Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

sandstone Related Abstracts

6 Optimization of Acid Treatments by Assessing Diversion Strategies in Carbonate and Sandstone Formations

Authors: Ragi Poyyara, Vijaya Patnana, Mohammed Alam


When acid is pumped into damaged reservoirs for damage removal/stimulation, distorted inflow of acid into the formation occurs caused by acid preferentially traveling into highly permeable regions over low permeable regions, or (in general) into the path of least resistance. This can lead to poor zonal coverage and hence warrants diversion to carry out an effective placement of acid. Diversion is desirably a reversible technique of temporarily reducing the permeability of high perm zones, thereby forcing the acid into lower perm zones. The uniqueness of each reservoir can pose several challenges to engineers attempting to devise optimum and effective diversion strategies. Diversion techniques include mechanical placement and/or chemical diversion of treatment fluids, further sub-classified into ball sealers, bridge plugs, packers, particulate diverters, viscous gels, crosslinked gels, relative permeability modifiers (RPMs), foams, and/or the use of placement techniques, such as coiled tubing (CT) and the maximum pressure difference and injection rate (MAPDIR) methodology. It is not always realized that the effectiveness of diverters greatly depends on reservoir properties, such as formation type, temperature, reservoir permeability, heterogeneity, and physical well characteristics (e.g., completion type, well deviation, length of treatment interval, multiple intervals, etc.). This paper reviews the mechanisms by which each variety of diverter functions and discusses the effect of various reservoir properties on the efficiency of diversion techniques. Guidelines are recommended to help enhance productivity from zones of interest by choosing the best methods of diversion while pumping an optimized amount of treatment fluid. The success of an overall acid treatment often depends on the effectiveness of the diverting agents.

Keywords: Reservoir, diversion, zonal coverage, carbonate, sandstone

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5 Sandstone Petrology of the Kolhan Basin, Eastern India: Implications for the Tectonic Evolution of a Half-Graben

Authors: Rohini Das, Subhasish Das, Smruti Rekha Sahoo, Shagupta Yesmin


The Paleoproterozoic Kolhan Group (Purana) ensemble constitutes the youngest lithostratigraphic 'outlier' in the Singhbhum Archaean craton. The Kolhan unconformably overlies both the Singhbhum granite and the Iron Ore Group (IOG). Representing a typical sandstone-shale ( +/- carbonates) sequence, the Kolhan is characterized by the development of thin and discontinuous patches of basal conglomerates draped by sandstone beds. The IOG-fault limits the western 'distal' margin of the Kolhan basin showing evidence of passive subsidence subsequent to the initial rifting stage. The basin evolved as a half-graben under the influence of an extensional stress regime. The assumption of a tectonic setting for the NE-SW trending Kolhan basin possibly relates to the basin opening to the E-W extensional stress system that prevailed during the development of the Newer Dolerite dyke. The Paleoproterozoic age of the Kolhan basin is based on the consideration of the conformable stress pattern responsible both for the basin opening and the development of the conjugate fracture system along which the Newer Dolerite dykes intruded the Singhbhum Archaean craton. The Kolhan sandstones show progressive change towards greater textural and mineralogical maturity in its upbuilding. The trend of variations in different mineralogical and textural attributes, however, exhibits inflections at different lithological levels. Petrological studies collectively indicate that the sandstones were dominantly derived from a weathered granitic crust under a humid climatic condition. Provenance-derived variations in sandstone compositions are therefore a key in unraveling regional tectonic histories. The basin axis controlled the progradation direction which was likely driven by climatically induced sediment influx, a eustatic fall, or both. In the case of the incongruent shift, increased sediment supply permitted the rivers to cross the basinal deep. Temporal association of the Kolhan with tectonic structures in the belt indicates that syn-tectonic thrust uplift, not isostatic uplift or climate, caused the influx of quartz. The sedimentation pattern in the Kolhan reflects a change from braided fluvial-ephemeral pattern to a fan-delta-lacustrine type. The channel geometries and the climate exerted a major control on the processes of sediment transfer. Repeated fault controlled uplift of the source followed by subsidence and forced regression, generated multiple sediment cyclicity that led to the fluvial-fan delta sedimentation pattern. Intermittent uplift of the faulted blocks exposed fresh bedrock to mechanical weathering that generated a large amount of detritus and resulted to forced regressions, repeatedly disrupting the cycles which may reflect a stratigraphic response of connected rift basins at the early stage of extension. The marked variations in the thickness of the fan delta succession and the stacking pattern in different measured profiles reflect the overriding tectonic controls on fan delta evolution. The accumulated fault displacement created higher accommodation and thicker delta sequences. Intermittent uplift of fault blocks exposed fresh bedrock to mechanical weathering, generated a large amount of detritus, and resulted in forced closure of the land-locked basin, repeatedly disrupting the fining upward pattern. The control of source rock lithology or climate was of secondary importance to tectonic effects. Such a retrograding fan delta could be a stratigraphic response of connected rift basins at the early stage of extension.

