Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 27

Science Education Related Abstracts

27 Investigation of the Field Trip Method’s Effectiveness: As a Way of Improving Pre-Service Teachers’ Views on Environmental Education

Authors: Abuzer Akgün, Ümit Duruk


This study was carried out in a period of four weeks thanks to voluntarily participation of twenty eight pre-service teachers enrolled diverse departments in Faculty of Education. The purpose of the study was to point out how pre-service teachers views on environmental education were affected by field trips. Prior to data collection, four open-ended questions were prepared and administered to all pre-service teachers in the working group. Data gathered at first and final week of the field trip were compared in a qualitative approach using content analysis. In conclusion, it is obvious that most of the participants don’t feel themselves quiet enough about environmental education and state this reason as a providing justification to participate voluntarily in the study. In the secondary school teaching context, they mostly emphasize on the vital importance of the environmental awareness level of the pupils in the schools. They also seem to think that they get a detailed knowledge of environmental education and claim that they will use this knowledge in order to bring up next generations in their professional career as teachers. Lastly, they state that observing the deteriorating materials directly in their own settings, might be more effective as regards improving environmental awareness.

Keywords: Science Education, Environmental Issues, Environmental education, field trip method

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26 The Effectiveness of ICT-Assisted PBL on College-Level Nano Knowledge and Learning Skills

Authors: Ya-Ting Carolyn Yang, Ping-Han Cheng, Shi-Hui Gilbert Chang, Terry Yuan-Fang Chen, Chih-Chieh Li


Nanotechnology is widely applied in various areas so professionals in the related fields have to know more than nano knowledge. In the study, we focus on adopting ICT-assisted PBL in college general education to foster professionals who possess multiple abilities. The research adopted a pretest and posttest quasi-experimental design. The control group received traditional instruction, and the experimental group received ICT-assisted PBL instruction. Descriptive statistics will be used to describe the means, standard deviations, and adjusted means for the tests between the two groups. Next, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) will be used to compare the final results of the two research groups after 6 weeks of instruction. Statistics gathered in the end of the research can be used to make contrasts. Therefore, we will see how different teaching strategies can improve students’ understanding about nanotechnology and learning skills.

Keywords: Science Education, Nanotechnology, Information and Communication Technology, Project-Based Learning

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25 Analysis of Learning Difficulties among Preservice Students towards Science Education

Authors: Nahla Khatib


This study investigated several learning difficulties that affected the classroom learning experience of preservice students who are studying general science and methods of teaching science students at Faculty of Educational Studies at the Arab Open University (AOU) in Amman, Jordan. The focus questions for this study were to find answers for the following: 1. What are the main areas of learning difficulty among preservice students towards science education? 2. What are the main aspects of reducing obstacles towards success in science education? To achieve this goal, the researcher prepared a questionnaire which included 30 items to point out the learning difficulties among preservice students towards science education. The questionnaire was distributed among students enrolled in the general science courses 1&2 and methods of teaching science courses at the beginning of the spring semester of year (2013-2014). After collecting the filled questionnaire a descriptive statistical analysis was carried out (means and standard deviation) for the items of the questionnaire. After analyzing the data statistically our findings showed that student control–factors as well as course controlled factor, factors related to the nature of science, and factors related to the role of instructor affected student success toward science education. The study was concluded with a number of recommendations.

Keywords: Science Education, Nature of Science, learning difficulties, preservice teachers

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24 Effect of Collaborative Learning on Development of Process Skills and Attitude to Wards Science

Authors: Shri Krishna Mishra, Badri Yadav


Effect of collaborative learning on development of process skills and attitude towards science is It rightly said that the destiny of the nation is shaped inside its classroom. Classroom is a place where the pupil and teacher interact purposefully to gain knowledge. Teaching is the principal mode of education. It can be called a transaction between teacher and pupil, in which one transmits knowledge to other. The teaching learning process consists of three important components, the pupils, the teacher and the curriculum; the classroom is the collection of students of their own individual abilities and needs. In the present classroom teaching learners are either persuasive recipient or passive observant. The school environment leading to low-achievement we have to try better to develop in the young mind. Children are the sticks of dynamite, bundles of energy and potential power waiting to be ignited. Guide them carefully to a place where their potentialities and strength will be used to build a better world. Man’s future depends to large extent on scientific advances and development of productive activity. Science is considered as an important subject in school curricular. The education commission (1964-66) has suggested that science education is necessary for all children at school stage. It is essential to develop children’s logical and critical thinking. But these days thinking process and academic achievement of students have been suppressed by competitive environment of our schools. How the students perceive each other and interact with one another is a neglected aspect of instruction. In the constructivist perspective learning in a process of construction of knowledge. Learners actively construct their own knowledge by connecting new ideas to existing ideas on the basis of materials/ activities presented to them (experience).

