Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 29

Sand Related Abstracts

29 Experimental Investigation on Utility and Suitability of Lateritic Soil as a Pavement Material

Authors: J. Hemanth, B. G. Shivaprakash, S. V. Dinesh

Abstract:

The locally available Lateritic soil in Dakshina Kanadda and Udupi districts are traditionally being used as building blocks for construction purpose but they do not meet the conventional requirements (L L ≤ 25% & P I ≤6%) and desired four days soaked CBR value to be used as a sub-base course material in pavements. In order to improve its properties to satisfy the Atterberg’s Limits, the soil is blended with sand, cement and quarry dust at various percentages and also to meet the CBR strength requirements, individual and combined gradation of various sized aggregates along with Laterite soil and other filler materials has been done for coarse graded granular sub-base materials (Grading II and Grading III). The effect of additives blended with lateritic soil and aggregates are studied in terms of Atterberg’s limits, compaction, California Bearing Ratio (CBR), and permeability. It has been observed that the addition of sand, cement and quarry dust are found to be effective in improving Atterberg’s limits, CBR values, and permeability values. The obtained CBR and permeability values of Grading III, and Grading II materials found to be sufficient to be used as sub-base course for low volume roads and high volume roads respectively.

Keywords: Sand, Permeability, lateritic soil, quarry dust, gradation, sub-base course

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
28 Evaluation of Drained Shear Strength of Bentonite-Sand Mixtures

Authors: Navid Khayat

Abstract:

Drained shear strength of saturated soils is fully understood. Shear strength of unsaturated soils is usually expressed in terms of soil suction. Evaluation of shear strength of compacted mixtures of sand-bentonite at optimum water content is main purpose of this research. To prepare the required samples, first, bentonite and sand are mixed in 10, 30, 50 and 70 percent by dry weight and then compacted at the proper optimum water content according to the standard proctor test. The samples were sheared in direct shear machine. Stress-strain relationship of samples indicated a ductile behavior. Most of the samples showed a dilatancy behavior during the shear and the tendency for dilatancy increased with the increase in sand proportion. The results show that with the increase in percentage of sand a decrease in cohesion intercept c' for mixtures and an increase in the angle of internal friction Φ’is observed.

Keywords: Sand, bentonite, drained shear strength, cohesion intercept

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
27 Cyclic Liquefaction Resistance of Reinforced Sand

Authors: S. A. Naeini, Z. Eftekhari

Abstract:

Liquefaction phenomenon in sand is nowadays a classical soil mechanics subject. Using a cyclic triaxial test apparatus, we use non-woven geotextile reinforcement to improve the liquefaction resistance of sand. The layer configurations used are zero, one, two and three horizontal reinforcing layers in a triaxial test sample. The influences of the number of geotextile layers, and cyclic stress ratio (CSR) were studied and described. The results illustrated that the geotextile inclusion increases liquefaction resistance.

Keywords: Sand, liquefaction resistance, geotextile, cyclic triaxial test, cyclic stress ratio

Procedia PDF Downloads 378
26 A Study on Finite Element Modelling of Earth Retaining Wall Anchored by Deadman Anchor

Authors: K. S. Chai, S. H. Chan

Abstract:

In this paper, the earth retaining wall anchored by discrete deadman anchor to support excavations in sand is modelled and analysed by finite element analysis. A study is conducted to examine how deadman anchorage system helps in reducing the deflection of earth retaining wall. A simplified numerical model is suggested in order to reduce the simulation duration. A comparison between 3-D and 2-D finite element analyses is illustrated.

Keywords: Sand, finite element, earth retaining wall, deadman anchor

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
25 Effect of Clay Content on the Drained Shear Strength

Authors: Navid Khayat

Abstract:

Drained shear strength of saturated soils is fully understood. Shear strength of unsaturated soils is usually expressed in terms of soil suction. Evaluation of shear strength of compacted mixtures of sand–clay at optimum water content is main purpose of this research. To prepare the required samples, first clay and sand are mixed in 10, 30, 50, and 70 percent by dry weight and then compacted at the proper optimum water content according to the standard proctor test. The samples were sheared in direct shear machine. Stress –strain relationship of samples indicated a ductile behavior. Most of the samples showed a dilatancy behavior during the shear and the tendency for dilatancy increased with the increase in sand proportion. The results show that with the increase in percentage of sand a decrease in cohesion intercept c' for mixtures and an increase in the angle of internal friction Φ’is observed.

