Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 26

School Related Abstracts

26 Science School Was Burned: A Case Study of Crisis Management in Thailand

Authors: Proud Arunrangsiwed


This study analyzes the crisis management and image repair strategies during the crisis of Mahidol Wittayanusorn School (MWIT) library burning. The library of this school was burned by a 16-year-old-male student on June 6th, 2010. This student blamed the school that the lesson was difficult, and other students were selfish. Although no one was in the building during the fire, it had caused damage to the building, books and electronic supplies around 130 million bahts (4.4 million USD). This event aroused many discourses arguing about the education system and morality. The strategies which were used during crisis were denial, shift the blame, bolstering, minimization, and uncertainty reduction. The results of using these strategies appeared after the crisis. That was the numbers of new students, who registered for the examination to get into this school in the later years, have remained the same.

Keywords: Crisis Management, Violence, Uncertainty, School, burn, image repair strategies

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25 The Study of Applying Models: House, Temple and School for Sufficiency Development to Participate in ASEAN Economic Community: A Case Study of Trimitra Temple (China Town) Bangkok, Thailand

Authors: Saowapa Phaithayawat


The purposes of this study are: 1) to study the impact of the 3-community-core model: House (H), Temple (T), and School (S) with the co-operation of official departments on community development to ASEAN economic community involvement, and 2) to study the procedures and extension of the model. The research which is a qualitative research based on formal and informal interviews. Local people in a community are observed. Group interview is also operated by executors and cooperators in the school in the community. In terms of social and cultural dimension, the 3-community-core model consisting of house, temple and school is the base of Thai cultures bringing about understanding, happiness and unity to the community. The result of this research is that the official departments in accompanied with this model developers cooperatively work together in the community to support such factors as budget, plan, activities. Moreover, the need of community, and the continual result to sustain the community are satisfied by the model implementation. In terms of the procedures of the model implementation, executors and co-operators can work, coordinate, think, and launch their public relation altogether. Concerning the model development, this enables the community to achieve its goal to prepare the community’s readiness for ASEAN Economic Community involvement.

Keywords: School, temple, ASEAN Economic Community, the applying models and sufficiency development, house

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24 Single-Parent Families and Its Impact on the Psycho Child Development in Schools

Authors: Sylvie Sossou, Grégoire Gansou, Ildevert Egue


Introduction: The mission of the family and the school is to educate and train citizens of the city. But the family’s values , parental roles, respect for life collapse in their traditional African form. Indeed laxity with regard to divorce, liberal ideas about child rearing influence the emotional life of the latter. Several causes may contribute to the decline in academic performance. In order to seek a psychological solution to the issue, a study was conducted in 6 schools at the 9th district in Cotonou, cosmopolitan city of Benin. Objective: To evaluate the impact of single parenthood on the psycho child development. Materials and Methods: Questionnaires and interviews were used to gather verbal information. The questionnaires were administered to parents and children (schoolchildren 4, 5 and six form) from 7 to 12 years in lone parenthood. The interview was done with teachers and school leaders. We identified 209 cases of children living with a "single-parent" and 68 single parents. Results: Of the 209 children surveyed the results showed that 116 children are cut relational triangle in early childhood (before 3 years). The psychological effects showed that the separation has caused sadness for 52 children, anger 22, shame 17, crying at 31 children, fear for 14, the silence at 58 children. In front of complete family’s children, these children experience feelings of aggression in 11.48%; sadness in 30.64%; 5.26% the shame, the 6.69% tears; jealousy in 2.39% and 2.87% of indifference. The option to get married in 44.15% of children is a challenge to want to give a happy childhood for their offspring; 22.01% feel rejected, there is uncertainty for 11.48% of cases and 25.36% didn’t give answer. 49, 76% of children want to see their family together; 7.65% are against to avoid disputes and in many cases to save the mother of the father's physical abuse. 27.75% of the ex-partners decline responsibility in the care of the child. Furthermore family difficulties affecting the intellectual capacities of children: 37.32% of children see school difficulties related to family problems despite all the pressure single-parent to see his child succeed. Single parenthood affects inter-family relations: pressure 33.97%; nervousness 24.88%; overprotection 29.18%; backbiting 11.96%, are the lives of these families. Conclusion: At the end of the investigation, results showed that there is a causal relationship between psychological disorders, academic difficulties of children and quality of parental relationships. Other cases may exist, but the lack of resources meant that we have only limited at 6 schools. Early psychological treatment for these children is needed.

Keywords: School, single-parent, psycho child, Cotonou

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23 Challenges of School Leadership

