov, Z. Dedovets

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The goal of the modern education system is to prepare students to be able to adapt to ever-changing life situations. They must be able to acquire required knowledge independently; apply such knowledge in practice to solve various problems by using modern technologies; think critically and creatively; competently use information; be communicative, work in a team; and develop their own moral values, intellect and cultural awareness. As a result, the status of education significantly increases; new requirements to its quality have been formed. In recent years, the competency-based approach in education has become of significant interest. This approach is a strengthening of applied and practical characteristics of a school education and leads to the forming of the key students’ competencies which define their success in future life. In this article, the authors’ attention focuses on a range of key competencies, educational, informational and communicative and on the possibility to develop such competencies via STEM education. This research shows the change in students’ attitude towards scientific disciplines such as mathematics, general science, technology and engineering as a result of STEM education. Two-staged analyzes questionnaires completed by students of forms II to IV in the republic of Trinidad and Tobago allowed the authors to categorize students between two levels that represent students’ attitude to various disciplines. The significance of differences between selected levels was confirmed with the use of Pearsons’ chi-squared test. In summary, the analysis of obtained data makes it possible to conclude that STEM education has a great potential for development of core students’ competencies and encourages the development of positive student attitude towards the above mentioned above scientific disciplines.

Keywords: Mathematics, Engineering, Science, Technology, STEM, students’ competency, Pearson's chi-squared test

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13 An Investigation of the Science Process Skills of 48-66 Months Old Children

Authors: Berrin Akman, Nilüfer Kuru

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In this study, science process skills of children with ages varying between 48-months and 66-months are analyzed. Science process skills of children are investigated in terms of factors including gender of children, attendance of children to the previous educational institution and duration of their attendance, educational background of their parents, ages of children and teachers, professional experience of teachers, educational background, and department of graduation of teachers, type of pre-school education institution of teachers and children. Sample of research consists of 250 children aged between 48-months and 66-months who attend state and private kindergartens under the Ministry of National Education, nursery classes of elementary schools and kindergartens of establishments in central districts of Ankara and 50 teachers who serve in these children’s classes. Science Observation Form, reached from the website of Alaska Department of Education & Early, are analyzed in terms of language, content, construct validity, and reliability by the researchers. Additionally, Personal Information Form is also developed by the researchers. Data obtained in the study are analyzed with SPSS 16.0 package program to obtain percentage and frequency, Kruskal Wallis H-test, and Mann- Whitney U test, which are one of the non-parametric tests, are used. Within the context of this study it has been seen that independent variables of age, type of school attending and status of attendance to pre-school education, educational background of children’s father are meaningful expositive in gaining science process skills for children. It has been seen that period of service of teachers, duration of attendance to pre-school education for children, gender of children and educational background of children’s mother are not meaningful expositive in gaining science process skills for children.

Keywords: Early Childhood Education, Science, preschool, science process skills

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12 Attitudes of Secondary School Students towards Science and Technical Education in Yauri Metropolis Kebbi State, Nigeria

Authors: Ibrahim Alhassan Libata

Abstract:

This study was carried out to assess attitude of secondary school students towards science and technical education in Yauri metropolis, Kebbi State, Nigeria. The population of the study was 200. Proportionate random sampling method was used in selecting 132 as sample size. Science and technical education is the most powerful forces for change in the world today, and students who hope to have a hand in shaping a better future must participate for their advancements. Four Null hypotheses were generated to guide the conduct of the study, questionnaire was the only instrument used in the study; the instrument was subjected to test-retest reliability. The reliability index of the instrument was 0.69. Overall scores of the Students were analyzed and a mean score was determined, the mean score of students was 85. There were no significant differences between the attitudes of male and female students towards science and technical education. The results also revealed that there was significant difference between the attitude of boding and day school students towards science and technical education, personality constraints of students is one factor militating against the participation of students in science and technical education, socio-economic status of the parents over the years have been the dominant factor of student’s inadequate representation in the field of science and technical education. Based on the findings of this study, the researcher recommended that teachers should motivate students, which they can do through their teaching styles and by showing them the relevance of the learning topics to their everyday lives. Government and the school management should create the learning environment that helps motivate students not only to come to classes but also want to learn and enjoy learning science and technical education, establishment of more Science and Technical Colleges education, more Public enlightenment campaigns to motivate parents and the entire community to support their children in studying science and technical education.