Keywords: Science Education, effect of collaborative learning, development of process skills, attitude towards science

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23 Focusing on the Utilization of Information and Communication Technology for Improving Childrens’ Potentials in Science: Challenges for Sustainable Development in Nigeria

Authors: Osagiede Mercy Afe


After the internet explosion in the 90’s, Technology was immediately integrated into the school system. Technology which symbolizes advancement in human knowledge was seen as a setback by many educators many efforts have been made to help stem this erroneous believes and help educators realize the benefits of technology and ways of implementing it in the classrooms especially in the sciences. This advancement created a constantly expanding gap between the pupil’s perception on the use of technology within the learning atmosphere and the teacher’s perception and limitations hence the focus of this paper is on the need to refocus on the potentials of Science and Technology in enhancing children learning at school especially in science for sustainable development in Nigeria. The paper recommended measures for facilitating the sustenance of science and technology in Nigerian schools so as to enhance the potentials of our children in Science and Technology for a better tomorrow.

Keywords: Sustainable Development, Science Education, Children, potentials, information communication technology (ICT)

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22 The Effect of Paper Based Concept Mapping on Students' Academic Achievement and Attitude in Science Education

Authors: Orhan Akınoğlu, Arif Çömek, Ersin Elmacı, Tuğba Gündoğdu


The concept map is known to be a powerful tool to organize the ideas and concepts of an individuals’ mind. This tool is a kind of visual map that illustrates the relationships between the concepts of a certain subject. The effect of concept mapping on cognitive and affective qualities is one of the research topics among educational researchers for last decades. We educators want to utilize it both as an instructional tool or an assessment tool in classes. For that reason, this study aimed to determine the effect of concept mapping as a learning strategy in science classes on students’ academic achievement and attitude. The research employed a randomized pre-test post-test control group design. Data collected from 60 sixth grade students participated in the study from a randomly selected primary school in Turkey. Sixth-grade classes of the school were analyzed according to students’ academic achievement, science attitude, gender, mathematics, science courses grades, and their GPAs before the implementation. Two of the classes found to be equivalent (t=0,983, p>0,05) and one of them was defined as experimental and the other one control group randomly. During a 5-weeks period, the experimental group students (N=30) used the paper-based concept mapping method while the control group students (N=30) were taught with the traditional approach according to the science and technology education curriculum for light and sound subject. Both groups were taught by the same teacher who is experienced using concept mapping in science classes. Before the implementation, the teacher explained the theory of the concept maps and showed how to create paper-based concept mapping individually to the experimental group students for two hours. Then for two following hours she asked them to create some concept maps related to their former science subjects and gave them feedback by reviewing their concept maps to be sure that they can create during the implementation. The data were collected by science achievement test, science attitude scale and personal information form. Science achievement test and science attitude scale were implemented as pre-test and post-test while personal information form was implemented just as once. The reliability coefficient of the achievement test was KR20=0,76 and Cronbach’s Alpha of the attitude scale was 0,89. SPSS statistical software was used to analyze the data. According to the results, there was a statistically significant difference between the experimental and control group for academic achievement but not for attitude. The experimental group had significantly greater gains from academic achievement test than the control group (t=0,02, p<0,05). The findings showed that the paper-and-pencil concept mapping can be used as an effective method for students’ academic achievement in science classes. The results have implications for further researches.

Keywords: Science Education, Academic Achievement, constructivism, Concept Mapping, science attitude

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21 Students’ Perceptions and Attitudes for Integrating ICube Technology in the Solar System Lesson

Authors: Noran Adel Emara, Elham Ghazi Mohammad


Qatar University is engaged in a systemic education reform that includes integrating the latest and most effective technologies for teaching and learning. ICube is high-immersive virtual reality technology is used to teach educational scenarios that are difficult to teach in real situations. The trends toward delivering science education via virtual reality applications have accelerated in recent years. However, research on students perceptions of integrating virtual reality especially ICube technology is somehow limited. Students often have difficulties focusing attention on learning science topics that require imagination and easily lose attention and interest during the lesson. The aim of this study was to examine students’ perception of integrating ICube technology in the solar system lesson. Moreover, to explore how ICube could engage students in learning scientific concept of the solar system. The research framework included the following quantitative research design with data collection and analysis from questionnaire results. The solar system lesson was conducted by teacher candidates (Diploma students) who taught in the ICube virtual lab in Qatar University. A group of 30 students from eighth grade were randomly selected to participate in the study. Results showed that the students were extremely engaged in learning the solar system and responded positively to integrating ICube in teaching. Moreover, the students showed interest in learning more lessons through ICube as it provided them with valuable learning experience about complex situations.

