Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Scaffold Related Abstracts

12 Coating of Polyelectrolyte Multilayer Thin Films on Poly(S/EGDMA) HIPE Loaded with Hydroxyapatite as a Scaffold for Tissue Engineering Application

Authors: Kornkanok Noulta, Pornsri Pakeyangkoon, Stephen T. Dubas, Pomthong Malakul, Manit Nithithanakul


In recent years, interest in the development of material for tissue engineering application has increased considerably. Poly(High Internal Phase Emulsion) (PolyHIPE) foam is a material that is good candidate for used in tissue engineering application due to its 3D structure and highly porous with interconnected pore. The PolyHIPE was prepared from poly (styrene/ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) through high internal phase emulsion polymerization technique and loaded with hydroxyapatite (HA) to improve biocompatibility. To further increase hydrophilicity of the obtained polyHIPE, layer-by-layer polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEM) technique was used. A surface property of polyHIPE was characterized by contact angle measurement. Morphology and pore size was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The cell viability was revealed by the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay technique.

Keywords: Tissue Engineering, Scaffold, polyelectrolyte multilayer thin film, high internal phase emulsion, polyhipe foam

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11 Characterization of Retinal Pigmented Cell Epithelium Cell Sheet Cultivated on Synthetic Scaffold

Authors: Tan Yong Sheng Edgar, Yeong Wai Yee


Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the leading cause of blindness. It can cause severe visual loss due to damaged retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). RPE is an important component of the retinal tissue. It functions as a transducing boundary for visual perception making it an essential factor for sight. The RPE also functions as a metabolically complex and functional cell layer that is responsible for the local homeostasis and maintenance of the extra photoreceptor environment. Thus one of the suggested method of treating such diseases would be regenerating these RPE cells. As such, we intend to grow these cells using a synthetic scaffold to provide a stable environment that reduces the batch effects found in natural scaffolds. Stiffness of the scaffold will also be investigated to determine the optimal Young’s modulus for cultivating these cells. The cells will be generated into a monolayer cell sheet and their functions such as formation of tight junctions and gene expression patterns will be assessed to evaluate the cell sheet quality compared to a native RPE tissue.

Keywords: Biomaterials, Characterization, Scaffold, RPE, colloids and nanomedicine

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10 Synthesis and Characterization of Chitosan Microparticles for Scaffold Structure and Bioprinting

Authors: J. E. Mendes, J. D. C. Pessoa, T. T. de Barros, O. B. G. de Assis


Chitosan, a natural polysaccharide of β-1,4-linked glucosamine residues, is a biopolymer obtained primarily from the exoskeletons of crustaceans. Interest in polymeric materials increases year by year. Chitosan is one of the most plentiful biomaterials, with a wide range of pharmaceutical, biomedical, industrial and agricultural applications. Chitosan nanoparticles were synthesized via the ionotropic gelation of chitosan with sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP). Two concentrations of chitosan microparticles (0.1 and 0.2%) were synthesized. In this study, it was possible to synthesize and characterize microparticles of chitosan biomaterial and this will be used for future applications in cell anchorage for 3D bioprinting.

Keywords: Biomaterial, bioprinting, Scaffold, chitosan microparticles

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9 Non-Cytotoxic Natural Sourced Inorganic Hydroxyapatite (HAp) Scaffold Facilitate Bone-like Mechanical Support and Cell Proliferation