Keywords: Sand, Clay, drained shear strength, cohesion intercept

Procedia PDF Downloads 302
24 Building Bricks Made of Fly-Ash Mixed with Sand or Ceramic Dust: Synthesis and a Comparative Study

Authors: Md. R. Shattique, Md. T. Zaki, Md. G. Kibria

Abstract:

Fly-ash bricks give a comprehensive solution towards recycling of fly-ash and since there is no requirement of firing to produce them, they are also eco-friendly bricks; little or no carbon-dioxide is emitted during their entire production cycle. As bricks are the most essential and widely utilized building materials in the construction industry, the significance of developing an alternate eco-friendly brick is substantial in modern times. In this paper, manufacturing and potential utilization of Fly-ash made building bricks have been studied and was found to be a prospective substitute for fired clay bricks that contribute greatly to polluting the environment. Also, a comparison between sand made and ceramic dust made Fly-ash bricks have been carried out experimentally. The ceramic dust made bricks seem to show higher compressive strength at lower unit volume weight compared to sand made Fly-ash bricks. Moreover, the water absorption capacity of ceramic dust Fly-ash bricks was lower than sand made bricks. Then finally a statistical comparison between fired clay bricks and fly-ash bricks were carried out. All the requirements for good quality building bricks are matched by the fly-ash bricks. All the facts from this study pointed out that these bricks give a new opportunity for being an alternate building material.

Keywords: Sand, gypsum, compressive strength, coal fly-ash, ceramic dust, burnt clay bricks, absorption capacity, unit volume weight

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
23 Reliability Analysis of Partial Safety Factor Design Method for Slopes in Granular Soils

Authors: K. E. Daryani, H. Mohamad

Abstract:

Uncertainties in the geo-structure analysis and design have a significant impact on the safety of slopes. Traditionally, uncertainties in the geotechnical design are addressed by incorporating a conservative factor of safety in the analytical model. In this paper, a risk-based approach is adopted to assess the influence of the geotechnical variable uncertainties on the stability of infinite slopes in cohesionless soils using the “partial factor of safety on shear strength” approach as stated in Eurocode 7. Analyses conducted using Monte Carlo simulation show that the same partial factor can have very different levels of risk depending on the degree of uncertainty of the mean values of the soil friction angle and void ratio.

Keywords: Reliability, Safety, Sand, Infinite Slopes, probability of failure

Procedia PDF Downloads 435
22 Prediction of Scour Profile Caused by Submerged Three-Dimensional Wall Jets

Authors: Abdullah Al Faruque, Ram Balachandar

Abstract:

Series of laboratory tests were carried out to study the extent of scour caused by a three-dimensional wall jets exiting from a square cross-section nozzle and into a non-cohesive sand beds. Previous observations have indicated that the effect of the tailwater depth was significant for densimetric Froude number greater than ten. However, the present results indicate that the cut off value could be lower depending on the value of grain size-to-nozzle width ratio. Numbers of equations are drawn out for a better scaling of numerous scour parameters. Also suggested the empirical prediction of scour to predict the scour centre line profile and plan view of scour profile at any particular time.

Keywords: Sand, Jets, Time, nozzle, scour, densimetric Froude number, tailwater

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
21 The Influence of Water Content on the Shear Resistance of Silty Sands

Authors: Mohamed Boualem Salah

Abstract:

This work involves an experimental study of the behavior of chlef sand under effect of various parameters influencing on shear strength. Because of their distinct nature, sands, silts and clays exhibit completely different behavior (shear strength, the contracting and dilatancy, the angle of internal friction and cohesion etc.). By cons when these materials are mixed, their behavior will become different from each considered alone. The behavior of these mixtures (silty sands etc.) is currently the state of several studies to better use. We studied in this work: The influence of the following factors on the shear strength: (The density, the fines content, the water content). The apparatus used for the tests is the shear box casagrande. This device, although one may have some disadvantages and modern instrumentation is appropriate used to study the shear strength of soils.

