Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

scale Related Abstracts

10 Deproteinization of Moroccan Sardine (Sardina pilchardus) Scales: A Pilot-Scale Study

Authors: F. Bellali, M. Kharroubi, Y. Rady, N. Bourhim

Abstract:

In Morocco, fish processing industry is an important source income for a large amount of by-products including skins, bones, heads, guts, and scales. Those underutilized resources particularly scales contain a large amount of proteins and calcium. Sardina plichardus scales from resulting from the transformation operation have the potential to be used as raw material for the collagen production. Taking into account this strong expectation of the regional fish industry, scales sardine upgrading is well justified. In addition, political and societal demands for sustainability and environment-friendly industrial production systems, coupled with the depletion of fish resources, drive this trend forward. Therefore, fish scale used as a potential source to isolate collagen has a wide large of applications in food, cosmetic, and biomedical industry. The main aim of this study is to isolate and characterize the acid solubilize collagen from sardine fish scale, Sardina pilchardus. Experimental design methodology was adopted in collagen processing for extracting optimization. The first stage of this work is to investigate the optimization conditions of the sardine scale deproteinization on using response surface methodology (RSM). The second part focus on the demineralization with HCl solution or EDTA. And the last one is to establish the optimum condition for the isolation of collagen from fish scale by solvent extraction. The advancement from lab scale to pilot scale is a critical stage in the technological development. In this study, the optimal condition for the deproteinization which was validated at laboratory scale was employed in the pilot scale procedure. The deproteinization of fish scale was then demonstrated on a pilot scale (2Kg scales, 20l NaOH), resulting in protein content (0,2mg/ml) and hydroxyproline content (2,11mg/l). These results indicated that the pilot-scale showed similar performances to those of lab-scale one.

Keywords: deproteinization, pilot scale, scale, sardine pilchardus

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9 The Mechanism of Calcium Carbonate Scale Deposition Affected by Carboxymethyl Chitosan

Authors: Genaro Bolívar, Manuel Mas, Maria Tortolero, Jorge Salazar

Abstract:

Due to the extensive use of water injection for oil displacement and pressure maintenance in oil fields, many reservoirs experience the problem of scale deposition when injection water starts to break through. In most cases the scaled-up wells are caused by the formation of sulfate and carbonate scales of calcium and strontium. Due to their relative hardness and low solubility, there are limited processes available for their removal and preventive measures such as the “squeeze” inhibitor treatment have to be taken. It is, therefore, important to gain a proper understanding of the kinetics of scale formation and its detrimental effects on formation damage under both inhibited and uninhibited conditions. Recently, the production of chitosan was started in our country and in the PDVSA-Intevep laboratories was synthesized and evaluated the properties of carboxymethyl chitosan (CMQ) as chelating agent of Ca2 + ions in water injection. In this regard, the characterization of the biopolymer by 13C - NMR, FTIR, TGA, and TM0374-2007 standard laboratory test has demonstrated the ability to remove up to 70% calcium ions in solution and shows a behavior that approaches that of commercial products.

Keywords: scale, carboxymethyl chitosan, calcium carbonate scale deposition, water injection

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8 PYTHEIA: A Scale for Assessing Rehabilitation and Assistive Robotics

Authors: Yiannis Koumpouros, Effie Papageorgiou, Alexandra Karavasili, Foteini Koureta

Abstract:

The objective of the present study was to develop a scale called PYTHEIA. The PYTHEIA is a self-reported measure for the assessment of rehabilitation and assistive robotics and other assistive technology devices. The development of PYTHEIA faced the absence of a valid instrument that can be used to evaluate the assistive robotic devices both as a whole, as well as any of their individual components or functionalities implemented. According to the results presented, PYTHEIA is a valid and reliable scale able to be applied to different target groups for the subjective evaluation of various assistive technology devices.