Keywords: Virtual Reality, Science Education, ICube, integrating technology

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20 The Role of Creative Thinking in Science Education

Authors: Jindriska Svobodova, Jan Novotny


A teacher’s attitude to creativity plays an essential role in the thinking development of his/her students. The purpose of this study is to understand if a science teacher's personal creativity can modify his/her ability to produce various kinds of questions. This research used an education activity based on cosmic sketches and pictures by K.E. Tsiolkovsky, the founder of astronautics, to explore if any relationship between individual creativity and the asking questions skill exists. As a screening instrument, which allows an assessment of the respondent's creative potential, a common test of creative thinking was used. The results of the creativity test and the diversity of the questions are mentioned.

Keywords: Science Education, Active Learning, physics teaching, religious cosmology

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19 Rationalizing the Utilization of Interactive Engagement Strategies in Teaching Specialized Science Courses of STEM and GA Strands in the Academic Track of Philippine Senior High School Curriculum

Authors: Raul G. Angeles


The Philippine government instituted major reforms in its educational system. The Department of Education pushes the K to 12 program that makes kindergarten mandatory and adds two years of senior high school to the country's basic education. In essence, the students’ stay in basic education particularly those who are supposedly going to college is extended. The majority of the students expressed that they will be taking the Academic Track of the Senior High School curriculum specifically the Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) and General Academic (GA) strands. Almost certainly, instruction should match the students' styles and thus through this descriptive study a city survey was conducted to explore the teaching strategies preferences of junior high school students and teachers who will be promoted to senior high school during the Academic Year 2016-2017. This study was conducted in selected public and private secondary schools in Metro Manila. Questionnaires were distributed to students and teachers; and series of follow-up interviews were also carried out to generate additional information. Preferences of students are centered on employing innovations such as technology, cooperative and problem-based learning. While the students will still be covered by basic education their interests in science are sparking to a point where the usual teaching styles may no longer work to them and for that cause, altering the teaching methods is recommended to create a teacher-student style matching. Other effective strategies must likewise be implemented.

Keywords: Science Education, Curriculum Development, Technology, Problem-Based Learning, senior high school, effective teaching strategies

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18 A Reflection on the Professional Development Journey of Science Educators

Authors: M. Shaheed Hartley


Science and mathematics are regarded as gateway subjects in South Africa as they are the perceived route to careers in science, engineering, technology and mathematics (STEM). One of the biggest challenges that the country faces is the poor achievement of learners in these two learning areas in the external high school exit examination. To compound the problem many national and international benchmark tests paint a bleak picture of the state of science and mathematics in the country. In an attempt to address this challenge, the education department of the Eastern Cape Province invited the Science Learning Centre of the University of the Western Cape to provide training to their science teachers in the form of a structured course conducted on a part-time basis in 2010 and 2011. The course was directed at improving teachers’ content knowledge, pedagogical strategies and practical and experimental skills. A total of 41 of the original 50 science teachers completed the course and received their certificates in 2012. As part of their continuous professional development, 31 science teachers enrolled for BEd Hons in science education in 2013 and 28 of them completed the course in 2014. These students graduated in 2015. Of the 28 BEd Hons students who completed the course 23 registered in 2015 for Masters in Science Education and were joined by an additional 3 students. This paper provides a reflection by science educators on the training, supervision and mentorship provided to them as students of science education. The growth and development of students through their own reflection and understanding as well as through the eyes of the lecturers and supervisors that took part in the training provide the evaluation of the professional development process over the past few years. This study attempts to identify the merits, challenges and limitations of this project and the lessons to be learnt on such projects. It also documents some of the useful performance indicators with a view to developing a framework for good practice for such programmes.

Keywords: Science Education, Professional Development, reflection, rural schools

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17 Teaching Physics: History, Models, and Transformation of Physics Education Research

Authors: N. Didiş Körhasan, D. Kaltakçı Gürel


Many students have difficulty in learning physics from elementary to university level. In addition, students' expectancy, attitude, and motivation may be influenced negatively with their experience (failure) and prejudice about physics learning. For this reason, physics educators, who are also physics teachers, search for the best ways to make students' learning of physics easier by considering cognitive, affective, and psychomotor issues in learning. This research critically discusses the history of physics education, fundamental pedagogical approaches, and models to teach physics, and transformation of physics education with recent research.

Keywords: Physics, Science Education, pedagogy, Physics Education

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16 Exploring Students’ Views on Science Education

Authors: Ahmad Alshammari


This study focused on exploring the students’ views about the science education in intermediate stage in State of Kuwait. This study used Social-Culture Theory (SCT) as a theoretical framework to understand the science curriculum reform process through the socio-cultural context and to discuss and explain the study findings. This study used a multi-method design, with both quantitative and qualitative methods to collect the data: students’ questionnaires and interviews. The study sample was selected randomly. First, the questionnaire was conducted with 647 students. Then 30 students (5 in each of 6 focus groups) were chosen to conduct the in-depth interviews. The findings of this study indicated the generally negative views of most of the students about the new science curriculum. The findings showed that most of the students have a negative attitude toward science, they have difficulty understanding most of the lessons, and they do not enjoy studying the science subject. This study recommends reviewing the new science curriculum (now currently in use) and taking into account the perspectives of the students about this curriculum. Developing and adapting the new science curriculum took place without taking into consideration the socio-culture and Islamic religion of Kuwaiti students. The MoE should deal with the relationship between science and culture and between science and religion, integrating more relevant science into the curriculum.