Keywords: Behavior, Sand, Cohesion, Shear Strength, moisture content, friction angle, fines content, silt

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
20 Partial Replacement of GGBS in Concrete for Prevention of Natural Resources

Authors: J. Satya Eswari, M. Murmu, Govardhan

Abstract:

Concrete is the most common and widely used building material. Concrete is basically made of aggregates, both fine and coarse, glued by a cement paste which is made of cement and water. Each one of these constituents of concrete has a negative environmental impact and gives rise to different sustainability issues. The current concrete construction practice is unsustainable because, not only it consumes enormous quantities of stones, sand, and drinking water, but also one billion tons a year of cement, which is not an environment friendly material. Preventing the reduction of natural resources and enhancing the usage of waste materials has become a challenge to the scientist and engineers. A number of studies have been conducted concerning the protection of natural resources, prevention of environmental pollution and contribution to the economy by using this waste material. This paper outlines the influence of Ground Granulated Blast furnace Slag (GGBS) as partial replacement of fine aggregate on mechanical properties of concrete. The strength of concrete is determined having OPC binder, replaced the fine aggregate with15%, 30%, 45% respectively. For this purpose, characteristics concrete mix of M25 with partial replacement of cement with GGBS is used and the strength of concrete cubes and cylinder have determined. The strength of concrete specimens has been compared with the reference specimen. Also X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) tests have been performed to examine the hydration products and the microstructure of the tested specimens. A correlation has been established between the developmental strength concrete with and without GGBS through analysis of hydration products and the microstructure.

Keywords: Concrete, Sand, workability, GGBS

Procedia PDF Downloads 364
19 3D Simulation for Design and Predicting Performance of a Thermal Heat Storage Facility using Sand

Authors: Mohammed El Ganaoui, Nadjiba Mahfoudi, Abdelhafid Moummi

Abstract:

Thermal applications are drawing increasing attention in the solar energy research field, due to their high performance in energy storage density and energy conversion efficiency. In these applications, solar collectors and thermal energy storage systems are the two core components. This paper presents a thermal analysis of the transient behavior and storage capability of a sensible heat storage device in which sand is used as a storage media. The TES unit with embedded charging tubes is connected to a solar air collector. To investigate it storage characteristics a 3D-model using no linear coupled partial differential equations for both temperature of storage medium and heat transfer fluid (HTF), has been developed. Performances of thermal storage bed of capacity of 17 MJ (including bed temperature, charging time, energy storage rate, charging energy efficiency) have been evaluated. The effect of the number of charging tubes (3 configurations) is presented.

Keywords: Design, Sand, Heat Transfer Enhancement, Thermal Modeling, sensible heat storage

Procedia PDF Downloads 425
18 The Effect of the Water and Fines Content on Shear Strength of Soils

Authors: Ouledja Abdessalam

Abstract:

This work Contains an experimental study of the behavior of Chlef sand under the effect of various parameters influencing on shear strength. Because of their distinct nature, sands, silts, and clays exhibit completely different behavior (shear strength, the Contracting and dilatancy, the angle of internal friction and cohesion...). By cons when these materials are mixed, their behavior will become different from each considered alone. The behavior of these mixtures (silty sands...) is currently the state of several studies to better use. We have studied in this work: The influence of the following factors on the shear strength: The density (loose and dense), the fines content (silt), The water content. The apparatus used for the tests is the casagrande shear box. This device, although one may have some disadvantages and modern instrumentation is appropriately used to study the shear strength of soils.

