Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

saponin Related Abstracts

7 Saponins from the Fruits of Solanum anguivi Reverse Hyperglycemia, Hyperlipidemia and Increase Antioxidant Status in Stretozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

Authors: Olusola Olalekan Elekofehinti, Isaac Gbadura Adanlawo

Abstract:

This work investigated the antihyperglycemic, antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic effects of saponins from the fruit of Solanum anguivi, a plant generally used in folk medicine to treat diabetes and hypertension and to compare its effect with metformin in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in albino rats by administration of STZ (65 mg/kg) intraperitoneally. Saponin (40 and 100 mg/kg) was administered by oral gavage once daily for 21 days. Metformin (200 mg/kg b.w.) was administered as the positive control. The effect of saponin on blood glucose, serum lipids and enzymatic antioxidants defense systems, like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), as well as MDA levels in serum, liver and pancreas were studied. Saponins from S. anguivi fruits reduced the blood glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels in STZ-diabetic rats. They also significantly abolished the increase in MDA level in serum, liver and pancreas of diabetic rats. The activities of SOD and CAT in serum, liver and pancreas were significantly increased as well as concentration of HDL in the serum. Metformin had the same effect as saponin but saponins seems to be more potent in reducing serum TC, TG, LDL, and MDA, and increasing SOD and CAT. Conclusions: These results suggest that saponins from S. anguivi fruits have anti-diabetic and antihypercholesterolemic, antihypertriglyceridemic antiperoxidative activities mediated through their antioxidant properties. Also, saponins appeared to have more hypolipidemic, antiperoxidative and antioxidant activity than metformin.

Keywords: Diabetes, metformin, saponin, streptozotocin, Solanum anguivi

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6 Protective Effect of Saponin Extract from the Root of Garcinia kola (Bitter Kola) against Paracetamol-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Albino Rats

Authors: Alli Smith Yemisi Rufina, Adanlawo Isaac Gbadura

Abstract:

Liver disorders are one of the major problems of the world. Despite its frequent occurrence, high morbidity, and high mortality, its medical management is currently inadequate. This study was designed to evaluate the Hepatoprotective effect of saponin extract of the root of Garcinia kola on the integrity of the liver of paracetamol induced Wistar albino rats. Twenty-five male adult Wistar albino rats were divided into five (5) groups. Group I, was the Control group that received distilled water only, group II was the negative control that received 2 g/kg of paracetamol on the 13th day, and group III, IV, and V were pre-treated with 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg of the saponin extract before inducing the liver damage on the 13th day with 2 g/kg of paracetamol. Twenty-four hours after administration, the rats were sacrificed, and blood samples were collected. The serum Alanine Transaminase (ALT), Aspartate Transaminase (AST), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) activities, Bilirubin and Conjugated Bilirubin, Glucose and Protein concentrations were evaluated. The liver was fixed immediately in Formalin and was processed and stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E). Administration of saponin extract from the root of Garcinia kola significantly decreased paracetamol induced elevated enzymes in the test group. Also, histological observations showed that saponin extract of the root of Garcinia kola exhibited a significant liver protection against the toxicant as evident by the cells trying to return to normal. Saponin extract from the root of Garcinia kola indicated a protection of the structural integrity of the hepatocytic cell membrane and regeneration of the damaged liver.

Keywords: hepatoprotective, paracetamol, Garcinia kola, liver damage, saponin

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5 Antidiarrhea Effect of T-DABUTO from Madinella speciosa L. on Male Balb-C Mice Induced Oleum Ricini

Authors: Suparmi, Adhara Puspa Noorita, Azkiyatin Nailil M., Rita Aryanti, Sushanti Nuraini, Pujiati Abbas

Abstract:

T-Dabuto is a tea made from leaves and fruits of parijoto (Madinella speciosa L.), which flavonoid, saponin and tanin contained in that tea are reported have diarrhea-caused antibacterial activity. However, the in vivo antidiarrhea effect have not clear yet. This study was conducted to determine the effect of T-DABUTO to faecal characteristics in male Balb/C-mice induced oleum ricini. Experimental research with post-test only control group design was conducted using 35 young male mice strain Balb-C which was divided into 5 groups. All groups were induced by 0.7 ml/ head of oleum ricini and 3 hours later followed by aquadest for first group, while the 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th group were treated by T-DABUTO solution with 75 mg/kgBW, 150 mg/kgBW, 300 mg/kgBW, and 600 mg/kgBW respectively as 0.7 ml/ head/ 0.5 hous for 8 hours. Feces collected were used to identify the frequency, absorbtion diameter and fecal weight. T-DABUTO on dose 75 mg/kg BW has the highest antidiarrhea activity which the mean of frequency defecation, water feacal absorbsion and feacal weight were 1.71±0.95 times, 0.38±0.49 mm, 0.43±0.28 mg, respectively. The T-DABUTO treatment did not influence the body weight of diarrheal mice. The T-DABUTO is potential as one of natural diarrhea tratment, especially in children.