Authors: Stefan Ninković


The main purpose of this paper is to examine the different theoretical approaches and relevant empirical evidence and thus, recognize some of the most pressing challenges faced by school leaders. This paper starts from the fact that the new mission of the school is characterized by the need for stronger coordination among students' academic, social and emotional learning. In this sense, school leaders need to focus their commitment, vision and leadership on the issues of students' attitudes, language, cultural and social background, and sexual orientation. More specifically, they should know what a good teaching is for student’s at-risk, students whose first language is not dominant in school, those who’s learning styles are not in accordance with usual teaching styles, or who are stigmatized. There is a rather wide consensus around the fact that the traditionally popular concept of instructional leadership of the school principal is no longer sufficient. However, in a number of "pro-leadership" circles, including certain groups of academic researchers, consultants and practitioners, there is an established tendency of attributing school principal an extraordinary influence towards school achievements. On the other hand, the situation in which all employees in the school are leaders is a utopia par excellence. Although leadership obviously can be efficiently distributed across the school, there are few findings that speak about sources of this distribution and factors making it sustainable. Another idea that is not particularly new, but has only recently gained in importance is related to the fact that the collective capacity of the school is an important resource that often remains under-cultivated. To understand the nature and power of collaborative school cultures, it is necessary to know that these operate in a way that they make their all collective members' tacit knowledge explicit. In this sense, the question is how leaders in schools can shape collaborative culture and create social capital in the school. Pressure exerted on schools to systematically collect and use the data has been accompanied by the need for school leaders to develop new competencies. The role of school leaders is critical in the process of assessing what data are needed and for what purpose. Different types of data are important: test results, data on student’s absenteeism, satisfaction with school, teacher motivation, etc. One of the most important tasks of school leaders are data-driven decision making as well as ensuring transparency of the decision-making process. Finally, the question arises whether the existing models of school leadership are compatible with the current social and economic trends. It is necessary to examine whether and under what conditions schools are in need for forms of leadership that are different from those that currently prevail. Closely related to this issue is also to analyze the adequacy of different approaches to leadership development in the school.

Keywords: Leadership, School, leaders, educational changes

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22 Joint Training Offer Selection and Course Timetabling Problems: Models and Algorithms

Authors: Gianpaolo Ghiani, Emanuela Guerriero, Emanuele Manni, Alessandro Romano


In this article, we deal with a variant of the classical course timetabling problem that has a practical application in many areas of education. In particular, in this paper we are interested in high schools remedial courses. The purpose of such courses is to provide under-prepared students with the skills necessary to succeed in their studies. In particular, a student might be under prepared in an entire course, or only in a part of it. The limited availability of funds, as well as the limited amount of time and teachers at disposal, often requires schools to choose which courses and/or which teaching units to activate. Thus, schools need to model the training offer and the related timetabling, with the goal of ensuring the highest possible teaching quality, by meeting the above-mentioned financial, time and resources constraints. Moreover, there are some prerequisites between the teaching units that must be satisfied. We first present a Mixed-Integer Programming (MIP) model to solve this problem to optimality. However, the presence of many peculiar constraints contributes inevitably in increasing the complexity of the mathematical model. Thus, solving it through a general purpose solver may be performed for small instances only, while solving real-life-sized instances of such model requires specific techniques or heuristic approaches. For this purpose, we also propose a heuristic approach, in which we make use of a fast constructive procedure to obtain a feasible solution. To assess our exact and heuristic approaches we perform extensive computational results on both real-life instances (obtained from a high school in Lecce, Italy) and randomly generated instances. Our tests show that the MIP model is never solved to optimality, with an average optimality gap of 57%. On the other hand, the heuristic algorithm is much faster (in about the 50% of the considered instances it converges in approximately half of the time limit) and in many cases allows achieving an improvement on the objective function value obtained by the MIP model. Such an improvement ranges between 18% and 66%.

Keywords: heuristic, School, MIP model, remedial course, timetabling

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21 Mental Health Promotion for Children of Mentally Ill Parents in Schools. Assessment and Promotion of Teacher Mental Health Literacy in Order to Promote Child Related Mental Health (Teacher-MHL)

Authors: Dirk Bruland, Paulo Pinheiro, Ullrich Bauer


Introduction: Over 3 million children, about one quarter of all students, experience at least one parent with mental disorder in Germany every year. Children of mentally-ill parents are at considerably higher risk of developing serious mental health problems. The different burden patterns and coping attempts often become manifest in children's school lives. In this context, schools can have an important protective function, but can also create risk potentials. In reference to Jorm, pupil-related teachers’ mental health literacy (Teacher-MHL) includes the ability to recognize change behaviour, the knowledge of risk factors, the implementation of first aid intervention, and seeking professional help (teacher as gatekeeper). Although teachers’ knowledge and increased awareness of this topic is essential, the literature provides little information on the extent of teachers' abilities. As part of a German-wide research consortium on health literacy, this project, launched in March for 3 years, will conduct evidence-based mental health literacy research. The primary objective is to measure Teacher-MHL in the context of pupil-related psychosocial factors at primary and secondary schools (grades 5 & 6), while also focussing on children’s social living conditions. Methods: (1) A systematic literature review in different databases to identify papers with regard to Teacher-MHL (completed). (2) Based on these results, an interview guide was developed. This research step includes a qualitative pre-study to inductively survey the general profiles of teachers (n=24). The evaluation will be presented on the conference. (3) These findings will be translated into a quantitative teacher survey (n=2500) in order to assess the extent of socio-analytical skills of teachers as well as in relation to institutional and individual characteristics. (4) Based on results 1 – 3, developing a training program for teachers. Results: The review highlights a lack of information for Teacher-MHL and their skills, especially related to high-risk-groups like children of mentally ill parents. The literature is limited to a few studies only. According to these, teacher are not good at identifying burdened children and if they identify those children they do not know how to handle the situations in school. They are not sufficiently trained to deal with these children, especially there are great uncertainties in dealing with the teaching situation. Institutional means and resources are missing as well. Such a mismatch can result in insufficient support and use of opportunities for children at risk. First impressions from the interviews confirm these results and allow a greater insight in the everyday school-life according to critical life events in families. Conclusions: For the first time schools will be addressed as a setting where children are especially "accessible" for measures of health promotion. Addressing Teacher-MHL gives reason to expect high effectiveness. Targeting professionals' abilities for dealing with this high-risk-group leads to a discharge for teacher themselves to handle those situations and increases school health promotion. In view of the fact that only 10-30% of such high-risk families accept offers of therapy and assistance, this will be the first primary preventive and health-promoting approach to protect the health of a yet unaffected, but particularly burdened, high-risk group.