Keywords: Sand, Cohesion, Shear Strength, friction angle, fines content, silt, contractancy, dilatancy

Procedia PDF Downloads 356
17 Valorization of Local Materials in the Waterproofing Technique of Landfills Site "TLS"

Authors: M. Debieche, F. Kaoua

Abstract:

This paper deals with the use two locals materials abundant in our country, with the view to use a mixture in the waterproofing the landfills. Our interest comes from the necessity to the environment protection, which has recently considerably grown. The site's waterproofing technique, in the landfills sites, is nowadays a very necessary condition to protect the environment, which requires the use of appropriate materials. To this end, an optimal mixture ensuring good performance in terms of hydraulic conductivity, durability and shear strength, mixtures based of sand at different concentrations of sodium bentonite, at compact state are prepared and studied. This study showed that a low permeability of mixture (sand / bentonite) can be achieved 6% of sodium bentonite. This mixture confers also good mechanical behavior, expressed by the recorded, reduction of friction (φ) and the increase of the cohesion (C). Thus, the selected formulation represents an optimal mixture for waterproofing systems. It guarantees an economical and ecological advantages.

Keywords: Sustainability, Sand, Hydraulic Conductivity, sodium bentonite

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
16 The Effect of Shredded Polyurethane Foams on Shear Modulus and Damping Ratio of Sand

Authors: Javad Saeidaskari, Nader Khalafian

Abstract:

The undesirable impact of vibrations induced by road and railway traffic is an important concern in modern world. These vibrations are transmitted through soil and cause disturbances to the residence area and high-tech production facilities alongside the train/traffic lines. In this paper for the first time a new method of soil improvement with vibration absorber material, is used to increase the damping factor, in other word, to reduce the ability of wave transitions in sand. In this study standard Firoozkooh No. 161 sand is used as the host sand. The semi rigid polyurethane (PU) foam which used in this research is one of the common materials for vibration absorbing purposes. Series of cyclic triaxial tests were conducted on remolded samples with identical relative density of 70% of maximum dry density for different volume percentage of shredded PU foam. The frequency of tests was 0.1 Htz with shear strain of 0.37% and 0.75% and also the effective confining pressures during the tests were 100 kPa and 350 kPa. In order to find out the best soil-PU foam mixture, different volume percent of PU foam varying from 10% to 30% were examined. The results show that adding PU foam up to 20%, as its optimum content, causes notable enhancement in damping ratio for both shear strains of 0.37% (52.19% and 69% increase for effective confining pressures of 100 kPa and 350 kPa, respectively) and 0.75% (59.56% and 59.11% increase for effective confining pressures of 100 kPa and 350 kPa, respectively). The results related to shear modulus present significant reduction for both shear strains of 0.37% (82.22% and 56.03% decrease for effective confining pressures of 100 kPa and 350 kPa, respectively) and 0.75% (89.32% and 39.9% decrease for effective confining pressures of 100 kPa and 350 kPa, respectively). In conclusion, shredded PU foams effectively affect the dynamic properties of sand and act as vibration absorber in soil.

Keywords: Sand, Shear Modulus, damping ratio, polyurethane foam

Procedia PDF Downloads 321
15 Evaluation of Erodibility Status of Soils in Some Areas of Imo and Abia States of Nigeria

Authors: Andy Obinna Ibeje

Abstract:

In this study, the erodibility indices and some soil properties of some cassava farms in selected areas of Abia and Imo States were investigated. This study involves taking measurements of some soil parameters such as permeability, soil texture and particle size analysis from which the erodibility indices were compared. Results showed that soils of the areas are very sandy. The results showed that Isiukwuato with index of 72 has the highest erodibility index. The results also showed that Arondizuogu with index of 34 has the least erodibility index. The results revealed that soil erodibility (k) values varied from 34 to 72. Nkporo has the highest sand content; Inyishie has the least silt content. The result indicates that there were respectively strong inverse relationship between clay and silt contents and erodibility index. On the other hand, sand, organic matter and moisture contents as well as soil permeability has significantly high positive correlation with soil erodibility and it can be concluded that particle size distribution is a major finger print on the erodibility index of soil in the study area. It is recommended that safe cultural practices like crop rotation, matching and adoption of organic farming techniques be incorporated into farming communities of Abia and Imo States in order to stem the advances of erosion in the study area.