Keywords: Science Education, Curriculum Development, students views, science curriculum

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15 Science Process Skill and Interest Preschooler in Learning Early Science through Mobile Application

Authors: Seah Siok Peh, Hashimah Mohd Yunus, Nor Hashimah Hashim, Mariam Mohamad


A country needs a workforce that encompasses knowledge, skilled labourers to generate innovation, productivity and being able to solve problems creatively via technology. Science education experts believe that the mastery of science skills help preschoolers to generate such knowledge on scientific concepts by providing constructive experiences. Science process skills are skills used by scientists to study or investigate a problem, issue, problem or phenomenon of science. In line with the skills used by scientists. The purpose of this study is to investigate the basic science process skill and interest in learning early science through mobile application. This study aimed to explore six spesific basic science process skills by the use of a mobile application as a learning support tool. The descriptive design also discusses on the extent of the use of mobile application in improving basic science process skill in young children. This study consists of six preschoolers and two preschool teachers from two different classes located in Perak, Malaysia. Techniques of data collection are inclusive of observations, interviews and document analysis. This study will be useful to provide information and give real phenomena to policy makers especially Ministry of education in Malaysia.

Keywords: Science Education, Mobile Application, interest, basic science process skill, early science

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14 Effects of Sensory Integration Techniques in Science Education of Autistic Students

Authors: Joanna Estkowska


Sensory integration methods are very useful and improve daily functioning autistic and mentally disabled children. Autism is a neurobiological disorder that impairs one's ability to communicate with and relate to others as well as their sensory system. Children with autism, even highly functioning kids, can find it difficult to process language with surrounding noise or smells. They are hypersensitive to things we can ignore such as sight, sounds and touch. Adolescents with highly functioning autism or Asperger Syndrome can study Science and Math but the social aspect is difficult for them. Nature science is an area of study that attracts many of these kids. It is a systematic field in which the children can focus on a small aspect. If you follow these rules you can come up with an expected result. Sensory integration program and systematic classroom observation are quantitative methods of measuring classroom functioning and behaviors from direct observations. These methods specify both the events and behaviors that are to be observed and how they are to be recorded. Our students with and without autism attended the lessons in the classroom of nature science in the school and in the laboratory of University of Science and Technology in Bydgoszcz. The aim of this study is investigation the effects of sensory integration methods in teaching to students with autism. They were observed during experimental lessons in the classroom and in the laboratory. Their physical characteristics, sensory dysfunction, and behavior in class were taken into consideration by comparing their similarities and differences. In the chemistry classroom, every autistic student is paired with a mentor from their school. In the laboratory, the children are expected to wear goggles, gloves and a lab coat. The chemistry classes in the laboratory were held for four hours with a lunch break, and according to the assistants, the children were engaged the whole time. In classroom of nature science, the students are encouraged to use the interactive exhibition of chemical, physical and mathematical models constructed by the author of this paper. Our students with and without autism attended the lessons in those laboratories. The teacher's goals are: to assist the child in inhibiting and modulating sensory information and support the child in processing a response to sensory stimulation.

Keywords: Science Education, Autism spectrum disorder, sensory integration techniques, student with special educational needs

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13 Investigation the Impact of Flipped Learning on Developing Meta-Cognitive Ability in Chemistry Courses of Science Education Students

Authors: R. Herscu-Kluska


The rise of the flipped or inverted classroom meet the conceptual needs of our time. The evidence of increased student satisfaction and course grades improvement promoted the flipped learning approach. Due to the successful outcomes of the inverted classroom, the flipped learning became a pedagogy and educational rising strategy among all education sciences. The aim of this study is to analyze the effect of flipped classroom on higher order learning in chemistry courses since it has been suggested that in higher education courses, class time should focus on knowledge application. The results of this study indicate improving meta-cognitive thinking and learning skills. The students showed better ability to cope with higher order learning assignments during the actual class time, using inverted classroom strategy. These results suggest that flipped learning can be used as an effective pedagogy and educational strategy for developing higher order thinking skills, proved to contribute to building lifelong learning.

Keywords: Science Education, Chemistry Education, Flipped Classroom, flipped learning, inverted classroom

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12 Bridging the Gap: Gender Equity in Nigerian Science Education

Authors: Onyia Comfort Ngozi, Iketaku Ifeoma Roseline


Inspite of the laudable goals and objectives in education, Nigerian women, still face a lot of challenges that hinder the personal and national development. There are unbalances between males and females at all levels of the science education sector in Nigeria. Educate a woman, and you educate a nation, and if you educate a man, you educate an individual. It is on this note that the paper focuses on bridging the gender gap as it concerns science education in Nigeria. Suggestions were made as measures of bridging the gender gap in Nigerian education sector. The researchers concluded that achieving gender equality will promote greater equality in employment, help postpone early marriages, reduce infant mortality rates and improve health and education for a future generation. Thus, the paper recommended that government should involve women in policy making to take care of any gender issue and bias that may be included either consciously or not, during formulation stage.