Keywords: Health Promotion, School, children of mentally ill parents, mental health literacy

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20 An Evaluation of the Efficacy of School-Based Suicide Prevention Programs

Authors: S. Wietrzychowski


The following review has identified specific programs, as well as the elements of these programs, that have been shown to be most effective in preventing suicide in schools. Suicide is an issue that affects many students each year. Although this is a prominent issue, there are few prevention programs used within schools. The primary objective of most prevention programs is to reduce risk factors such as depression and hopelessness, and increase protective factors like support systems and help-seeking behaviors. Most programs include a gatekeeper training model, education component, peer support group, and/or counseling/treatment. Research shows that some of these programs, like the Signs of Suicide and Youth Aware of Mental Health Programme, are effective in reducing suicide behaviors and increasing protective factors. These programs have been implemented in many countries across the world and have shown promising results. Since schools can provide easy access to adolescents, implement education programs, and train staff members and students how to identify and to report suicide behaviors, school-based programs seem to be the best way to prevent suicide among adolescents. Early intervention may be an effective way to prevent suicide. Although, since early intervention is not always an option, school-based programs in high schools have also been shown to decrease suicide attempts by up to 50%. As a result of this presentation, participants will be able to 1.) list at least 2 evidence-based suicide prevention programs, 2.) identify at least 3 factors which protect against suicide, and 3.) describe at least 3 risk factors for suicide.

Keywords: Prevention, Programs, Suicide, School

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19 Cultural and Historical Roots of Plagiarism in Georgia

Authors: Lali Khurtsia, Vano Tsertsvadze


The purpose of the study was to find out incentives and expectations, methods and ways, which are influential to students during working with their thesis. Research findings shows that the use of plagiarism has cultural links deep in the history - on the one hand, the tradition of sharing knowledge in the oral manner, with its different interpretations, and on the other hand the lack of fair and honest methods in the academic process. Research results allow us to determine general ideas about preventive policy to reduce the use of plagiarism. We conducted surveys in three different groups – we interviewed so-called diploma writers, students on bachelors and masters level and the focus group of lecturers. We found that the problem with plagiarism in Georgia has cultural-mental character. We think that nearest years’ main task should be breaking of barriers existed between lecturers and students and acknowledgement of honest principals of study process among students and pupils.

Keywords: Education, Plagiarism, School, University, Georgia, study process

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18 Sexual Behaviour and Psychological Well-Being of a Group of African Adolescent Males in Alice, Eastern Cape

Authors: Jabulani Gilford Kheswa, Thembelihle Lobi


From a cultural perspective, expression of hegemonic masculinity in South Africa continues to escalate among adolescent males who grow up in communities lacking in role models and recreational facilities. However, when the schools are constructive, and peer influence is positive, adolescent male can potentially express character strengths and lead a meaningful life. Drawing from Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Model and Keyes and Ryff’s six dimensions of psychological well-being and mental health, such youth may exemplify positive self-esteem, problem- focused coping strategies, condom self-efficacy, good leadership skills, enhanced motivation and a positive emotional state, which buffer against risky sexual behaviors. This paper was aimed at investigating the relationships between adolescent males’ sexual behavior and psychological well-being. This study employed a quantitative research to collect data from 54 Xhosa-speaking adolescent males from one school high school in Fort Beaufort, Eastern Cape, South Africa. These learners were from grade nine, ten and eleven with their ages ranging from 14 to 20. Prior the research commenced, the school principal and caregivers of the learners who participated in the study, gave their informed consent. Self- administered closed-ended questionnaire with Section A (that is, biographical information) and Section B with each question rated on the 5–point Likert scale was used. The advantages of questionnaires include a high response rate as they require less time and offer anonymity because participants’ names are not identified. The SPSS version 18 was used for statistical data analysis. The mean age was 16.83 with a standard deviation of 1.611. 44.4% of the participants were from grade 9, 33.3% from grade 10 and 22.2% from grade 11. The Chronbach alpha of 0.79 was yielded, with respect to self- esteem of adolescent males. In this study, 76.9% reported to attend church services whilst 23% indicated not to attend church services. A further 96.2% of adolescent males indicated to have good relations with guardians while only 3.8% had poorer relations. A large proportion of adolescent males (72.9%) indicated to high-quality friendship as opposed to 27.1% who reported being receiving negative guidance from peers. Other findings revealed that 81.1% of the participants’ parents do not drink alcohol, and they cope at school as 79.6% reported protective factors as attributable towards non-engagement to risky sexual practices. As a result, 81.4% of participants reported not to participate in criminal activities although 85% of the participants indicated that in their school there are drugs. It could be speculated from this study that adolescent males whose caregivers are authoritative, find purpose in life and are most likely to be socially and academically competent. This paper leads to further research interest into mental health, coping strategies and sexual decision-making skills of the youth in South Africa.