Keywords: Sand, Soil, indices, erodibility

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
14 The Effect of Water and Fines Content on Shear Strength of Silty Soils

Authors: Dellal Seyyid Ali

Abstract:

This work Contains an experimental study of the behavior of Chlef sand under effect of various parameters influencing on shear strength. Because of their distinct nature, sands, silts and clays exhibit completely different behavior (shear strength, the Contracting and dilatancy, the angle of internal friction and cohesion ...). By cons when these materials are mixed, their behavior will become different from each considered alone. The behavior of these mixtures (silty sands ...) is currently the state of several studies to better use. We have studied in this work: The influence of the following factors on the shear strength: The density (loose and dense), the fines content (silt), the water content. The apparatus used for the tests is the casagrande shear box. This device, although one may have some disadvantages and modern instrumentation is appropriate used to study the shear strength of soils.

Keywords: Sand, Cohesion, Shear Strength, friction angle, fines content, silt, dilatancy, contractanct

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
13 Effect of Low Plastic Clay Quantity on Behavioral Characteristics of Loose Sand

Authors: Roza Rahbari

Abstract:

After the Nigatta earthquake in Japan, in 1960, the liquefaction and its related hazards, moved to the thick of matter. Most of the research have been carried out on clean sands and silty sands so far, in order to study the effect of fine particles, confinement pressures, density and so on. However, because of this delusion that adhesiveness of clay prevents the liquefaction in sand, studies on clayey sands have not been taken seriously. However, several liquefactions happened in clayey sands in recent years, and lead to the necessity of more studies in this field. The studies which were carried out so far focused on high plastic clays. In this paper, the effect of low plasticity clays on the behavioral characteristics of sands is discussed. Thus, some triaxial tests were carried out on clean sands and clayey sands with different percentages of added clay. Specimens were compacted in various densities to study the effect of quantity of clay on various densities, too. Based on the findings, the amount of clay affects the behavior of sand greatly and leads to substantial changes in peak bearing capacity and steady state values.

Keywords: Sand, Liquefaction, Failure, Clay, monotonic, triaxial

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
12 Formulation and Physico-Mechanical Characterization of a Self-Compacting Concrete Containing Seashells as an Addition Material

Authors: Brahim Safi, Mohammed Saidi, A. Benmounah, Jozef Mitterpach

Abstract:

The aim of this work is to study the rheological and physico-mechanical properties of a self-compacting concrete elaborated with sea shells as an addition cementitious (total replacement of limestone fillers) and sand (partial and total substitution fine aggregate). Also, this present study is registered in the context of sustainable development by using this waste type which caused environmental problems. After preparation the crushed shells (obtaining fine aggregate) and finely crushed shells (obtaining end powder), concretes were manufactured using these two products. Rheological characterization tests (fluidity, filling capacity and segregation) and physico-mechanical properties (density and strength) were carried on these concretes. The results obtained show that it can be used as fin addition (by total replacement of limestone) or also used as sand by total substitution of natural sand.

Keywords: Sand, Self-Compacting Concrete, compressive strength, flexural strength, limestone, fluidity, seashells

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
11 A Review of Deformation and Settlement Monitoring on the Field: Types and Applications

Authors: Hassan Ali, Abdulrahman Hamid

Abstract:

This paper discusses using of instruments to monitor deformation and settlement. Specifically, it concentrates on field instruments such as inclinometer and plate load test and their applications in the field. Inclinometer has been used effectively to monitor lateral earth movements and settlement in landslide areas, embankments and foundations. They are also used to monitor the deflection of retaining walls and piles under load. This paper is reviewing types of inclinometer systems, comparison between systems, applications, field accuracy and correction. The paper also will present a case study of using inclinometer to monitor the creep movements within the ancient landslide on The Washington Park Station. Furthermore, the application of deformation and settlement instruments in Saudi Arabia will be discussed in this manuscript.