Keywords: Science, students, attitude, Yauri

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11 Women, Science and Engineering Doctorate Recipients from U.S. Universities

Authors: Cheryl Leggon

Abstract:

Although women in the aggregate are earning more doctorates in science and engineering from U.S. institutions, they continue to concentrate in some fields--e.g., biology--and underrepresented in others--e.g., engineering. Traditionally, most studies of women doctorate recipients in the sciences (including the social, behavioral and economic sciences) or engineering do not report their findings by demographic subgroups. This study extends the literature on these topics by using an intersectional approach to examine decadal trends. Intersectionality suggests that race, gender, and nation are not separate mutually exclusive entities whose impacts are summative, but rather as a confluence of synergistic factors that shape complex social inequities. Drawing on critical aspects of the intersectionality approach is particularly well suited for a more fine-grained analysis of the representation of women doctorate recipients in science and engineering. The implications of the findings are discussed in terms of policies and evidence-based programmatic strategies for enhancing women’s participation in fields in which they are especially underrepresented.

Keywords: Engineering, Women, Science, doctorates

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10 Science of Social Work: Recognizing Its Existence as a Scientific Discipline by a Method Triangulation

Authors: Sandra Mendes

Abstract:

Social Work has encountered over time with multivariate requests in the field of its action, provisioning frameworks of knowledge and praxis. Over the years, we have observed a transformation of society and, consequently, of the public who deals with the social work practitioners. Both, training and profession have had need to adapt and readapt the ways of doing, bailing up theories to action, while action unfolds emancipation of new theories. The theoretical questioning of this subject lies on classical authors from social sciences, and contemporary authors of Social Work. In fact, both enhance, in the design of social work, an integration and social cohesion function, creating a culture of action and theory, attributing to its method a relevant function, which shall be promoter of social changes in various dimensions of both individual and collective life, as well as scientific knowledge. On the other hand, it is assumed that Social Work, through its professionalism and through the academy, is now closer to distinguish itself from other Social Sciences as an autonomous scientific field, being, however, in the center of power struggles. This paper seeks to fill the gap in social work literature about the study of the scientific field of this area of knowledge.

Keywords: Knowledge, Science, Social Work, Field theory

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9 Science Subjects Studied and Relation to Income after University Graduation: An Empirical Analysis in Japan

Authors: Kazuo Nishimura, Junichi Hirata, Tadashi Yagi, Junko Urasaka

Abstract:

This paper is an investigation of the effect of science education during the high school education how science graduates of universities are appreciated in the labor market in Japan. We conducted a survey utilizing the internet and analyzed the subjects they were good at and their annual income. The results confirm that among science graduates, workers adept at physics tend to have higher incomes compared to workers good at other subjects. Generational analysis based on the curriculum guideline amendments reveals that the generational difference is small among science majors who are good at physics.

Keywords: Physics, Science, Curriculum, Income

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8 Effect of Ausubel's Advance Organizer Model to Enhancing Meta-Cognition of Students at Secondary Level

Authors: Qaisara Parveen, M. Imran Yousuf

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to find the effectiveness of the use of advance organizer model for enhancing meta-cognition of students in the subject of science. It was hypothesized that the students of experimental group taught through advance organizer model would show the better cognition than the students of control group taught through traditional teaching. The population of the study consisted of all secondary school students studying in government high school located in Rawalpindi. The sample of the study consisted of 50 students of 9th class of humanities group. The sample was selected on the basis of their pretest scores through matching, and the groups were randomly assigned for the treatment. The experimental group was taught through advance organizer model while the control group was taught through traditional teaching. The self-developed achievement test was used for the purpose of pretest and posttest. After collecting the pre-test score and post-test score, the data was analyzed and interpreted by use of descriptive statistics as mean and standard deviation and inferential statistics t-test. The findings indicate that students taught using advance organizers had a higher level of meta-cognition as compared to control group. Further, meta cognition level of boys was found higher than that of girls students. This study also revealed the fact that though the students at different meta-cognition level approached learning situations in a different manner, Advance organizer model is far superior to Traditional method of teaching.