Keywords: Church, Mental Health, School, sexual behaviour

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17 The Effects of Local Factors on the Concentrations and Flora of Viable Fungi in School Buildings

Authors: H. Salonen, E. Castagnoli, C. Vornanen-Winqvist, R. Mikkola, C. Duchaine, L. Morawska, J. Kurnitski


A wide range of health effects among occupants are associated with the exposure to bioaerosols from fungal sources. Although the accurate role of these aerosols in causing the symptoms and diseases is poorly understood, the important effect of bioaerosol exposure on human health is well recognized. Thus, there is a need to determine all of the contributing factors related to the concentration of fungi in indoor air. In this study, we reviewed and summarized the different factors affecting the concentrations of viable fungi in school buildings. The literature research was conducted using Pubmed and Google Scholar. In addition, we searched the lists of references of selected articles. According to the literature, the main factors influencing the concentration of viable fungi in the school buildings are moisture damage in building structures, the season (temperature and humidity conditions), the type and rate of ventilation, the number and activities of occupants and diurnal variations. This study offers valuable information that can be used in the interpretation of the fungal analysis and to decrease microbial exposure by reducing known sources and/or contributing factors. However, more studies of different local factors contributing to the human microbial exposure in school buildings—as well as other type of buildings and different indoor environments—are needed.

Keywords: Fungi, School, Concentration, indoor, contributing factor

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16 The Thoughts and Feelings of 60-72 Month Old Children about School and Teacher

Authors: Ayse Ozturk Samur, Gozde Inal Kiziltepe


No matter what level of education it is, starting a school is an exciting process as it includes new experiences. In this process, child steps into a different environment and institution except from the family institution which he was born into and feels secure. That new environment is different from home; it is a social environment which has its own rules, and involves duties and responsibilities that should be fulfilled and new vital experiences. The children who have a positive attitude towards school and like school are more enthusiastic and eager to participate in classroom activities. Moreover, a close relationship with the teacher enables the child to have positive emotions and ideas about the teacher and school and helps children adapt to school easily. In this study, it is aimed to identify children’s perceptions of academic competence, attitudes towards school and ideas about their teachers. In accordance with the aim a mixed method that includes both qualitative and quantitative data collection methods are used. The study is supported with qualitative data after collecting quantitative data. The study group of the research consists of randomly chosen 250 children who are 60-72 month old and attending a preschool institution in a city center located West Anatolian region of Turkey. Quantitative data was collected using Feelings about School scale. The scale consists of 12 items and 4 dimensions; school, teacher, mathematic, and literacy. Reliability and validity study for the scale used in the study was conducted by the researchers with 318 children who were 60-72 months old. For content validity experts’ ideas were asked, for construct validity confirmatory factor analysis was utilized. Reliability of the scale was examined by calculating internal consistency coefficient (Cronbach alpha). At the end of the analyses it was found that FAS is a valid and reliable instrument to identify 60-72 month old children’ perception of their academic competency, attitude toward school and ideas about their teachers. For the qualitative dimension of the study, semi-structured interviews were done with 30 children aged 60-72 month. At the end of the study, it was identified that children’s’ perceptions of their academic competencies and attitudes towards school was medium-level and their ideas about their teachers were high. Based on the semi structured interviews done with children, it is identified that they have a positive perception of school and teacher. That means quantitatively gathered data is supported by qualitatively collected data.

Keywords: Teacher, Preschool Education, School, Feelings, Thoughts

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15 Museum-Based Education: Its Role in Formal/School Education

Authors: Kinga Anna Gajda


The aim of the paper is presented the results of the research project titled: Regional or trans-regional cultural education using the example of museums. In the frame of the project there were prepared: Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the level of schools’ use of museum programs in the period 2010-2015; Qualitative and quantitative analysis of interprovincial co-operation between schools and cultural institutions; intevied and questionnaries. That was a research materials. Informal education may include classes that use visual culture - museum lessons. The paper will examine what range of programs is offered schools by the museums. On the basis of the conducted analysis, the paper will verify what programs addressing the schools are directly coincided with the material taught in schools or as a supplement to existing curriculum. The paper will answer the question is the museum-based education the part of school education, the teaching parallel or a separate category of teaching.

Keywords: Curriculum, School, museum-based education, parallel teaching

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14 Unspoken Playground Rules Prompt Adolescents to Avoid Physical Activity: A Focus Group Study of Constructs in the Prototype Willingness Model

Authors: Catherine Wheatley, Emma L. Davies, Helen Dawes


The health benefits of exercise are widely recognised, but numerous interventions have failed to halt a sharp decline in physical activity during early adolescence. Many such projects are underpinned by the Theory of Planned Behaviour, yet this model of rational decision-making leaves variance in behavior unexplained. This study investigated whether the Prototype Willingness Model, which proposes a second, reactive decision-making path to account for spontaneous responses to the social environment, has potential to improve understanding of adolescent exercise behaviour in school by exploring constructs in the model with young people. PE teachers in 4 Oxfordshire schools each nominated 6 pupils who were active in school, and 6 who were inactive, to participate in the study. Of these, 45 (22 male) aged 12-13 took part in 8 focus group discussions. These were transcribed and subjected to deductive thematic analysis to search for themes relating to the prototype willingness model. Participants appeared to make rational decisions about commuting to school or attending sports clubs, but spontaneous choices to be inactive during both break and PE. These reactive decisions seemed influenced by a social context described as more ‘judgmental’ than primary school, characterised by anxiety about physical competence, negative peer evaluation and inactive playground norms. Participants described their images of typical active and inactive adolescents: active images included negative social characteristics including ‘show-off’. There was little concern about the long-term risks of inactivity, although participants seemed to recognise that physical activity is healthy. The Prototype Willingness Model might more fully explain young adolescents’ physical activity in school than rational behavioural models, indicating potential for physical activity interventions that target social anxieties in response to the changing playground environment. Images of active types could be more complex than earlier research has suggested, and their negative characteristics might influence willingness to be active.