Authors: Apurba Dey, Sudip Mondal, Biswanath Mondal, Sudit S. Mukhopadhyay


Bioactive materials improve devices for a long lifespan but have mechanical limitations. Mechanical characterization is one of the very important characteristics to evaluate the life span and functionality of the scaffold material. After implantation of scaffold material the primary stage rejection of scaffold occurs due to non biocompatible effect of host body system. The second major problems occur due to the effect of mechanical failure. The mechanical and biocompatibility failure of the scaffold materials can be overcome by the prior evaluation of the scaffold materials. In this study chemically treated Labeo rohita scale is used for synthesizing hydroxyapatite (HAp) biomaterial. Thermo-gravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) is carried out to ensure thermal stability. The chemical composition and bond structures of wet ball-milled calcined HAp powder is characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. Fish scale derived apatite materials consists of nano-sized particles with Ca/P ratio of 1.71. The biocompatibility through cytotoxicity evaluation and MTT assay are carried out in MG63 osteoblast cell lines. In the cell attachment study, the cells are tightly attached with HAp scaffolds developed in the laboratory. The result clearly suggests that HAp material synthesized in this study do not have any cytotoxic effect, as well as it has a natural binding affinity for mammalian cell lines. The synthesized HAp powder further successfully used to develop porous scaffold material with suitable mechanical property of ~0.8GPa compressive stress, ~1.10 GPa a hardness and ~ 30-35% porosity which is acceptable for implantation in trauma region for animal model. The histological analysis also supports the bio-affinity of processed HAp biomaterials in Wistar rat model for investigating the contact reaction and stability at the artificial or natural prosthesis interface for biomedical function. This study suggests the natural sourced fish scale-derived HAp material could be used as a suitable alternative biomaterial for tissue engineering application in near future.

Keywords: Biomaterials, Tissue Engineering, Scaffold, hydroxyapatite, mechanical property

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8 Study of the Combinatorial Impact of Substrate Properties on Mesenchymal Stem Cell Migration Using Microfluidics

Authors: Nishanth Venugopal Menon, Chuah Yon Jin, Samantha Phey, Wu Yingnan, Zhang Ying, Vincent Chan, Kang Yuejun


Cell Migration is a vital phenomenon that the cells undergo in various physiological processes like wound healing, disease progression, embryogenesis, etc. Cell migration depends primarily on the chemical and physical cues available in the cellular environment. The chemical cue involves the chemokines secreted and gradients generated in the environment while physical cues indicate the impact of matrix properties like nanotopography and stiffness on the cells. Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) have been shown to have a role wound healing in vivo and its migration to the site of the wound has been shown to have a therapeutic effect. In the field of stem cell based tissue regeneration of bones and cartilage, one approach has been to introduce scaffold laden with MSCs into the site of injury to enable tissue regeneration. In this work, we have studied the combinatorial impact of the substrate physical properties on MSC migration. A microfluidic in vitro model was created to perform the migration studies. The microfluidic model used is a three compartment device consisting of two cell seeding compartments and one migration compartment. Four different PDMS substrates with varying substrate roughness, stiffness and hydrophobicity were created. Its surface roughness and stiffness was measured using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) while its hydrphobicity was measured from the water contact angle using an optical tensiometer. These PDMS substrates are sealed to the microfluidic chip following which the MSCs are seeded and the cell migration is studied over the period of a week. Cell migration was quantified using fluorescence imaging of the cytoskeleton (F-actin) to find out the area covered by the cells inside the migration compartment. The impact of adhesion proteins on cell migration was also quantified using a real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT PCR). These results suggested that the optimal substrate for cell migration would be one with an intermediate level of roughness, stiffness and hydrophobicity. A higher or lower value of these properties affected cell migration negatively. These observations have helped us in understanding that different substrate properties need to be considered in tandem, especially while designing scaffolds for tissue regeneration as cell migration is normally impacted by the combinatorial impact of the matrix. These observations may lead us to scaffold optimization in future tissue regeneration applications.

Keywords: Microfluidics, Scaffold, Cell migration, in vitro model, stem cell migration, substrate properties

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7 Angiopermissive Foamed and Fibrillar Scaffolds for Vascular Graft Applications