Keywords: Rehabilitation, Validation, Assessment, Assistive Robots, assistive technology, Rehabilitation Robots, user satisfaction, scale, psychometric test

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7 Effect of Temperature on Adsorption of Nano Ca-DTPMP Scale Inhibitor

Authors: Radhiyatul Hikmah Binti Abu, Zukhairi Bin Md Rahim, Siti Ujila Binti Masuri, Nur Ismarrubie Binti Zahari, Mohd Zobir Hussein

Abstract:

This paper describes the synthesis of Calcium Diethylenetriamine-penta (Ca-DTPMP) Scale Inhibitor (SI) and the effect of temperature on its adsorption onto the mineral surfaces. Nanosized particles of Ca-DTPMP SI were synthesized and TEM result shows that the sizes of the synthesized particles are ranged from 10 nm to 30 nm. This synthesized nano SI was then used in static adsorption/precipitation test with various temperatures (37°C, 60°C and 100°C) to determine the effect of temperature on its adsorption ability. The performance of the SI was measured by their diffusion capability, which can be inferred by weighing the metal-SI that successfully adsorbed onto the kaolinite (mineral) surface. The kaolinite samples were analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and the results show the reduction of pores on kaolinite surface as temperature increases. This indicates higher adsorption of the SI particles onto the mineral surface. Furthermore, EDX analysis shows the presence of Phosphorus (P) and Magnesium (Mg2+) on kaolinite particle surface, hence reaffirming the fact that adsorption took place on the kaolinite surface.

Keywords: Adsorption, scale, diffusivity, scale inhibitor

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6 Temporal Focus Scale: Examination of the Reliability and Validity in Japanese Adolescents and Young Adults

Authors: Yuta Chishima, Tatsuya Murakami, Michael McKay

Abstract:

Temporal focus is described as one component of an individual’s time perspective and defined as the attention individuals devote to thinking about the past, present, and future. It affects how people incorporate perceptions about past experiences, current situations, and future expectations into their attitudes, cognitions, and behavior. The 12-item Temporal Focus Scale (TFS) is comprised of three-factors (past, current and future focus). The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of TFS scores in Japanese adolescents and young adults. The TFS was translated into Japanese by a professional translator, and the original author confirmed the back translated items. Study 1 involved 979 Japanese university students aged 18-25 years old in a questionnaire-based study. The hypothesized three-factor structure (with reliability) was confirmed, although there were problems with item 10. Internal consistency estimates for scores without item 10 were over .70, and test-retest reliability was also adequate. To verify the concurrent and convergent validity, we tested the relationship between TFS scores and life satisfaction, time perspective, self-esteem, and career efficacy. Results of correlational analyses supported our hypotheses. Specifically, future focus was strongly correlated to career efficacy, while past and current focus was not. Study 2 involved 1030 Japanese junior and junior high school students aged 12-18 years old in a questionnaire-based study, and results of multigroup analyses supported the age invariance of the TFS.

Keywords: Reliability, Validity, Japanese, scale, temporal focus

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5 Experimental Investigation of Heat Transfer and Scale Growth Characteristics of Crystallisation Scale in Agitation Tank

Authors: M. G. Rasul, Jie Wu, Prasanjit Das, M .M. K. Khan, I. Youn

Abstract:

Crystallisation scale occurs when dissolved minerals precipitate from an aqueous solution. To investigate the crystallisation scale growth of normal solubility salt, a lab-scale agitation tank with and without baffles were used as a benchmark using potassium nitrate as the test fluid. Potassium nitrate (KNO3) solution in this test leads to crystallisation scale on heat transfer surfaces. This experimental investigation has focused on the effect of surface crystallisation of potassium nitrate on the low-temperature heat exchange surfaces on the wall of the agitation tank. The impeller agitation rate affects the scaling rate at the low-temperature agitation wall and it shows a decreasing scaling rate with an increasing agitation rate. It was observed that there was a significant variation of heat transfer coefficients and scaling resistance coefficients with different agitation rate as well as with varying impeller size, tank with and without baffles and solution concentration.