Keywords: Physical Activity, adolescence, School, prototype willingness model

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13 Effectiveness of Radon Remedial Action Implemented in a School on the Island of Ischia

Authors: F. Loffredo, M. Quarto, M. Pugliese, A. Mazzella, F. De Cicco, V. Roca


The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of radon remedial action in a school on the Ischia island, South Italy, affected by indoor radon concentration higher than the value of 500 Bq/m3. This value is the limit imposed by the Italian legislation, to above which corrective actions in schools are necessary. Before the application of remedial action, indoor radon concentrations were measured in 9 rooms of the school. The measurements were performed with LR-115 passive alpha detectors (SSNTDs) and E-Perm. The remedial action was conducted in one of the office affected by high radon concentration using a Radonstop paint applied after the construction of a concrete slab under the floor. The effect of remedial action was the reduction of the concentration of radon of 41% and moreover it has demonstrated to be durable over time. The chosen method is cheap and easy to apply and it could be designed for various types of building. This method can be applied to new and existing buildings that show high dose values.

Keywords: School, E-Perm, LR 115 detectors, radon remediation

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12 High School Transgender Students in Brazil: The Difficulties of Staying in School and the Psychological Implications in a Hostile School Environment

Authors: Aline Giardin, Maria Rosa Chitolina


Our research conducted in 8 different schools in the city of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, we can clearly see that, even in modern times, where the search for equality between men and women is already over 60 years of struggle in this world where you show Much more than two genres and in this world that is proving that sex is not just biological, are confronted with sexist and phallocentric situations in our Schools, and among our students. The sample consisted of 503 students with a mean age between 13 and 21 years. 107 students identified themselves as gay, lesbian, bisexual or transgender. The remainder was identified as heterosexual or none at all. Compared to LGBT students, transgender students faced the school's more hostile climates, while non-transgender female students were less likely to experience anti-LGBT victimization. In addition, transgender students experienced more negative experiences at school compared to students whose gender expression adhered to traditional gender norms. Transgender students were more likely to feel insecure at school, with 80.0% of transgender students reporting that they felt insecure at school because of their gender identity. Female students in our research reported lower frequencies of victimization based on sexual orientation and gender identity and were less likely to feel insecure at school. In all indicators of discrimination in school, high school students have outperformed elementary school students and have had fewer resources and supports related to LGBT. High school students reported higher rates of victimization on sexual orientation and gender expression than elementary school students. For example, about one-third (35.5%) of high school students suffered regular physical Very often) based on their sexual orientation, compared to less than a quarter (21.4%) of primary school students. The whole premise here is to perceive the phallocentrism and sexism hidden in our schools. Opposition between the sexes is not reflexive or articulates a biological fact, but a social construction.

Keywords: School, Discrimination, transgender students, psychological implications

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11 Road Accidents to School Children’s in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

Authors: Kabuga Daniel


Road accidents resulting to deaths and injuries have become a new public health challenge especially in developing countries including Tanzania. Reports from Tanzania Traffic Police Force shows that last year 2016 accidents increased compare to previous year 2015, accident happened from 3710 up to 5219, accidents and safety data indicate that children are the most vulnerable to road crashes where 78 pupils died and 182 others were seriously injured in separate roads accident last year. A survey done by Amend indicates that Pupil mode of transport in Dar es salaam schools are by walk 87%, bus 9.21%, car 1.32%, motorcycle 0.88%, 3-wheeler 0.24%, train 0.14%, bicycle 0.10%, ferry 0.07%, and combined mode 0.44%. According to this study, majority of school children’s uses walking mode, most of school children’s agreed to continue using walking mode and request to have signs for traffic control during crossing road like STOP sign and CHILD CROSSING sign for safe crossing. Because children not only sit inside this buses (Daladala) but also they walk in a group to/from school, and few (33.2%) parents or adults are willing to supervise their children’s during working to school while 50% of parents agree to let their children walking alone to school if the public transport started from nearby street. The study used both qualitative and quantitative methods of research by conducting physical surveying on sample districts. The main objectives of this research are to carries out all factors affecting school children’s when they use public road, to promote and encourage the safe use of public road by all classes especially pupil or student through the circulation of advice, information and knowledge gain from research and to recommends future direction for the developments for road design or plan to vulnerable users. The research also critically analyze the problems causing death and injuries to school children’s in Dar es Salaam Region. This study determines the relationship between road traffic accidents and factors, such as socio-economic, status, and distance from school, number of sibling, behavioral problems, knowledge and attitudes of public and their parents towards road safety and parent educational study traffic. The study comes up with some of recommendations including Infrastructure Improvements like, safe footpaths, Safe crossings, Speed humps, Speed limits, Road signs. However, Planners and policymakers wishing to increase walking and cycling among children need to consider options that address distance constraints, the land use planners and transport professionals use better understanding of the various factors that affect children’s choices of school travel mode, results suggest that all school travel attributes should be considered during school location.