Keywords: Education, Science Education, Gender, Women, Equality

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11 Advantages and Disadvantages of Socioscientific Issue Based Instruction in Science Classrooms: Pre-Service Science Teachers' Views

Authors: Aysegul Evren Yapicioglu


The social roles and responsibilities expected from citizens are increasing due to changing global living conditions. Science education is expected to prepare conscious and sensitive students. Because today’s students are the adults of future. Precondition of this task is Teacher Education. In the past decade, one of the most important research field is socioscientific issues. This study deals with advantages and disadvantages of socioscientific issue based instruction in science classroom according to pre-service science teachers’ views. A case study approach that is one of the qualitative research design was used to explore their views. Fourteen pre-service science teachers participated to instruction process. Dolphinariums, Kyoto Protocol, genetically modified organisms, recyclable black bags’ benefits and damages, genetic tests, alternative energy sources and organ donation are examples of socioscientific issues, which were taught through activities in a special teaching course. Diaries and focus group interview were used as data collection tools. As a result of the study, the advantages of socioscientific issue based instruction in science classroom comprise of six sub-categories which are multi-skilling, social awareness development of thinking, meaningful learning, character and professional development, contribution of scientific literacy whereas disadvantages of this instruction process are challenges teachers and students, limitations of teaching and learning process in pre-service science teachers’ perspectives. Finally, this study contributes to science teachers and researchers to overcome disadvantages and benefit from the advantage of socioscientific issue based instruction in science classroom.

Keywords: Science Education, socioscientific issues, socioscientific issue based instruction, pre-service science teacher

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10 Analysis of Atomic Models in High School Physics Textbooks

Authors: Meng-Fei Cheng, Wei Fneg


New Taiwan high school standards emphasize employing scientific models and modeling practices in physics learning. However, to our knowledge. Few studies address how scientific models and modeling are approached in current science teaching, and they do not examine the views of scientific models portrayed in the textbooks. To explore the views of scientific models and modeling in textbooks, this study investigated the atomic unit in different textbook versions as an example and provided suggestions for modeling curriculum. This study adopted a quantitative analysis of qualitative data in the atomic units of four mainstream version of Taiwan high school physics textbooks. The models were further analyzed using five dimensions of the views of scientific models (nature of models, multiple models, purpose of the models, testing models, and changing models); each dimension had three levels (low, medium, high). Descriptive statistics were employed to compare the frequency of describing the five dimensions of the views of scientific models in the atomic unit to understand the emphasis of the views and to compare the frequency of the eight scientific models’ use to investigate the atomic model that was used most often in the textbooks. Descriptive statistics were further utilized to investigate the average levels of the five dimensions of the views of scientific models to examine whether the textbooks views were close to the scientific view. The average level of the five dimensions of the eight atomic models were also compared to examine whether the views of the eight atomic models were close to the scientific views. The results revealed the following three major findings from the atomic unit. (1) Among the five dimensions of the views of scientific models, the most portrayed dimension was the 'purpose of models,' and the least portrayed dimension was 'multiple models.' The most diverse view was the 'purpose of models,' and the most sophisticated scientific view was the 'nature of models.' The least sophisticated scientific view was 'multiple models.' (2) Among the eight atomic models, the most mentioned model was the atomic nucleus model, and the least mentioned model was the three states of matter. (3) Among the correlations between the five dimensions, the dimension of 'testing models' was highly related to the dimension of 'changing models.' In short, this study examined the views of scientific models based on the atomic units of physics textbooks to identify the emphasized and disregarded views in the textbooks. The findings suggest how future textbooks and curriculum can provide a thorough view of scientific models to enhance students' model-based learning.

Keywords: Science Education, textbooks, Atomic Models, scientific model

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9 The Reflection on Pre-Service Teacher Training Program in Science Education

Authors: Sumalee Tientongdee


The pre-service teacher training program at Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Bankgok Thailand has been provided for undergraduate students for more than 80 years. It was established as the first teacher college in the country. The pre-service teacher program in science education is considered as one of the new training programs to prepare pre-service teacher to teach science in secondary school level. The need of program assessment is strongly important. Therefore, this study was conducted to gain the opinions and recommendations from the principals, in-service teachers, and mentoring teachers from the partnership schools of Bangkok. The invited 120 participants for the annual meeting was hold in May 2017. The focus group discussion and questionnaires were used to collect the data during the reflection session. The content analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data. The results showed that the pre-service teacher training program in science education should improve students’ creative thinking skill, service mind, personality, and attitudes toward teaching science career. Also, the future science teachers must be able to teach in English to have more opportunities to teach science in Southeast Asian countries.