Keywords: Sand, plate load test, inclinometer, backfills, deformation and settlement

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
10 Using Biopolymer Materials to Enhance Sandy Soil Behavior

Authors: Abdelazim Negm, Mohamed Ayeldeen

Abstract:

Nowadays, strength characteristics of soils have more importance due to increasing building loads. In some projects, geotechnical properties of the soils are be improved using man-made materials varying from cement-based to chemical-based. These materials have proven successful in improving the engineering properties of the soil such as shear strength, compressibility, permeability, bearing capacity etc.. However, the use of these artificial injection formulas often modifies the pH level of soil, contaminates soil and groundwater. This is attributed to their toxic and hazardous characteristics. Recently, an environmentally friendly soil treatment method or Biological Treatment Method (BTM) was to bond particles of loose sandy soils. This research paper presents the preliminary results of using biopolymers for strengthening cohesionless soil. Xanthan gum was identified for further study over a range of concentrations varying from 0.25% to 2.00%. Xanthan gum is a polysaccharide secreted by the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris, used as a food additive and it is a nontoxic material. A series of direct shear, unconfined compressive strength, and permeability tests were carried out to investigate the behavior of sandy soil treated with Xanthan gum with different concentration ratios and at different curing times. Laser microscopy imaging was also conducted to study the microstructure of the treated sand. Experimental results demonstrated the compatibility of Xanthan gum to improve the geotechnical properties of sandy soil. Depending on the biopolymer concentration, it was observed that the biopolymers effectively increased the cohesion intercept and stiffness of the treated sand and reduced the permeability of sand. The microscopy imaging indicates that the cross-links of the biopolymers through and over the soil particles increase with the increase of the biopolymer concentration.

Keywords: Sand, Permeability, Shear Strength, biopolymer, direct shear, xanthan gum

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
9 Numerical Study of Modulus of Subgrade Reaction in Eccentrically Loaded Circular Footing Resting

Authors: Mohammad Hossein Zade, Seyed Abolhasan Naeini

Abstract:

This article is an attempt to present a numerically study of the behaviour of an eccentrically loaded circular footing resting on sand to determine ‎its ultimate bearing capacity. A surface circular footing of diameter 12 cm (D) was used as ‎shallow foundation. For this purpose, three dimensional models consist of foundation, and medium sandy soil was modelled by ABAQUS software. Bearing capacity of footing was evaluated and the ‎effects of the load eccentricity on bearing capacity, its settlement, and modulus of subgrade reaction were studied. Three different values of load eccentricity with equal space from inside the core on the core boundary and outside the core boundary, which were respectively e=0.75, 1.5, and 2.25 cm, were considered. The results show that by increasing the load eccentricity, the ultimate load and the ‎modulus of subgrade reaction decreased.

Keywords: Sand, circular foundation, eccentric loading, modulus of subgrade reaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
8 An Experimental Investigation on the Amount of Drag Force of Sand on a Cone Moving at Low Uniform Speed

Authors: M. Jahanandish, Gh. Sadeghian, M. H. Daneshvar, M. H. Jahanandish

Abstract:

The amount of resistance of a particular medium like soil to the moving objects is the interest of many areas in science. These include soil mechanics, geotechnical engineering, powder mechanics etc. Knowledge of drag force is also used for estimating the amount of momentum of fired objects like bullets. This paper focuses on measurement of drag force of sand on a cone when it moves at a low constant speed. A 30-degree apex angle cone has been used for this purpose. The study consisted of both loose and dense conditions of the soil. The applied speed has been in the range of 0.1 to 10 mm/min. The results indicate that the required force is basically independent of the cone speed; but, it is very dependent on the material densification and confining stress.

Keywords: Sand, Densification, friction angle, drag force, moving speed, confining stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
7 Backward Erosion Piping through Vertically Layered Sands

Authors: K. Vandenboer, L. Dolphen, A. Bezuijen

Abstract:

Backward erosion piping is an important failure mechanism for water-retaining structures, a phenomenon that results in the formation of shallow pipes at the interface of a sandy or silty foundation and a cohesive cover layer. This paper studies the effect of two soil types on backward erosion piping; both in case of a homogeneous sand layer, and in a vertically layered sand sample, where the pipe is forced to subsequently grow through the different layers. Two configurations with vertical sand layers are tested; they both result in wider pipes and higher critical gradients, thereby making this an interesting topic in research on measures to prevent backward erosion piping failures.