Keywords: accidents, School, Tanzania, childrens

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10 The Perception of ‘School’ as a Positive Support Factor

Authors: Yeliz Yazıcı, Alev Erenler


School is an institution designed to provide learning, teaching places and environments under guidance of selected teachers. School is not just a place or institution but it is a place where complex and living structures are alive and always changing. It is also an undeniable fact that schools have shaped the ideas, future, society as well as the students and their lives. While this is the situation, schools having academic excellence is considered as successful ones. Academic excellence is a composition of excellence in teachers, management and physical environment, also. This is the general perception of the authorities and parents when the excellence is the point but the school is a developing and supporting organism. In this concept, the main aim of this study is to compare student and teacher perceptions of school as a ‘positive support factor’. The study is designed as a quantitative and qualitative design and a questionnaire is applied to both teachers and students via online and face to face meetings. It is aimed to define the perceptions of the participants related to the school as a positive support factor. It means the role of school in establishing self-efficacy, shaping and acquiring the behavior etc. Gathered data is analyzed via SPSS program and the detailed discussion is carried in the frame of the related literature.

Keywords: Education, School, positive support factor, student teacher perception

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9 Determinants of Teenage Pregnancy: The Case of School Adolescents of Arba Minch Town, Southern Ethiopia

Authors: Aleme Mekuria, Samuel Mathewos


Background: Teenage pregnancy has long been a worldwide social, economic and educational concern for the developed, developing and underdeveloped countries. Studies on adolescent sexuality and pregnancy are very limited in our country. Therefore, this study aims at assessing the prevalence of teenage pregnancy and its determinants among school adolescents of Arba Minch town. Methods: Institution- based, cross-sectional study was conducted from 20-30 March 2014. Systematic sampling technique was used to select a total of 578 students from four schools of the town. Data were collected by trained data collectors using a pre-tested, self-administered structured questionnaire. The analysis was made using the software SPSS version 20.0 statistical packages. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify the predictors of teenage pregnancy. Results: The prevalence of teenage pregnancy among school adolescents of Arba Minch town was 7.7%. Being grade11(AOR=4.6;95%CI:1.4,9.3) and grade12 student (AOR=5.8;95% CI:1.3,14.4), not knowing the correct time to take emergency contraceptives(AOR=3.3;95%CI:1.4,7.4), substance use(AOR=3.1;95%CI:1.1,8.8), living with either of biological parents (AOR=3.3;95%CI:1.1,8.7) and poor parent-daughter interaction (AOR=3.1;95%CI:1.1,8.7) were found to be significant predictors of teenage pregnancy. Conclusion: This study revealed a high level of teenage pregnancy among school adolescents of Arba Minch town. A significant number of adolescent female school students were at risk of facing the challenges of teenage pregnancy in the study area. School-based reproductive health education and strong parent-daughter relationships should be strengthened.

Keywords: Adolescent, School, Teenage Pregnancy, Risk Factors, Arba minch, southern Ethiopia

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8 Evaluation of the Quality of Education Offered to Students with Special Needs in Public Schools in the City of Bauru, Brazil

Authors: V. L. M. F. Capellini, A. P. P. M. Maturana, N. C. M. Brondino, M. B. C. L. B. M. Peixoto, A. J. Broughton


A paradigm shift is a process. The process of implementing inclusive education, a system constructed to support all learners, requires planning, identification, experimentation, and evaluation. In this vein, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the capacity of one Brazilian state school systems to provide special education students with a quality inclusive education. This study originated at the behest of concerned families of students with special needs who filed complaints with the Municipality of Bauru, São Paulo. These families claimed, 1) children with learning differences and educational needs had not been identified for services, and 2) those who had been identified had not received sufficient specialized educational assistance (SEA) in schools across the City of Bauru. Hence, the Office of Civil Rights for the state of São Paulo (Ministério Público de São Paulo) summoned the local higher education institution, UNESP, to design a research study to investigate these allegations. In this exploratory study, descriptive data were gathered from all elementary and middle schools including 58 state schools and 17 city schools, for a total of 75 schools overall. Data collection consisted of each school's annual strategic action plan, surveys and interviews with all school stakeholders to determine their perceptions of the inclusive education available to students with Special Education Needs (SEN). The data were collected as one of four stages in a larger study which also included field observations of a focal students' experience and a continuing education course for all teachers and administrators in both state and city schools. For the purposes of this study, the researchers were interested in understanding the perceptions of school staff, parents, and students across all schools. Therefore, documents and surveys from 75 schools were analyzed for adherence to federal legislation guaranteeing students with SEN the right to special education assistance within the regular school setting. Results shows that while some schools recognized the legal rights of SEN students to receive special education, the plans to actually deliver services were absent. In conclusion, the results of this study revealed both school staff and families have insufficient planning and accessibility resources, and the schools have inadequate infrastructure for full-time support to SEN students, i.e., structures and systems to support the identification of SEN and delivery of services within schools of Bauru, SP. Having identified the areas of need, the city is now prepared to take next steps in the process toward preparing all schools to be inclusive.