Keywords: Diarrhea, saponin, flavonid, tannin

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4 Antimicrobial Activity of Nauclea lotifolia (African Peach) Crude Extracts against Some Pathogenic Microorganism

Authors: Muhammad Isah Legbo

Abstract:

The phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of Nauclea lotifolia fruit, leaf and stem-bark extracts at various concentration of (20.0,10.0, 5.0, and 2.5 mg/ml) were evaluated against some pathogenic microorganisms such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. The antimicrobial activity was assayed using agar well diffusion method. The result obtained show appreciable inhibitory effort of acetone, aqueous and methanolic extracts of Nauclea lotifolia. However, result obtained was less active compared to that of the control antibiotic (Ciprofloxacillin). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined using serial doubling dilution method and ranged from 5.0-10.0mg/ml, while the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was determined by plating various dilution of extracts without turbidity and the result ranged from 5.0-7.5mg/ml. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloid, anthraquinones, flavonoids, resin, steroid and saponin. The activities of the plant extract therefore justify their utilization in the treatment of various ailments associated with the test organism.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, Pathogens, extract, saponin, Nauclea, lotifolia

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3 Investigating the Effect of Plant Root Exudates and of Saponin on Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Solubilization in Brownfield Contaminated Soils

Authors: Marie Davin, Marie-Laure Fauconnier, Gilles Colinet

Abstract:

In Wallonia, there are 6,000 estimated brownfields (rising to over 3.5 million in Europe) that require remediation. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of recalcitrant carcinogenic/mutagenic organic compounds of major concern as they accumulate in the environment and represent 17% of all encountered pollutants. As an alternative to environmentally aggressive, expensive and often disruptive soil remediation strategies, a lot of research has been directed to developing techniques targeting organic pollutants. The following experiment, based on the observation that PAHs soil content decreases in the presence of plants, aimed at improving our understanding of the underlying mechanisms involved in phytoremediation. It focusses on plant root exudates and whether they improve PAHs solubilization, which would make them more available for bioremediation by soil microorganisms. The effect of saponin, a natural surfactant found in some plant roots such as members of the Fabaceae family, on PAHs solubilization was also investigated as part of the implementation of the experimental protocol. The experiments were conducted on soil collected from a brownfield in Saint-Ghislain (Belgium) and presenting weathered PAHs contamination. Samples of soil were extracted with different solutions containing either plant root exudates or commercial saponin. Extracted PAHs were determined in the different aqueous solutions using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Fluorimetric Detection (HPLC-FLD). Both root exudates of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) or red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) and commercial saponin were tested in different concentrations. Distilled water was used as a control. First of all, results show that PAHs are more extracted using saponin solutions than distilled water and that the amounts generally rise with the saponin concentration. However, the amount of each extracted compound diminishes as its molecular weight rises. Also, it appears that passed a certain surfactant concentration, PAHs are less extracted. This suggests that saponin might be investigated as a washing agent in polluted soil remediation techniques, either for ex-situ or in-situ treatments, as an alternative to synthetic surfactants. On the other hand, preliminary results on experiments using plant root exudates also show differences in PAHs solubilization compared to the control solution. Further results will allow discussion as to whether or not there are differences according to the exudates provenance and concentrations.

Keywords: Phytoremediation, Root Exudates, Medicago sativa, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, brownfield, saponin, trifolium pratense, solubilization

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2 Effect of Saponin Enriched Soapwort Powder on Structural and Sensorial Properties of Turkish Delight

Authors: Ihsan Burak Cam, Ayhan Topuz

Abstract:

Turkish delight has been produced by bleaching the plain delight mix (refined sugar, water and starch) via soapwort extract and powdered sugar. Soapwort extract which contains high amount of saponin, is an additive used in Turkish delight and tahini halvah production to improve consistency, chewiness and color due to its bioactive saponin content by acting as emulsifier. In this study, soapwort powder has been produced by determining optimum process conditions of soapwort extract by using response-surface method. This extract has been enriched with saponin by reverse osmosis (contains %63 saponin in dry bases). Büchi mini spray dryer B-290 was used to produce spray-dried soapwort powder (aw=0.254) from the enriched soapwort concentrate. Processing steps optimization and saponin content enrichment of soapwort extract has been tested on Turkish Delight production. Delight samples, produced by soapwort powder and commercial extract (control), were compared in chewiness, springiness, stickiness, adhesiveness, hardness, color and sensorial characteristics. According to the results, all textural properties except hardness of delights produced by powder were found to be statistically different than control samples. Chewiness, springiness, stickiness, adhesiveness and hardness values of samples (delights produced by the powder / control delights) were determined to be 361.9/1406.7, 0.095/0.251, -120.3/-51.7, 781.9/1869.3, 3427.3g/3118.4g, respectively. According to the quality analysis that has been ran with the end products it has been determined that; there is no statistically negative effect of the soapwort extract and the soapwort powder on the color and the appearance of Turkish Delight.

Keywords: spray drying, saponin, delight, soapwort powder

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1 Extraction of Saponins and Cyclopeptides from Cow Cockle (Vaccaria hispanica (Mill.) Rauschert) Seeds Grown in Turkey

Authors: Ihsan Burak Cam, Ayhan Topuz, Ferhan Balci-Torun, Esin Ari, Ismail Gokhan Deniz, Ilker Genc

Abstract:

The seeds of Vaccaria hispanica have been used in food and pharmaceutical industry. It is an important product due to its superior starch granules, triterpenic saponins, and cyclopeptides suitable for drug delivery. V. hispanica naturally grows in different climatic regions and has genotypes that differ in terms of seed content and composition. Sixty-six V. hispanica seed specimens were collected based on the representation of the distribution in all regions of Turkey and the determination of possible genotypic differences between regions. The seeds, collected from each of the 66 locations, were grown in greenhouse conditions in Akdeniz University, Antalya. Saponin and cyclopeptide contents of the V. hispanica seeds were determined after harvest. Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) was applied for the extraction of saponins and cyclopeptides. Cyclopeptide (segetalin A) and saponin content of V. hispanica seeds were found in the range of 0.165-0.654 g/100 g and 0.15-1.14 g/100 g, respectively. The results were found to be promising for the seeds from Turkey in terms of saponin content and quality. Acknowledgment: This study was supported by the Scientific and Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) (project no 112 O 136).

Keywords: saponin, Vaccaria hispanica, cyclopeptid, cow cockle seeds

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