Keywords: Resistance, heat transfer coefficient, scale, crystallisation

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4 Experimental Investigation of Fluid Dynamic Effects on Crystallisation Scale Growth and Suppression in Agitation Tank

Authors: M. G. Rasul, M. M. K. Khan, Jie Wu, I. Youn, Prasanjit Das

Abstract:

Mineral scale formation is undoubtedly a more serious problem in the mineral industry than other process industries. To better understand scale growth and suppression, an experimental model is proposed in this study for supersaturated crystallised solutions commonly found in mineral process plants. In this experiment, surface crystallisation of potassium nitrate (KNO3) on the wall of the agitation tank and agitation effects on the scale growth and suppression are studied. The new quantitative scale suppression model predicts that at lower agitation speed, the scale growth rate is enhanced and at higher agitation speed, the scale suppression rate increases due to the increased flow erosion effect. A lab-scale agitation tank with and without baffles were used as a benchmark in this study. The fluid dynamic effects on scale growth and suppression in the agitation tank with three different size impellers (diameter 86, 114, 160 mm and model A310 with flow number 0.56) at various ranges of rotational speed (up to 700 rpm) and solution with different concentration (4.5, 4.75 and 5.25 mol/dm3) were investigated. For more elucidation, the effects of the different size of the impeller on wall surface scale growth and suppression rate as well as bottom settled scale accumulation rate are also discussed. Emphasis was placed on applications in the mineral industry, although results are also relevant to other industrial applications.

Keywords: scale, crystallisation, agitation tank, impeller speed

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3 Using Technology to Deliver and Scale Early Childhood Development Services in Resource Constrained Environments: Case Studies from South Africa

Authors: Sonja Giese, Tess N. Peacock

Abstract:

South African based Innovation Edge is experimenting with technology to drive positive behavior change, enable data-driven decision making, and scale quality early years services. This paper uses five case studies to illustrate how technology can be used in resource-constrained environments to first, encourage parenting practices that build early language development (using a stage-based mobile messaging pilot, ChildConnect), secondly, to improve the quality of ECD programs (using a mobile application, CareUp), thirdly, how to affordably scale services for the early detection of visual and hearing impairments (using a mobile tool, HearX), fourthly, how to build a transparent and accountable system for the registration and funding of ECD (using a blockchain enabled platform, Amply), and finally enable rapid data collection and feedback to facilitate quality enhancement of programs at scale (the Early Learning Outcomes Measure). ChildConnect and CareUp were both developed using a design based iterative research approach. The usage and uptake of ChildConnect and CareUp was evaluated with qualitative and quantitative methods. Actual child outcomes were not measured in the initial pilots. Although parents who used and engaged on either platform felt more supported and informed, parent engagement and usage remains a challenge. This is contrast to ECD practitioners whose usage and knowledge with CareUp showed both sustained engagement and knowledge improvement. HearX is an easy-to-use tool to identify hearing loss and visual impairment. The tool was tested with 10000 children in an informal settlement. The feasibility of cost-effectively decentralising screening services was demonstrated. Practical and financial barriers remain with respect to parental consent and for successful referrals. Amply uses mobile and blockchain technology to increase impact and accountability of public services. In the pilot project, Amply is being used to replace an existing paper-based system to register children for a government-funded pre-school subsidy in South Africa. Early Learning Outcomes Measure defines what it means for a child to be developmentally ‘on track’ at aged 50-69 months. ELOM administration is enabled via a tablet which allows for easy and accurate data collection, transfer, analysis, and feedback. ELOM is being used extensively to drive quality enhancement of ECD programs across multiple modalities. The nature of ECD services in South Africa is that they are in large part provided by disconnected private individuals or Non-Governmental Organizations (in contrast to basic education which is publicly provided by the government). It is a disparate sector which means that scaling successful interventions is that much harder. All five interventions show the potential of technology to support and enhance a range of ECD services, but pathways to scale are still being tested.

Keywords: Communication, Mobile, Disabilities, Data, Quality, Assessment, Technology, Behavior change, scale

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2 Measuring Firms’ Patent Management: Conceptualization, Validation, and Interpretation

Authors: Mehari Teshome, Lara Agostini, Anna Nosella

Abstract:

The current knowledge-based economy extends intellectual property rights (IPRs) legal research themes into a more strategic and organizational perspectives. From the diverse types of IPRs, patents are the strongest and well-known form of legal protection that influences commercial success and market value. Indeed, from our pilot survey, we understood that firms are less likely to manage their patents and actively used it as a tool for achieving competitive advantage rather they invest resource and efforts for patent application. To this regard, the literature also confirms that insights into how firms manage their patents from a holistic, strategic perspective, and how the portfolio value of patents can be optimized are scarce. Though patent management is an important business tool and there exist few scales to measure some dimensions of patent management, at the best of our knowledge, no systematic attempt has been made to develop a valid and comprehensive measure of it. Considering this theoretical and practical point of view, the aim of this article is twofold: to develop a framework for patent management encompassing all relevant dimensions with their respective constructs and measurement items, and to validate the measurement using survey data from practitioners. Methodology: We used six-step methodological approach (i.e., specify the domain of construct, item generation, scale purification, internal consistency assessment, scale validation, and replication). Accordingly, we carried out a systematic review of 182 articles on patent management, from ISI Web of Science. For each article, we mapped relevant constructs, their definition, and associated features, as well as items used to measure these constructs, when provided. This theoretical analysis was complemented by interviews with experts in patent management to get feedbacks that are more practical on how patent management is carried out in firms. Afterwards, we carried out a questionnaire survey to purify our scales and statistical validation. Findings: The analysis allowed us to design a framework for patent management, identifying its core dimensions (i.e., generation, portfolio-management, exploitation and enforcement, intelligence) and support dimensions (i.e., strategy and organization). Moreover, we identified the relevant activities for each dimension, as well as the most suitable items to measure them. For example, the core dimension generation includes constructs as: state-of-the-art analysis, freedom-to-operate analysis, patent watching, securing freedom-to-operate, patent potential and patent-geographical-scope. Originality and the Study Contribution: This study represents a first step towards the development of sound scales to measure patent management with an overarching approach, thus laying the basis for developing a recognized landmark within the research area of patent management. Practical Implications: The new scale can be used to assess the level of sophistication of the patent management of a company and compare it with other firms in the industry to evaluate their ability to manage the different activities involved in patent management. In addition, the framework resulting from this analysis can be used as a guide that supports managers to improve patent management in firms.

Keywords: Development, Management, scale, patent, intellectual property rights (IPRs)

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1 Use of a Symptom Scale Based on Degree of Functional Impairment for Acute Concussion

Authors: Matthew T. McCarthy, Sarah Janse, Natalie M. Pizzimenti, Anthony K. Savino, Brian Crosser, Sean C. Rose

Abstract:

Concussion is diagnosed clinically using a comprehensive history and exam, supported by ancillary testing. Frequently, symptom checklists are used as part of the evaluation of concussion. Existing symptom scales are based on a subjective Likert scale, without relation of symptoms to clinical or functional impairment. This is a retrospective review of 133 patients under age 30 seen in an outpatient neurology practice within 30 days of a probable or definite concussion. Each patient completed 2 symptom checklists at the initial visit – the SCAT-3 symptom evaluation (22 symptoms, 0-6 scale) and a scale based on the degree of clinical impairment for each symptom (22 symptoms, 0-3 scale related to functional impact of the symptom). Final clearance date was determined by the treating physician. 60.9% of patients were male with mean age 15.7 years (SD 2.3). Mean time from concussion to first visit was 6.9 days (SD 6.2), and 101 patients had definite concussions (75.9%), while 32 were diagnosed as probable (24.1%). 94 patients had a known clearance date (70.7%) with mean clearance time of 20.6 days (SD 18.6) and median clearance time of 19 days (95% CI 16-21). Mean total symptom score was 27.2 (SD 22.9) on the SCAT-3 and 14.7 (SD 11.9) for the functional impairment scale. Pearson’s correlation between the two scales was 0.98 (p < 0.001). After adjusting for patient and injury characteristics, an equivalent increase in score on each scale was associated with longer time to clearance (SCAT-3 hazard ratio 0.885, 95%CI 0.835-0.938, p < 0.001; functional impairment scale hazard ratio 0.851, 95%CI 0.802-0.902, p < 0.001). A concussion symptom scale based on degree of functional impairment correlates strongly with the SCAT-3 scale and demonstrates a similar association with time to clearance. By assessing the degree of impact on clinical functioning, this symptom scale reflects a more intuitive approach to rating symptoms and can be used in the management of concussion.

Keywords: Sports, Neurology, symptoms, Concussion, checklist, scale

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