Keywords: Inclusion, Special Education, School, special needs

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7 Significance of Life Values in Relationship: A Detailed Analysis of Teenage Population

Authors: Preeti Nakhat


Background: Values are essential part of one's life. They are inculcated since the early years of life and shape the personality of the individual. They play a tremendous role in decision making. Teenagers are seen perplexed about the values of their life. The challenge faced by majority of the teenage population in choosing between a positive and negative value is high. The values they adopt remain throughout their life and in every decision, hence it is a crucial topic of research. Research Methodology: This research aimed at finding out the value conflict of teenagers in relations. Hypothesis of the study are: H₀- There is no significant association between the life values and value conflict of higher secondary students; H₁– There is a significant association between the life values and value conflict of higher secondary students. For the same, the standardized tool, value conflict scale by R. L. Bhardwaj has been used. The tool consists 24 questions of different life situations with multiple choice options. Findings: There is 96% variation in value conflict due to evasion vs. fortitude, dependence vs. self-reliance, selfishness vs. probity, hate vs. love, fear vs. assertion and pragmatism vs. idealism life values. There is a positive association between all the life values and value conflict of higher secondary school students. Percentages of association are: 0.17% between value conflict and evasion vs. fortitude value, 0.16% between value conflict and dependence vs. self-reliance value, 0.17% between value conflict and selfishness vs. probity value, 0.16% between value conflict and hate vs. love value, 0.17% between value conflict and fear vs. assertion, 0.17% between value conflict and pragmatism vs. idealism value. Discussions: The dilemma faced by the students regarding value conflict is high. Bewilderment of being honest or lying, of loving or hating family and friends, being pragmatic or idealistic in life decision, being selfish or selfless is seen among the students. It is the challenge for the future. Teaching of values with a practical aspect should be added in the school curriculum.

Keywords: Conflict, Values, School, dilemma

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6 Costa and Mccrae's Neo-Pi Factor and Early Adolescents School Social Adjustment in Cross River State Nigeria

Authors: Peter Unoh Bassey


The study examined the influence of Costa and McCrae’s Neo-PI Factor and early adolescent’s school social adjustment in Cross River State, Nigeria. The research adopted the causal-comparative design also known as the ex-post facto with about one thousand and eighteen (1,018) students who were randomly selected from one stream of JSS 1 classes in 19 schools out of seventy-three (73) in the study area. Data were collected using two instruments one is the NEO-PI scale, and students school social adjustment questionnaire. Three research questions and three research hypotheses were postulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The analysis of data was carried out using both the independent t-test statistics and the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The analyzed result indicated that the five dimensions had a significant influence on students school social adjustment. A post hoc was equally carried out to show the relative significant difference among the study variables. In view of the above, it was recommended that teachers, parents and educational psychologists should be involved to enhance students the confidence to overcome their social adjustment problem.

Keywords: School, social adjustment, early adolescents, Costa and McCrae’s NEO-PI Factor

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5 Youth Health Promotion Project for Indigenous People in Canada: Together against Bullying and Cyber-Dependence

Authors: Mohamed El Fares Djellatou, Fracoise Filion


The Ashukin program that means bridge in Naskapi or Atikamekw language, has been designed to offer a partnership between nursing students and an indigenous community. The students design a health promotion project tailored to the needs of the community. The issues of intimidation in primary school and cyber-dependence in high school were some concerns in a rural Atikamekw community. The goal of the project was to have a conversation with indigenous youths, aged 10-16 years old, on the challenges presented by intimidation and cyber dependence as well as promoting healthy relationships online and within the community. Methods: Multiple progressive inquiry questions (PIQs) were used to assess the feasibility and importance of this project for the Atikamekw nation, and to determine a plan to follow. The theoretical foundations to guide the conception of the project were the Population Health Promotion Model (PHPM), the First Nations Holistic Lifelong Learning Model, and the Medicine Wheel. A broad array of social determinants of health were addressed, including healthy childhood development, personal health practices, and coping skills, and education. The youths were encouraged to participate in interactive educational sessions, using PowerPoint presentations and pamphlets as the main effective strategies. Additional tools such as cultural artworks and physical activities were introduced to strengthen the inter-relational and team spirit within the Indigenous population. A quality assurance tool (QAT) was developed specifically to determine the appropriateness of these health promotion tools. Improvements were guided by the feedback issued by the indigenous schools’ teachers and social workers who filled the QATs. Post educational sessions, quantitative results have shown that 93.48% of primary school students were able to identify the different types of intimidation, 72.65% recognized more than two strategies, and 52.1% were able to list at least four resources to diffuse intimidation. On the other hand, around 75% of the adolescents were able to name at least three negative effects, and 50% listed three strategies to reduce cyber-dependence. This project was meant to create a bridge with the First Nation through health promotion, a population that is known to be disadvantaged due to systemic health inequity and disparities. Culturally safe care was proposed to deal with the two identified priority issues, and an educational toolkit was given to both schools to ensure the sustainability of the project. The project was self-financed through fundraising activities, and it yielded better results than expected.

Keywords: Health Promotion, Adolescents, Indigenous, Youth, Bullying, School, Community Nursing, Internet Addiction, first nation, cyber-dependence, intimidation

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4 An Investigation into the Role of School Social Workers and Psychologists with Children Experiencing Special Educational Needs in Libya

Authors: Abdelbasit Gadour


This study explores the function of schools’ psychosocial services within Libyan mainstream schools in relation to children’s special educational needs (SEN). This is with the aim to examine the role of school social workers and psychologists in the assessment procedure of children with special educational needs. A semi-structured interview was used in this study, with 21 professionals working in the schools’ psychosocial services, of whom thirteen were school social workers (SSWs) and eight were school psychologists (SPs). The results of the interviews with SSWs and SPs provided insights into how SEN children are identified, assessed, and dealt with by school professionals. It appears from the results that what constitutes a problem has not changed significantly, and the link between learning difficulties and behavioral difficulties is also evident from this study. Children with behavior difficulties are more likely to be referred to school psychosocial services than children with learning difficulties. Yet, it is not clear from the interviews with SSWs and SPs whether children are excluded merely because of their behavior problems. Instead, they would surely be expelled from the school if they failed academically. Furthermore, the interviews with SSWs and SPs yield a rather unusual source accountable for children’s SEN; school-related difficulties were a major factor in which almost all participants attributed children’s learning and behavior problems to teachers’ deficiencies, followed by school lack of resources.