Keywords: Petrology, Tectonics, sandstone, Kolhan basin

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4 Synthesis and Analytical Characterisation of Polymer-Silica Nanoparticles Composite for the Protection and Preservation of Stone Monuments

Authors: Sayed M. Ahmed, Sawsan S. Darwish, Nagib A. Elmarzugi, Mohammad A. Al-Dosari, Mahmoud A. Adam, Nadia A. Al-Mouallimi


Historical stone surfaces and architectural heritage may undergo unwanted changes due to the exposure to many physical and chemical deterioration factors, the innovative properties of the nano - materials can have advantageous application in the restoration and conservation of the cultural heritage with relation to the tailoring of new products for protection and consolidation of stone. The current work evaluates the effectiveness of inorganic compatible treatments; based on nanosized particles of silica (SiO2) dispersed in silicon based product, commonly used as a water-repellent/ consolidation for the construction materials affected by different kinds of decay. The nanocomposites obtained by dispersing the silica nanoparticles in polymeric matrices SILRES® BS OH 100 (solventless mixtures of ethyl silicates), in order to obtain a new nanocomposite, with hydrophobic and consolidation properties, to improve the physical and mechanical properties of the stone material. The nanocomposites obtained and pure SILRES® BS OH 100 were applied by brush Experimental stone blocks. The efficacy of the treatments has been evaluated after consolidation and artificial Thermal aging, through capillary water absorption measurements, Ultraviolet-light exposure to evaluate photo-induced and the hydrophobic effects of the treated surface, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination is performed to evaluate penetration depth, re-aggregating effects of the deposited phase and the surface morphology before and after artificialaging. Sterio microscopy investigation is performed to evaluate the resistant to the effects of the erosion, acids and salts. Improving of stone mechanical properties were evaluated by compressive strength tests, colorimetric measurements were used to evaluate the optical appearance. All the results get together with the apparent effect that, silica/polymer nanocomposite is efficient material for the consolidation of artistic and architectural sandstone monuments, completely compatible, enhanced the durability of sandstone toward thermal and UV aging. In addition, the obtained nanocomposite improved the stone mechanical properties and the resistant to the effects of the erosion, acids and salts compared to the samples treated with pure SILRES® BS OH 100 without silica nanoparticles.

Keywords: Nanocomposites, compressive strength, sandstone, silica nanoparticles, colorimetric measurements, porous stone consolidation

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3 Geochemical Investigation of Weathering and Sorting for Tepeköy Sandstones

Authors: M. Yavuz Hüseyinca, Şuayip Küpeli


The Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA) values of Late Eocene-Oligocene aged sandstones that exposed on the eastern edge of Tuz Lake (Central Anatolia, Turkey) range from 49 to 59 with an average of 51. The A-CN-K diagram indicates that sandstones underwent post-depositional K-metasomatism. The original average CIA value before the K-metasomatism is calculated as 55. This value is lower than that of Post Archean Australian Shale (PAAS) and defines a low intense chemical weathering in the source-area. Extrapolation of sandstones back to the plagioclase-alkali feldspar line in the A-CN-K diagram suggests a high average plagioclase to alkali feldspar ratio in the provenance and a composition close to granodiorite. The Zr/Sc and Th/Sc ratios with the Al₂O₃-Zr-TiO₂ space do not show zircon addition that refuse both recycling of sediments and sorting effect. All these data suggest direct and rapid transportation from the source due to topographic uplift and probably arid to semi-arid climate conditions for the sandstones.