Keywords: Science Education, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, reflection, pre-service teacher training program

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8 Examining the Skills of Establishing Number and Space Relations of Science Students with the 'Integrative Perception Test'

Authors: Ni̇sa Yeni̇kalayci, Türkan Aybi̇ke Akarca


The ability of correlation the number and space relations, one of the basic scientific process skills, is being used in the transformation of a two-dimensional object into a three-dimensional image or in the expression of symmetry axes of the object. With this research, it is aimed to determine the ability of science students to establish number and space relations. The research was carried out with a total of 90 students studying in the first semester of the Science Education program of a state university located in the Turkey’s Black Sea Region in the fall semester of 2017-2018 academic year. An ‘Integrative Perception Test (IPT)’ was designed by the researchers to collect the data. Within the scope of IPT, the courses and workbooks specific to the field of science were scanned and the ones without symmetrical structure from the visual items belonging to the ‘Physics - Chemistry – Biology’ sub-fields were selected and listed. During the application, it was expected that students would imagine and draw images of the missing half of the visual items that were given incomplete in the first place. The data obtained from the test in which there are 30 images or pictures in total (f Physics = 10, f Chemistry = 10, f Biology = 10) were analyzed descriptively based on the drawings created by the students as ‘complete (2 points), incomplete/wrong (1 point), empty (0 point)’. For the teaching of new concepts in small aged groups, images or pictures showing symmetrical structures and similar applications can also be used.

Keywords: Science Education, integrative perception, number and space relations, scientific process skills

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7 E-Learning in Primary Science: Teachers versus Students

Authors: Winnie Wing Mui So, Yu Chen


This study investigated primary school teachers’ and students’ perceptions of science learning in an e-learning environment. This study used a multiple case study design and involved eight science teachers and their students from four Hong Kong primary schools. The science topics taught included ‘season and weather’ ‘force and movement’, ‘solar and lunar eclipse’ and ‘living things and habitats’. Data were collected through lesson observations, interviews with teachers, and interviews with students. Results revealed some differences between the teachers’ and the students’ perceptions regarding the usefulness of e-learning resources, the organization of student-centred activities, and the impact on engagement and interactions in lessons. The findings have implications for the more effective creation of e-learning environments for science teaching and learning in primary schools.

Keywords: e-Learning, Science Education, primary schools, teacher' and students' perceptions

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6 Science Explorer Modules as a Communication Approach to Encourage High School Students to Pursue Science Careers

Authors: Mark Ivan Roblas


The Science Explorer is a mobile learning science facility in the Philippines. It is a bus that travels to different provinces in the country bringing interactive science modules facilitated by scientists from the industry and academe. The project aims to entice students to get into careers in science through interactive science modules and interaction with real-life scientists. This article looks into the effectiveness of its modules as a communication source and message to encourage high school students to get into careers in the future. The study revealed that as the Science Explorer modules are able to retain students to stay in science careers of their choice and even convert some to choose from non-science to a science degree, it still lacks in penetrating the belief system of the students and influencing them to take a scientific career path.

Keywords: Science Education, informal science, mobile science, science careers

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5 The Application of Sensory Integration Techniques in Science Teaching Students with Autism

Authors: Joanna Estkowska


The Sensory Integration Method is aimed primarily at children with learning disabilities. It can also be used as a complementary method in treatment of children with cerebral palsy, autistic, mentally handicapped, blind and deaf. Autism is holistic development disorder that manifests itself in the specific functioning of a child. The most characteristic are: disorders in communication, difficulties in social relations, rigid patterns of behavior and impairment in sensory processing. In addition to these disorders may occur abnormal intellectual development, attention deficit disorders, perceptual disorders and others. This study was focused on the application sensory integration techniques in science education of autistic students. The lack of proper sensory integration causes problems with complicated processes such as motor coordination, movement planning, visual or auditory perception, speech, writing, reading or counting. Good functioning and cooperation of proprioceptive, tactile and vestibular sense affect the child’s mastery of skills that require coordination of both sides of the body and synchronization of the cerebral hemispheres. These include, for example, all sports activities, precise manual skills such writing, as well as, reading and counting skills. All this takes place in stages. Achieving skills from the first stage determines the development of fitness from the next level. Any deficit in the scope of the first three stages can affect the development of new skills. This ultimately reflects on the achievements at school and in further professional and personal life. After careful analysis symptoms from the emotional and social spheres appear to be secondary to deficits of sensory integration. During our research, the students gained knowledge and skills in the classroom of experience by learning biology, chemistry and physics with application sensory integration techniques. Sensory integration therapy aims to teach the child an adequate response to stimuli coming to him from both the outside world and the body. Thanks to properly selected exercises, a child can improve perception and interpretation skills, motor skills, coordination of movements, attention and concentration or self-awareness, as well as social and emotional functioning.