Keywords: Special Education, School, Social Workers, psychologist

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3 Study on Chinese High School Students’ Physical Activity Promotion

Authors: Min Wang, Hui Tian


Health promotion of high school students is essential for the construction of ‘Healthy China’, and increasing high school students’ physical activity is a must for their health promotion. School plays a crucial role in increasing high school students’ physical activity. Therefore, to have a comprehensive command of the school physical activity promotion strategies is of great significance for the health promotion of high school students in China and will shed some light on physical activity promotion worldwide. Literature review and interview survey are the main methods adopted for this research. It has been found that reforms of P.E. classes, improving the overall quality of P.E. teachers, and construction of school fields and facilities are among the major strategies to promote students’ physical activities. Even though it has been stipulated that primary and middle school students should take 3-4 times of P.E. classes per week, the execution is greatly influenced by the exam-oriented educational system. Randomly canceling P.E. classes or taking up the time to study other subjects is common, so it is difficult to guarantee the quantity of P.E. classes. According to national surveys, only 20%-40% of schools have 3-4 times of P.E. classes per week. In order to reduce the hindering effects of the exam-oriented educational system, a physical education test is included in the senior middle school entrance exam. The exam items include 1000m run for boys, 800m run for girls, and the basic skills for basketball/football/volleyball. The scores of the physical education test will greatly influence the admission of senior middle schools. China is now developing the ‘campus football’ policy and has established 20,000 football featured schools by 2017. Especially in these schools, football has become an important part of the students’ P.E. classes and a major means to promote students’ physical activity. As the Winter Olympics will be held in Beijing in 2022, China has promoted the ‘winter sports for all’ movement. The aim is to encourage 300 million people to winter sports, and the high school students are among the most potential participants. The primary and middle schools in Beijing have introduced winter sports to their P.E. curriculum, providing opportunities for the students to experience ice hockey and curling. Some Winter Olympics champions also go to the schools to popularize winter sports among the students. This greatly adds variety to the students’ physical activity regimen at school. In November 2017, seven ministries, including the General Administration of Sport of China and Ministry of Education of the People’s Republic of China, release Youth Sport Promotion Strategy. The strategy stipulates to strengthen the construction of youth sport facilities and implement the cultivation plan for P.E. teachers. It also emphasizes that school sport facilities should be open to students during holidays and vacations for free or at an affordable price. Overall speaking, the Chinese government stresses the importance of youth physical activity promotion and has issued a series of related policies and strategies, but the implementation still needs improvement.

Keywords: Physical Activity, School, China, Promotion

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2 Creating Bridges: The Importance of Intergenerational Experiences in the Educational Context

Authors: A. Eiguren-Munitis, N. Berasategi, J. M. Correa


Changes in family structures, immigration, economic crisis, among others, hinder the connection between different generations. This situation gives rise to a greater lack of social protection of the groups in vulnerable situations, such as the elderly and children. There is a growing need to search for shared spaces where different generations manage to break negative stereotypes and interact with each other. The school environment provides a favourable context in which the approach of different generations can be worked on. The intergenerational experiences that take place within the school context help to introduce the educational ideology for a lifetime. This induces bilateral learning, which encourages citizen participation. For this reason, the general objective of this research is to deepen the impact that intergenerational experiences have on participating students. The research is carried out based on mixed methods. The qualitative and quantitative evaluation included pre-test and post-test questionnaires (n=148) and group interviews (n=43). The results indicate that the intergenerational experiences influence different levels, on the one hand, help to promote school motivation and on the other hand, help to reduce negative stereotypes towards older people thus contributing to greater social cohesion.

Keywords: School, Social Cohesion, stereotypes, intergenerational learning

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1 Challenges of the Implementation of Real Time Online Learning in a South African Context

Authors: Thifhuriwi Emmanuel Madzunye, Patricia Harpur, Ephias Ruhode


A review of the pertinent literature identified a gap concerning the hindrances and opportunities accompanying the implementation of real-time online learning systems (RTOLs) in rural areas. Whilst RTOLs present a possible solution to teaching and learning issues in rural areas, little is known about the implementation of digital strategies among schools in isolated communities. This study explores associated guidelines that have the potential to inform decision-making where Internet-based education could improve educational opportunities. A systematic literature review has the potential to consolidate and focus on disparate literature served to collect interlinked data from specific sources in a structured manner. During qualitative data analysis (QDA) of selected publications via the application of a QDA tool - ATLAS.ti, the following overarching themes emerged: digital divide, educational strategy, human factors, and support. Furthermore, findings from data collection and literature review suggest that signiant factors include a lack of digital knowledge, infrastructure shortcomings such as a lack of computers, poor internet connectivity, and handicapped real-time online may limit students’ progress. The study recommends that timeous consideration should be given to the influence of the digital divide. Additionally, the evolution of educational strategy that adopts digital approaches, a focus on training of role-players and stakeholders concerning human factors, and the seeking of governmental funding and support are essential to the implementation and success of RTOLs.

Keywords: Digital Divide, Communication, Government, Real-time, Network, Distance, infrastructures, Teachers, ICT, resources, School, Online Learning Systems, learners, rural area, support, Limpopo, digital skills, educational strategy, lukalo, political-unrest, real-time online learning, real-time online learning system, pass-rate, teaching and learning and training

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