Keywords: Sorting, Weathering, sandstone, central anatolia

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2 Application of Acid Base Accounting to Predict Post-Mining Drainage Quality in Coalfields of the Main Karoo Basin and Selected Sub-Basins, South Africa

Authors: Lindani Ncube, Baojin Zhao, Ken Liu, Helen Johanna Van Niekerk


Acid Base Accounting (ABA) is a tool used to assess the total amount of acidity or alkalinity contained in a specific rock sample, and is based on the total S concentration and the carbonate content of a sample. A preliminary ABA test was conducted on 14 sandstone and 5 coal samples taken from coalfields representing the Main Karoo Basin (Highveld, Vryheid and Molteno/Indwe Coalfields) and the Sub-basins (Witbank and Waterberg Coalfields). The results indicate that sandstone and coal from the Main Karoo Basin have the potential of generating Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) as they contain sufficient pyrite to generate acid, with the final pH of samples relatively low upon complete oxidation of pyrite. Sandstone from collieries representing the Main Karoo Basin are characterised by elevated contents of reactive S%. All the studied samples were characterised by an Acid Potential (AP) that is less than the Neutralizing Potential (NP) except for two samples. The results further indicate that the sandstone from the Main Karoo Basin is prone to acid generation as compared to the sandstone from the Sub-basins. However, the coal has a relatively low potential of generating any acid. The application of ABA in this study contributes to an understanding of the complexities governing water-rock interactions. In general, the coalfields from the Main Karoo Basin have much higher potential to produce AMD during mining processes than the coalfields in the Sub-basins.

Keywords: Coal, sandstone, Main Karoo Basin, sub-basin, acid base accounting (ABA)

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1 Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis of Hydrocarbon-In-Place in Sandstone Reservoir Modeling: A Case Study

Authors: Nejoud Alostad, Anup Bora, Prashant Dhote


Kuwait Oil Company (KOC) has been producing from its major reservoirs that are well defined and highly productive and of superior reservoir quality. These reservoirs are maturing and priority is shifting towards difficult reservoir to meet future production requirements. This paper discusses the results of the detailed integrated study for one of the satellite complex field discovered in the early 1960s. Following acquisition of new 3D seismic data in 1998 and re-processing work in the year 2006, an integrated G&G study was undertaken to review Lower Cretaceous prospectivity of this reservoir. Nine wells have been drilled in the area, till date with only three wells showing hydrocarbons in two formations. The average oil density is around 300API (American Petroleum Institute), and average porosity and water saturation of the reservoir is about 23% and 26%, respectively. The area is dissected by a number of NW-SE trending faults. Structurally, the area consists of horsts and grabens bounded by these faults and hence compartmentalized. The Wara/Burgan formation consists of discrete, dirty sands with clean channel sand complexes. There is a dramatic change in Upper Wara distributary channel facies, and reservoir quality of Wara and Burgan section varies with change of facies over the area. So predicting reservoir facies and its quality out of sparse well data is a major challenge for delineating the prospective area. To characterize the reservoir of Wara/Burgan formation, an integrated workflow involving seismic, well, petro-physical, reservoir and production engineering data has been used. Porosity and water saturation models are prepared and analyzed to predict reservoir quality of Wara and Burgan 3rd sand upper reservoirs. Subsequently, boundary conditions are defined for reservoir and non-reservoir facies by integrating facies, porosity and water saturation. Based on the detailed analyses of volumetric parameters, potential volumes of stock-tank oil initially in place (STOIIP) and gas initially in place (GIIP) were documented after running several probablistic sensitivity analysis using Montecalro simulation method. Sensitivity analysis on probabilistic models of reservoir horizons, petro-physical properties, and oil-water contacts and their effect on reserve clearly shows some alteration in the reservoir geometry. All these parameters have significant effect on the oil in place. This study has helped to identify uncertainty and risks of this prospect particularly and company is planning to develop this area with drilling of new wells.

Keywords: Uncertainty, reservoir modeling, Sensitivity, sandstone, Monte-Carlo simulation, original oil-in-place

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