Keywords: Science Education, Special Educational Needs, Sensory Integration, Autism spectrum disorder

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4 Using Teachers' Perceptions of Science Outreach Activities to Design an 'Optimum' Model of Science Outreach

Authors: Victoria Brennan, Andrea Mallaburn, Linda Seton


Science outreach programmes connect school pupils with external agencies to provide activities and experiences that enhance their exposure to science. It can be argued that these programmes not only aim to support teachers with curriculum engagement and promote scientific literacy but also provide pivotal opportunities to spark scientific interest in students. In turn, a further objective of these programmes is to increase awareness of career opportunities within this field. Although outreach work is also often described as a fun and satisfying venture, a plethora of researchers express caution to how successful the processes are to increases engagement post-16 in science. When researching the impact of outreach programmes, it is often student feedback regarding the activities or enrolment numbers to particular science courses post-16, which are generated and analysed. Although this is informative, the longevity of the programme’s impact could be better informed by the teacher’s perceptions; the evidence of which is far more limited in the literature. In addition, there are strong suggestions that teachers can have an indirect impact on a student’s own self-concept. These themes shape the focus and importance of this ongoing research project as it presents the rationale that teachers are under-used resources when it comes to considering the design of science outreach programmes. Therefore, the end result of the research will consist of a presentation of an ‘optimum’ model of outreach. The result of which should be of interest to the wider stakeholders such as universities or private or government organisations who design science outreach programmes in the hope to recruit future scientists. During phase one, questionnaires (n=52) and interviews (n=8) have generated both quantitative and qualitative data. These have been analysed using the Wilcoxon non-parametric test to compare teachers’ perceptions of science outreach interventions and thematic analysis for open-ended questions. Both of these research activities provide an opportunity for a cross-section of teacher opinions of science outreach to be obtained across all educational levels. Therefore, an early draft of the ‘optimum’ model of science outreach delivery was generated using both the wealth of literature and primary data. This final (ongoing) phase aims to refine this model using teacher focus groups to provide constructive feedback about the proposed model. The analysis uses principles of modified Grounded Theory to ensure that focus group data is used to further strengthen the model. Therefore, this research uses a pragmatist approach as it aims to focus on the strengths of the different paradigms encountered to ensure the data collected will provide the most suitable information to create an improved model of sustainable outreach. The results discussed will focus on this ‘optimum’ model and teachers’ perceptions of benefits and drawbacks when it comes to engaging with science outreach work. Although the model is still a ‘work in progress’, it provides both insight into how teachers feel outreach delivery can be a sustainable intervention tool within the classroom and what providers of such programmes should consider when designing science outreach activities.

Keywords: Science Education, Teachers, educational partnerships, science outreach

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3 Educating the Educators: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Enhance Science Teaching

Authors: Denise Levy, Anna Lucia C. H. Villavicencio


In a rapid-changing world, science teachers face considerable challenges. In addition to the basic curriculum, there must be included several transversal themes, which demand creative and innovative strategies to be arranged and integrated to traditional disciplines. In Brazil, nuclear science is still a controversial theme, and teachers themselves seem to be unaware of the issue, most often perpetuating prejudice, errors and misconceptions. This article presents the authors’ experience in the development of an interdisciplinary pedagogical proposal to include nuclear science in the basic curriculum, in a transversal and integrating way. The methodology applied was based on the analysis of several normative documents that define the requirements of essential learning, competences and skills of basic education for all schools in Brazil. The didactic materials and resources were developed according to the best practices to improve learning processes privileging constructivist educational techniques, with emphasis on active learning process, collaborative learning and learning through research. The material consists of an illustrated book for students, a book for teachers and a manual with activities that can articulate nuclear science to different disciplines: Portuguese, mathematics, science, art, English, history and geography. The content counts on high scientific rigor and articulate nuclear technology with topics of interest to society in the most diverse spheres, such as food supply, public health, food safety and foreign trade. Moreover, this pedagogical proposal takes advantage of the potential value of digital technologies, implementing QR codes that excite and challenge students of all ages, improving interaction and engagement. The expected results include the education of the educators for nuclear science communication in a transversal and integrating way, demystifying nuclear technology in a contextualized and significant approach. It is expected that the interdisciplinary pedagogical proposal contributes to improving attitudes towards knowledge construction, privileging reconstructive questioning, fostering a culture of systematic curiosity and encouraging critical thinking skills.