Keywords: Sand, Embankments, Physical Modeling, backward erosion piping

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
6 Threshold Sand Detection Limits for Acoustic Monitors in Multiphase Flow

Authors: Brenton McLaury, Siamack Shirazi, Vinod Ponnagandla

Abstract:

Sand production can lead to deposition of particles or erosion. Low production rates resulting in deposition can partially clog systems and cause under deposit corrosion. Commercially available nonintrusive acoustic sand detectors are attractive as they claim to detect sand production. Acoustic sand detectors are used during oil and gas production; however, operators often do not know the threshold detection limits of these devices. It is imperative to know the detection limits to appropriately plan for cleaning of separation equipment or examine risk of erosion. These monitors are based on detecting the acoustic signature of sand as the particles impact the pipe walls. The objective of this work is to determine threshold detection limits for acoustic sand monitors that are commercially available. The minimum threshold sand concentration that can be detected in a pipe are determined as a function of flowing gas and liquid velocities. A large scale flow loop with a 4-inch test section is utilized. Commercially available sand monitors (ClampOn and Roxar) are evaluated for different flow regimes, sand sizes and pipe orientation (vertical and horizontal). The manufacturers’ recommend that the monitors be placed on a bend to maximize the number of particle impacts, so results are shown for monitors placed at 45 and 90 degree positions in a bend. Acoustic sand monitors that clamp to the outside of pipe are passive and listen for solid particle impact noise. The threshold sand rate is calculated by eliminating the background noise created by the flow of gas and liquid in the pipe for various flow regimes that are generated in horizontal and vertical test sections. The average sand sizes examined are 150 and 300 microns. For stratified and bubbly flows the threshold sand rates are much higher than other flow regimes such as slug and annular flow regimes that are investigated. However, the background noise generated by slug flow regime is very high and cause a high uncertainty in detection limits. The threshold sand rates for annular flow and dry gas conditions are the lowest because of high gas velocities. The effects of monitor placement around elbows that are in vertical and horizontal pipes are also examined for 150 micron. The results show that the threshold sand rates that are detected in vertical orientation are generally lower for all various flow regimes that are investigated.

Keywords: Multiphase Flow, Sand, threshold, acoustic monitor

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
5 Effect of Installation Method on the Ratio of Tensile to Compressive Shaft Capacity of Piles in Dense Sand

Authors: A. C. Galvis-Castro, R. D. Tovar, R. Salgado, M. Prezzi

Abstract:

It is generally accepted that the shaft capacity of piles in the sand is lower for tensile loading that for compressive loading. So far, very little attention has been paid to the role of the influence of the installation method on the tensile to compressive shaft capacity ratio. The objective of this paper is to analyze the effect of installation method on the tensile to compressive shaft capacity of piles in dense sand as observed in tests on half-circular model pile tests in a half-circular calibration chamber with digital image correlation (DIC) capability. Model piles are either monotonically jacked, jacked with multiple strokes or pre-installed into the dense sand samples. Digital images of the model pile and sand are taken during both the installation and loading stages of each test and processed using the DIC technique to obtain the soil displacement and strain fields. The study provides key insights into the mobilization of shaft resistance in tensile and compressive loading for both displacement and non-displacement piles.