Authors: Deon Bezuidenhout


Pre-seeding with autologous endothelial cells improves the long-term patency of synthetic vascular grafts levels obtained with autografts, but is limited to a single centre due to resource, time and other constraints. Spontaneous in vivo endothelialization would obviate the need for pre-seeding, but has been shown to be absent in man due to limited transanastomotic and fallout healing, and the lack of transmural ingrowth due to insufficient porosity. Two types of graft scaffolds with increased interconnected porosity for improved tissue ingrowth and healing are thus proposed and described. Foam-type polyurethane (PU) scaffolds with small, medium and large, interconnected pores were made by phase inversion and spherical porogen extraction, with and without additional surface modification with covalently attached heparin and subsequent loading with and delivery of growth factors. Fibrillar scaffolds were made either by standard electrospinning using degradable PU (Degrapol®), or by dual electrospinning using non-degradable PU. The latter process involves sacrificial fibres that are co-spun with structural fibres and subsequently removed to increased porosity and pore size. Degrapol samples were subjected to in vitro degradation, and all scaffold types were evaluated in vivo for tissue ingrowth and vascularization using rat subcutaneous model. The foam scaffolds were additionally evaluated in a circulatory (rat infrarenal aortic interposition) model that allows for the grafts to be anastomotically and/or ablumenally isolated to discern and determine endothelialization mode. Foam-type grafts with large (150 µm) pores showed improved subcutaneous healing in terms of vascularization and inflammatory response over smaller pore sizes (60 and 90µm), and vascularization of the large porosity scaffolds was significantly increased by more than 70% by heparin modification alone, and by 150% to 400% when combined with growth factors. In the circulatory model, extensive transmural endothelialization (95±10% at 12 w) was achieved. Fallout healing was shown to be sporadic and limited in groups that were ablumenally isolated to prevent transmural ingrowth (16±30% wrapped vs. 80±20% control; p<0.002). Heparinization and GF delivery improved both mural vascularization and lumenal endothelialization. Degrapol electrospun scaffolds showed decrease in molecular mass and corresponding tensile strength over the first 2 weeks, but very little decrease in mass over the 4w test period. Studies on the effect of tissue ingrowth with and without concomitant degradation of the scaffolds, are being used to develop material models for the finite element modelling. In the case of the dual-spun scaffolds, the PU fibre fraction could be controlled shown to vary linearly with porosity (P = −0.18FF +93.5, r2=0.91), which in turn showed inverse linear correlation with tensile strength and elastic modulus (r2 > 0.96). Calculated compliance and burst pressures of the scaffolds increased with fibre fraction, and compliances matching the human popliteal artery (5-10 %/100 mmHg), and high burst pressures (> 2000 mmHg) could be achieved. Increasing porosity (76 to 82 and 90%) resulted in increased tissue ingrowth from 33±7 to 77±20 and 98±1% after 28d. Transmural endothelialization of highly porous foamed grafts is achievable in a circulatory model, and the enhancement of porosity and tissue ingrowth may hold the key the development of spontaneously endothelializing electrospun grafts.

Keywords: Electrospinning, Scaffold, porosity, endothelialization, vascular graft

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6 Decellularized Brain-Chitosan Scaffold for Neural Tissue Engineering

Authors: Yun-An Chen, Hung-Jun Lin, Tai-Horng Young, Der-Zen Liu


Decellularized brain extracellular matrix had been shown that it has the ability to influence on cell proliferation, differentiation and associated cell phenotype. However, this scaffold is thought to have poor mechanical properties and rapid degradation, it is hard for cell recellularization. In this study, we used decellularized brain extracellular matrix combined with chitosan, which is naturally occurring polysaccharide and non-cytotoxic polymer, forming a 3-D scaffold for neural stem/precursor cells (NSPCs) regeneration. HE staining and DAPI fluorescence staining confirmed decellularized process could effectively vanish the cellular components from the brain. GAGs and collagen I, collagen IV were be showed a great preservation by Alcain staining and immunofluorescence staining respectively. Decellularized brain extracellular matrix was well mixed in chitosan to form a 3-D scaffold (DB-C scaffold). The pore size was approximately 50±10 μm examined by SEM images. Alamar blue results demonstrated NSPCs had great proliferation ability in DB-C scaffold. NSPCs that were cultured in this complex scaffold differentiated into neurons and astrocytes, as reveled by NSPCs expression of microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). In conclusion, DB-C scaffold may provide bioinformatics cues for NSPCs generation and aid for CNS injury functional recovery applications.

Keywords: Brain, Scaffold, chitosan, decellularization, neural stem/precursor cells

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5 Stimulation of Nerve Tissue Differentiation and Development Using Scaffold-Based Cell Culture in Bioreactors