Keywords: Science Education, Nuclear Science, interdisciplinary learning, scientific literacy

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2 A Bilingual Didactic Sequence about Biological Control to Develop the Scientific Literacy on High School Students

Authors: André Melo Franco Lorena De Barros, Elida Geralda Campos


The bilingual education has just started in Brazils public schools. This paper is a didactic sequence of biology bilingual lessons about biologic control in the Brazilian Savana. This sequence has been applied in the first year of a bilingual education program in the only public English and Portuguese bilingual high school in Brazil. The aim of this work is to develop and apply a didactic sequence capable of developing the scientific literacy through the bilingual education associated with Problem Based Learning. This didactic sequence was applied in a class of 30 students. It was divided in three lessons. In the first lesson the students were divided in groups and received a fiction Letter from a mayor explaining the problem and asking students for help. The organic soy plantation of the mayor’s is been attacked by caterpillars. The students read the text then raised hypothesis of how they could solve the problem. In the second lesson the students searched online to verify if theirs hypothesis were correct and to find answers for the question proposed. In the third lesson the groups got together and discussed about their results and wrote a final essay with the answers for the problem proposed. The tools used to acquire information about the didactic sequence were: researcher’s diary, survey, interview and essay developed by the students. Most of the initial hypothesis couldn’t answer the problem properly. By the second lesson most of the students could answer properly. During the third lesson all the groups figured out suitable answers. The forms of biological control, birds habits and transgenic were deeply studied by the students. This methodology was successful for developing the scientific literacy with most of the students and also concluded that the quality of learning is directly associated with the effort of each student during the process. [ARAÚJO, Denise Lino de. O que é (e como se faz) sequência didática. Entrepalavras, Fortaleza, v. 3, n. 3, p.322-334, jul. 2013.] [FRANCO, Aline Aparecida et al. Preferência alimentar de Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) por cultivares de soja. Científica: Revista de Ciências Agrárias, Jaboticabal, v. 1, n. 42, p.32-38, 29 jan. 2014.] [RIBEIRO, Luis Roberto de Camargo. Aprendizagem baseada em problemas (PBL): Uma experiência no ensino superior. São Carlos: Editora da Universidade Federal de São Carlos Ribeiro, 2008. 151 p.] [TRIVELATO, Sílvia L. Frateschi; TONIDANDEL, Sandra M. Rudella. Ensino Por Investigação: Eixos Organizadores Para Sequências De Ensino De Biologia. Ensaio Pesquisa em Educação em Ciências, Belo Horizonte, v. 17, n. especial, p.97-114, nov. 2015.].

Keywords: Science Education, Environmental education, Bilingual education, problem based learning

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1 The Effects of Science, Technology, Engineering and Math Problem-Based Learning on Native Hawaiians and Other Underrepresented, Low-Income, Potential First-Generation High School Students

Authors: Nahid Nariman


The prosperity of any nation depends on its ability to use human potential, in particular, to offer an education that builds learners' competencies to become effective workforce participants and true citizens of the world. Ever since the Second World War, the United States has been a dominant player in the world politically, economically, socially, and culturally. The rapid rise of technological advancement and consumer technologies have made it clear that science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) play a crucial role in today’s world economy. Exploring the top qualities demanded from new hires in the industry—i.e., problem-solving skills, teamwork, dependability, adaptability, technical and communication skills— sheds light on the kind of path that is needed for a successful educational system to effectively support STEM. The focus of 21st century education has been to build student competencies by preparing them to acquire and apply knowledge, to think critically and creatively, to competently use information, be able to work in teams, to demonstrate intellectual and moral values as well as cultural awareness, and to be able to communicate. Many educational reforms pinpoint various 'ideal' pathways toward STEM that educators, policy makers, and business leaders have identified for educating the workforce of tomorrow. This study will explore how problem-based learning (PBL), an instructional strategy developed in the medical field and adopted with many successful results in K-12 through higher education, is the proper approach to stimulate underrepresented high school students' interest in pursuing STEM careers. In the current study, the effect of a problem-based STEM model on students' attitudes and career interests was investigated using qualitative and quantitative methods. The participants were 71 low-income, native Hawaiian high school students who would be first-generation college students. They were attending a summer STEM camp developed as the result of a collaboration between the University of Hawaii and the Upward Bound Program. The project, funded by the National Science Foundation's Innovative Technology Experiences for Students and Teachers (ITEST) program, used PBL as an approach in challenging students to engage in solving hands-on, real-world problems in their communities. Pre-surveys were used before camp and post-surveys on the last day of the program to learn about the implementation of the PBL STEM model. A Career Interest Questionnaire provided a way to investigate students’ career interests. After the summer camp, a representative selection of students participated in focus group interviews to discuss their opinions about the PBL STEM camp. The findings revealed a significantly positive increase in students' attitudes towards STEM disciplines and STEM careers. The students' interview results also revealed that students identified PBL to be an effective form of instruction in their learning and in the development of their 21st-century skills. PBL was acknowledged for making the class more enjoyable and for raising students' interest in STEM careers, while also helping them develop teamwork and communication skills in addition to scientific knowledge. As a result, the integration of PBL and a STEM learning experience was shown to positively affect students’ interest in STEM careers.

Keywords: Science Education, Problem-Based Learning, STEM, underrepresented students

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