Keywords: Sand, Piles, digital image correlation, shaft resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 122
4 Effects of Tillage and Crop Residues Management in Improving Rainfall-Use Efficiency in Dryland Crops under Sandy Soils

Authors: Cosmas Parwada, Ronald Mandumbu, Handseni Tibugari, Trust Chinyama

Abstract:

A 3-yr field experiment to evaluate effects of tillage and residue management on soil water storage (SWS), grain yield, harvest index (HI) and water use efficiency (WUE) of sorghum was done in sandy soils. Treatments were conventional (CT) and minimum (MT) tillage without residue retention and conventional (CT × RT) and minimum (MT × RT) tillage with residue retention. Change in SWS was higher under CT and MT than in CT × RT and MT × RT, especially in the 0-10 cm soil layer. Grain yield and HI were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in CT and MT than CT × RT and MT × RT. Grain yield and HI were significantly (P < 0.05) positively correlated to WUE but WUE significantly (P < 0.05) negatively correlated to sand (%) particle content. The SWS was lower in winter but higher in summer and was significantly correlated to soil organic carbon (SOC), sand (%), grain yield (t/ha), HI and WUE. The WUE linearly increasing from first to last cropping seasons in tillage with returned residues; higher in CT × RT and MT × RT that promoted SOC buildup than where crop residues were removed. Soil tillage decreased effects of residues on SWS, WUE, grain yield and HI. Minimum tillage coupled to residue retention sustainably enhanced WUE but further research to investigate the interaction effects of the tillage on WUE and soil fertility management is required. Understanding and considering the WUE in crops can be a primary condition for cropping system designs. The findings pave way for further research and crop management programmes, allowing to valorize the water in crop production.

Keywords: Sand, Evapotranspiration, water use efficiency, infiltration rate, organic mulch

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
3 Determination of Small Shear Modulus of Clayey Sand Using Bender Element Test

Authors: S. A. Naeini, R. Sadeghzadegan, A. Mirzaii

Abstract:

In this article, the results of a series of carefully conducted laboratory test program were represented to determine the small strain shear modulus of sand mixed with a range of kaolinite including zero to 30%. This was experimentally achieved using a triaxial cell equipped with bender element. Results indicate that small shear modulus tends to increase, while clay content decreases and effective confining pressure increases. The exponent of stress in the power model regression analysis was not sensitive to the amount of clay content for all sand clay mixtures, while coefficient A was directly affected by change in clay content.

Keywords: Sand, small shear modulus, bender element test, plastic fines

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
2 Studying the Effect of Froude Number and Densimetric Froude Number on Local Scours around Circular Bridge Piers

Authors: Md Abdullah Al Faruque

Abstract:

A very large percentage of bridge failures are attributed to scouring around bridge piers and this directly influences public safety. Experiments are carried out in a 12-m long rectangular open channel flume made of transparent tempered glass. A 300 mm thick bed made up of sand particles is leveled horizontally to create the test bed and a 50 mm hollow plastic cylinder is used as a model bridge pier. Tests are carried out with varying flow depths and velocities. Data points of various scour parameters such as scour depth, width, and length are collected based on different flow conditions and visual observations of changes in the stream bed downstream the bridge pier are also made as the scour progresses. Result shows that all three major flow characteristics (flow depth, Froude number and densimetric Froude number) have one way or other affect the scour profile.

Keywords: Sand, densimetric Froude number, froude number, bridge pier scour, flow depth

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
1 Load-Settlement Behaviour of Geogrid-Reinforced Sand Bed over Granular Piles

Authors: Swetha Priya Darshini Thammadi, Sateesh Kumar Pisini, Sanjay Kumar Shukla

Abstract:

Granular piles are a popular ground improvement technique in soft cohesive soils as well as for loose non-cohesive soils. The present experimental study has been carried out on granular piles in loose (Relative density = 30%) and medium dense (Relative density = 60%) sands with geogrid reinforcement within the sand bed over the granular piles. A group of five piles were installed in the sand at different spacing, s = 2d, 3d and 4d, d being the diameter of the pile. The length (L = 0.4 m) and diameter (d = 50 mm) of the piles were kept constant for all the series of experiments. The load-settlement behavior of reinforced sand bed and granular piles system was studied by applying the load on a square footing. The results show that the effect of reinforcement increases the load bearing capacity of the piles. It is also found that an increase in spacing between piles decreases the settlement for both loose and medium dense soil.

Keywords: Sand, Settlement, Geogrid Reinforcement, granular pile, load-carrying capacity

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