Keywords: Experimental, Humanities, Statistics, Science, descriptive, meta-cognition

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7 Development and Validation for Center-Based Learning in Teaching Science

Authors: Julie Berame

Abstract:

The study probed that out of eight (8) lessons in Science Six have been validated, lessons 1-3 got the descriptive rating of very satisfactory and lessons 4-8 got the descriptive rating of outstanding based on the content analysis of the prepared CBL lesson plans. The evaluation of the lesson plans focused on the three main features such as statements of the lesson objectives, lesson content, and organization and effectiveness. The study used developmental research procedure that contained three phases, namely: Development phase consists of determining the learning unit, lesson plans, creation of the table of specifications, exercises/quizzes, and revision of the materials; Evaluation phase consists of the development of experts’ assessment checklist, presentation of checklist to the adviser, comments and suggestions, and final validation of the materials; and try-out phase consists of identification of the subject, try-out of the materials using CBL strategy, administering science attitude questionnaire, and statistical analysis to obtain the data. The findings of the study revealed that the relevance and usability of CBL lessons 1 and 2 in terms of lesson objective, lesson content, and organization and effectiveness got the rating of very satisfactory (4.4) and lessons 3-8 got the rating of outstanding (4.7). The lessons 1-8 got the grand rating of outstanding (4.6). Additionally, results showed that CBL strategy helped foster positive attitude among students and achieved effectiveness in psychomotor learning objectives.

Keywords: Development, Validation, Science, center-based learning

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6 Environmental Science: A Proposal for Constructing New Knowledge for Ecotourism Itineraries

Authors: Mary L. G. S. Senna, Veruska C. Dutra

Abstract:

The principle of sustainability has been studied by different sciences with the purpose of formulating clear and concrete models. Much has been discussed about sustainability, and several points of view have been used to try to explain it; environmental science emerges from various environmental discourses that are willing to establish a new concept for understanding this complexity. This way, we focus on the activity of ecotourism as a way to integrate sustainable practices proposed by environmental science, and thus, make it possible to create a new perspective for eco-tourists and the managers of tourist destinations towards nature. The aim of this study was to suggest a direction for environmental awareness, based on environmental science, to change the eco-tourist's view of nature in ecotourism tours. The methodology used was based on a case study concerning the Jalapão State Park - JSP, located in the State of Tocantins, Northern Brazil. The study was based on discussions, theoretical studies, bibliographical research and on-site research. We have identified that to incite the tourists’ awareness, they need to visit nature to understand the environmental problems and promote actions for its preservation. We highlight in this study actions to drive their human perception through environmental science, so that the ecotourism itinerary tours to the JSP, promote a balance between the natural environment and the tourist, making them, in this way, environmental tourists.

Keywords: Environmental, Science, Jalapão, ecoturism

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5 Formation of Science Literations Based on Indigenous Science Mbaru Niang Manggarai

Authors: Yuliana Wahyu, Ambros Leonangung Edu

Abstract:

The learning praxis that is proposed by 2013 Curriculum (K-13) is no longer school-oriented as a supply-driven, but now a demand-driven provider. This vision is connected with Jokowi-Kalla Nawacita program to create a competitive nation in the global era. Competition is a social fact that must be faced. Therefore the curriculum will design a process to be the innovators and entrepreneurs.To get this goal, K-13 implements the character education. This aims at creating the innovators and entrepreneurs from an early age (primary school). One part of strengthening it is literacy formations (reading, numeracy, science, ICT, finance, and culture). Thus, science literacy is an integral part of character education. The above outputs are only formed through the innovative process through intra-curricular (blended learning), co-curriculer (hands-on learning) and extra-curricular (personalized learning). Unlike the curriculums before that child cram with the theories dominating the intellectual process, new breakthroughs make natural, social, and cultural phenomena as learning sources. For example, Science in primary schoolsplaceBiology as the platform. And Science places natural, social, and cultural phenomena as a learning field so that students can learn, discover, solve concrete problems, and the prospects of development and application in their everyday lives. Science education not only learns about facts collection or natural phenomena but also methods and scientific attitudes. In turn, Science will form the science literacy. Science literacy have critical, creative, logical, and initiative competences in responding to the issues of culture, science and technology. This is linked with science nature which includes hands-on and minds-on. To sustain the effectiveness of science learning, K-13 opens a new way of viewing a contextual learning model in which facts or natural phenomena are drawn closer to the child's learning environment to be studied and analyzed scientifically. Thus, the topic of elementary science discussion is the practical and contextual things that students encounter. This research is about to contextualize Science in primary schools at Manggarai, NTT, by placing local wisdom as a learning source and media to form the science literacy. Explicitly, this study discovers the concept of science and mathematics in Mbaru Niang. Mbaru Niang is a forgotten potentials of the centralistic-theoretical mainstream curriculum so far. In fact, the traditional Manggarai community stores and inherits much of the science-mathematical indigenous sciences. In the traditional house structures are full of science and mathematics knowledge. Every details have style, sound and mathematical symbols. Learning this, students are able to collaborate and synergize the content and learning resources in student learning activities. This is constructivist contextual learning that will be applied in meaningful learning. Meaningful learning allows students to learn by doing. Students then connect topics to the context, and science literacy is constructed from their factual experiences. The research location will be conducted in Manggarai through observation, interview, and literature study.