Authors: Simon Grossemy, Peggy P. Y. Chan, Pauline M. Doran


Nerve tissue engineering is the main field of research aimed at finding an alternative to autografts as a treatment for nerve injuries. Scaffolds are used as a support to enhance nerve regeneration. In order to successfully design novel scaffolds and in vitro cell culture systems, a deep understanding of the factors affecting nerve regeneration processes is needed. Physical and biological parameters associated with the culture environment have been identified as potentially influential in nerve cell differentiation, including electrical stimulation, exposure to extracellular-matrix (ECM) proteins, dynamic medium conditions and co-culture with glial cells. The mechanisms involved in driving the cell to differentiation in the presence of these factors are poorly understood; the complexity of each of them raises the possibility that they may strongly influence each other. Some questions that arise in investigating nerve regeneration include: What are the best protein coatings to promote neural cell attachment? Is the scaffold design suitable for providing all the required factors combined? What is the influence of dynamic stimulation on cell viability and differentiation? In order to study these effects, scaffolds adaptable to bioreactor culture conditions were designed to allow electrical stimulation of cells exposed to ECM proteins, all within a dynamic medium environment. Gold coatings were used to make the surface of viscose rayon microfiber scaffolds (VRMS) conductive, and poly-L-lysine (PLL) and laminin (LN) surface coatings were used to mimic the ECM environment and allow the attachment of rat PC12 neural cells. The robustness of the coatings was analyzed by surface resistivity measurements, scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation and immunocytochemistry. Cell attachment to protein coatings of PLL, LN and PLL+LN was studied using DNA quantification with Hoechst. The double coating of PLL+LN was selected based on high levels of PC12 cell attachment and the reported advantages of laminin for neural differentiation. The underlying gold coatings were shown to be biocompatible using cell proliferation and live/dead staining assays. Coatings exhibiting stable properties over time under dynamic fluid conditions were developed; indeed, cell attachment and the conductive power of the scaffolds were maintained over 2 weeks of bioreactor operation. These scaffolds are promising research tools for understanding complex neural cell behavior. They have been used to investigate major factors in the physical culture environment that affect nerve cell viability and differentiation, including electrical stimulation, bioreactor hydrodynamic conditions, and combinations of these parameters. The cell and tissue differentiation response was evaluated using DNA quantification, immunocytochemistry, RT-qPCR and functional analyses.

Keywords: bioreactor, electrical stimulation, Scaffold, nerve differentiation, PC12 cells

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4 Effect of Varying Scaffold Architecture and Porosity of Calcium Alkali Orthophosphate Based-Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering

Authors: D. Adel, F. Giacomini, R. Gildenhaar, G. Berger, C. Gomes, U. Linow, M. Hardt, B. Peleskae, J. Günster, A. Houshmand, M. Stiller, A. Rack, K. Ghaffar, A. Gamal, M. El Mofty, C. Knabe


The goal of this study was to develop 3D scaffolds from a silica containing calcium alkali orthophosphate utilizing two different fabrication processes, first a replica technique namely the Schwartzwalder Somers method (SSM), and second 3D printing, i.e. Rapid prototyping (RP). First, the mechanical and physical properties of the scaffolds (porosity, compressive strength, and solubility) was assessed and second their potential to facilitate homogenous colonization with osteogenic cells and extracellular bone matrix formation throughout the porous scaffold architecture. To this end murine and rat calavarie osteoblastic cells were dynamically seeded on both scaffold types under perfusion with concentrations of 3 million cells. The amount of cells and extracellular matrix as well as osteogenic marker expression was evaluated using hard tissue histology, immunohistochemistry, and histomorphometric analysis. Total porosities of both scaffolds were 86.9 % and 50% for SSM and RP respectively, Compressive strength values were 0.46 ± 0.2 MPa for SSM and 6.6± 0.8 MPa for RP. Regarding the cellular behavior, RP scaffolds displayed a higher cell and matrix percentage of 24.45%. Immunoscoring yielded strong osteocalcin expression of cells and matrix in RP scaffolds and a moderate expression in SSM scaffolds. 3D printed RP scaffolds displayed superior mechanical and biological properties compared to SSM. 3D printed scaffolds represent excellent candidates for bone tissue engineering.