Keywords: Science, indigenous science, Mbaru Niang, science literacy

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4 An Exploration of Gender Differences in Academic Writing in Science

Authors: Gayani Ranawake, Kate Wilson

Abstract:

Underrepresentation of women in academia, particularly in science, has been discussed by many scholars for decades. The causes of this underrepresentation are debated to this day. Publication is an important aspect of success in academia, and publication and citation rates are significant metrics in performance review, promotion, and employment. It has been established that men’s and women’s language use in general, both spoken and written, is different. However, no one, to our knowledge, has looked at whether men’s and women’s writing in science is different. If there are significant differences in the writing of men and women, then these differences may affect women’s ability to succeed in science. This study is part of a larger project to explore whether differences can be recognized in the academic science writing of men and women. Mono authored articles from high ranking physics, biology and psychology journals by men and women authors were compared in terms of readability statistics. In particular, the abstract and introduction sections were compared, as these are the first sections encountered by a reviewer, and so may have an important effect on their impression of the work. The Flesch Reading Ease, the percentage of passive sentences and the Flesch-Kincaid Reading Grade Level were calculated for each section of each article, along with counts of numbers of sentences, words per sentence and sentences per paragraph. Significance of differences was tested using the Behrens statistic. It was found that for both physics and biology papers there were no significant differences in the complexity or verbosity of the writing of men and women authors. However, there was a significant difference between the two disciplines, with physics articles being generally more readable (higher readability score) while also more passive (higher number of passive sentences). In contrast, the psychology articles showed a difference between men and women authors which may be significant. The average readability for introductions in women’s articles was 28 which was higher than for men’s articles, which was 19 (higher values indicate more readable). Women’s articles in psychology also had a greater proportion of passive sentences. It can be concluded that, at least in the more traditional sciences, men and women have adopted similar ways of writing, and that disciplinary differences are greater than gender differences. This may not be the case in psychology, which many consider to be more closely aligned with the humanities. Whether the lack of differences is because women have adapted to a masculine way of writing, or whether the genre itself is gender neutral needs further investigation.

Keywords: Science, Gender Differences, readability, academic writing

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3 Assessing Innovation Activity in Mexico and South Korea: An Econometric Approach

Authors: José Carlos Rodríguez, Mario Gómez, Won Ho Kim, Ángel Licona

Abstract:

This article analyzes innovation activity in Mexico and South Korea. It develops an econometric model to test for structural breaks in the number of patent applications filed by residents and nonresidents in these countries during the period of 1965 to 2012. These changes may suggest that firms’ innovative capabilities have changed because of implementing different science, technology and innovation (STI) policies in Mexico and South Korea. Two important features characterize this research from others already developed by these authors. First, the theoretical research framework in this research is the debate between the assimilation view of growth and the accumulation view of growth. This characteristic suggests that trade liberalization should be accompanied by an adequate STI policy to boost competitiveness among indigenous firms. Second, the analysis in this research stresses the importance of key actors (e.g. governments) to successfully develop innovation capabilities among indigenous firms. Therefore, the question conducting this research is how STI policies in Mexico and South Korea contributed to develop firms’ innovation capabilities in these countries during last decades? The results from this research suggests that STI policy in South Korea was more suitable to boost innovation firms to compete in markets. Data to develop this research was released by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO).

Keywords: Innovation, Science, technology and innovation policy, Mexico, South Korea

Procedia PDF Downloads 75