Keywords: Rapid prototyping, Scaffold, calcium alkali orthophosphate, extracellular matrix mineralization, osteoblast differentiation

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3 Role of Nano Gelatin and Hydrogel Based Scaffolds in Odontogenic Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells

Authors: Husain S. Yawer, Vasim Raja Panwar, Nidhi Priya


The objective of this study is to evaluate and compare the role of nano-gelatin and Bioengineered Scaffolds on the attachment, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). Tooth decay and early fall have each been one of the most prevailing dental disorders which cause physical and emotional suffering and compromise the patient's quality of life. The design of novel scaffolding materials will be based on mimicking the architecture of natural dental extracellular matrix which may provide as in vivo environments for proper cell growth. This methodology will involve the combination of nano-fibred gelatin as well as biodegradable hydrogel based tooth scaffold. We have measured and optimized the Dental Pulp Stem Cells growth profile in cultures carried out on collagen-coated plastic surface, however, for tissue regeneration study, we aim to develop an enhanced microenvironment for stem cell growth and dental tissue regeneration. We believe biomimetic cell adhesion and scaffolds might provide a near in vivo growth environment for proper growth and differentiation of human DPSCs, which further help in dentin/pulp tissue regeneration.

Keywords: Stem Cells, Scaffold, nano-gelatin, dental pulp

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2 Design of 3D Bioprinted Scaffolds for Cartilage Regeneration

Authors: Gloria Pinilla, Jose Manuel Baena, Patricia Gálvez-Martín, Juan Antonio Marchad


Cartilage is a dense connective tissue with limited self-repair properties. Currently, the therapeutic use of autologous or allogenic chondrocytes makes up an alternative therapy to the pharmacological treatment. The design of a bioprinted 3D cartilage with chondrocytes and biodegradable biomaterials offers a new therapeutic alternative able of bridging the limitations of current therapies in the field. We have developed an enhanced printing processes-Injection Volume Filling (IVF) to increase the viability and survival of the cells when working with high-temperature thermoplastics without the limitation of the scaffold geometry in contact with cells. We have demonstrated the viability of the printing process using chondrocytes for cartilage regeneration. This development will accelerate the clinical uptake of the technology and overcomes the current limitation when using thermoplastics as scaffolds. An alginate-based hydrogel combined with human chondrocytes (isolated from osteoarthritis patients) was formulated as bioink-A and the polylactic acid as bioink-B. The bioprinting process was carried out with the REGEMAT V1 bioprinter (Regemat 3D, Granada-Spain) through a IVF. The printing capacity of the bioprinting plus the viability and cell proliferation of bioprinted chondrociytes was evaluated after five weeks by confocal microscopy and Alamar Blue Assay (Biorad). Results showed that the IVF process does not decrease the cell viability of the chondrocytes during the printing process as the cells do not have contact with the thermoplastic at elevated temperatures. The viability and cellular proliferation of the bioprinted artificial 3D cartilage increased after 5 weeks. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the potential use of Regemat V1 for 3D bioprinting of cartilage and the viability of bioprinted chondrocytes in the scaffolds for application in regenerative medicine.

Keywords: bioprinting, chondrocyte, Scaffold, bioink, cartilage regeneration

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1 Optimizing the Morphology and Flow Patterns of Scaffold Perfusion Systems for Effective Cell Deposition Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

Authors: Vineeth Siripuram, Abhineet Nigam


A bioreactor is an engineered system that supports a biologically active environment. Along the years, the advancements in bioreactors have been widely accepted all over the world for varied applications ranging from sewage treatment to tissue cloning. Driven by tissue and organ shortage, tissue engineering has emerged as an alternative to transplantation for the reconstruction of lost or damaged organs. In this study, Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been used to model porous medium flow in scaffolds (taken from the literature) with different flow patterns. A detailed analysis of different scaffold geometries and their influence on cell deposition in the perfusion system is been carried out using Computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Considering the fact that, the scaffold should mimic the organs or tissues structures in a three-dimensional manner, certain assumptions were made accordingly. The research on scaffolds has been extensively carried out in different bioreactors. However, there has been less focus on the morphology of the scaffolds and the flow patterns in which the perfusion system is laid upon. The objective of this paper is to employ a computational approach using CFD simulation to determine the optimal morphology and the anisotropic measurements of the various samples of scaffolds. Using predictive computational modelling approach, variables which exert dominant effects on the cell deposition within the scaffold were prioritised and corresponding changes in morphology of scaffold and flow patterns in the perfusion systems are made. A Eulerian approach was carried on in multiple CFD simulations, and it is observed that the morphological and topological changes in the scaffold perfusion system are of great importance in the commercial applications of scaffolds.

Keywords: Modelling, CFD, Scaffold, Flow Patterns, cell seeding, perfusion systems

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