Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Sampling Related Abstracts

7 Quality Approaches for Mass-Produced Fashion: A Study in Malaysian Garment Manufacturing

Authors: N. J. M. Yusof, T. Sabir, J. McLoughlin


Garment manufacturing industry involves sequential processes that are subjected to uncontrollable variations. The industry depends on the skill of labour in handling the varieties of fabrics and accessories, machines, and also a complicated sewing operation. Due to these reasons, garment manufacturers created systems to monitor and control the product’s quality regularly by conducting quality approaches to minimize variation. The aims of this research were to ascertain the quality approaches deployed by Malaysian garment manufacturers in three key areas-quality systems and tools; quality control and types of inspection; sampling procedures chosen for garment inspection. The focus of this research also aimed to distinguish quality approaches used by companies that supplied the finished garments to both domestic and international markets. The feedback from each of company’s representatives was obtained using the online survey, which comprised of five sections and 44 questions on the organizational profile and quality approaches used in the garment industry. The results revealed that almost all companies had established their own mechanism of process control by conducting a series of quality inspection for daily production either it was formally been set up or vice versa. Quality inspection was the predominant quality control activity in the garment manufacturing and the level of complexity of these activities was substantially dictated by the customers. AQL-based sampling was utilized by companies dealing with the export market, whilst almost all the companies that only concentrated on the domestic market were comfortable using their own sampling procedures for garment inspection. This research provides an insight into the implementation of quality approaches that were perceived as important and useful in the garment manufacturing sector, which is truly labour-intensive.

Keywords: Quality Control, Inspection, Sampling, Garment Manufacturing, quality approaches, Acceptance Quality Limit (AQL)

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6 Investigating the Contribution of Road Construction on Soil Erosion, a Case Study of Engcobo Local Municipality, Chris Hani District, South Africa

Authors: Yamkela Zitwana


Soil erosion along the roads and/or road riparian areas has become a norm in the Eastern Cape. Soil erosion refers to the detachment and transportation of soil from one area (onsite) to another (offsite). This displacement or removal of soil can be caused by water, air and sometimes gravity. This will focus on accelerated soil erosion which is the result of human interference with the environment. Engcobo local municipality falls within the Eastern Cape Province in the eastern side of CHRIS HANI District municipality. The focus road is R61 protruding from the Engcobo town outskirts along the Nyanga SSS on the way to Umtata although it will cover few Kilometers away from Engcobo. This research aims at looking at the contribution made by road construction to soil erosion. Steps to achieve the result will involve revisiting the phases of road construction through unstructured interviews, identifying the types of soil erosion evident in the area by doing a checklist, checking the material, utensils and equipment used for road construction and the contribution of road construction through stratified random sampling checking the soil color and texture. This research will use a pragmatic approach which combines related methods and consider the flaws of each method so as to ensure validity, precision and accuracy. Both qualitative and quantitative methods will be used. Statistical methods and GIS analysis will be used to analyze the collected data.

Keywords: Research, Qualitative, Unstructured Interviews, Sampling, soil erosion, Road Construction, Focus Groups, pragmatic approach, road riparian, accelerated soil erosion, universal soil loss model, GIS analysis, quantitative method, checklist questionnaires

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5 Sampling Effects on Secondary Voltage Control of Microgrids Based on Network of Multiagent

Authors: S. H. Lee, M. J. Park, O. M. Kwon, C. H. Lee


This paper studies a secondary voltage control framework of the microgrids based on the consensus for a communication network of multiagent. The proposed control is designed by the communication network with one-way links. The communication network is modeled by a directed graph. At this time, the concept of sampling is considered as the communication constraint among each distributed generator in the microgrids. To analyze the sampling effects on the secondary voltage control of the microgrids, by using Lyapunov theory and some mathematical techniques, the sufficient condition for such problem will be established regarding linear matrix inequality (LMI). Finally, some simulation results are given to illustrate the necessity of the consideration of the sampling effects on the secondary voltage control of the microgrids.

Keywords: microgrids, Sampling, secondary control, multiagent, LMI

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4 Feature Location Restoration for Under-Sampled Photoplethysmogram Using Spline Interpolation

Authors: Hangsik Shin


The purpose of this research is to restore the feature location of under-sampled photoplethysmogram using spline interpolation and to investigate feasibility for feature shape restoration. We obtained 10 kHz-sampled photoplethysmogram and decimated it to generate under-sampled dataset. Decimated dataset has 5 kHz, 2.5 k Hz, 1 kHz, 500 Hz, 250 Hz, 25 Hz and 10 Hz sampling frequency. To investigate the restoration performance, we interpolated under-sampled signals with 10 kHz, then compared feature locations with feature locations of 10 kHz sampled photoplethysmogram. Features were upper and lower peak of photplethysmography waveform. Result showed that time differences were dramatically decreased by interpolation. Location error was lesser than 1 ms in both feature types. In 10 Hz sampled cases, location error was also deceased a lot, however, they were still over 10 ms.

Keywords: Signal reconstruction, Sampling, photoplethysmography, peak detection

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3 Effects of a Cooler on the Sampling Process in a Continuous Emission Monitoring System

Authors: T. V. Dinh, I. Y. Choi, J. W. Ahn, J. C. Kim


A cooler has been widely employed in the extractive system of the continuous emission monitoring system (CEMS) to remove water vapor in the gas stream. The effect of the cooler on analytical target gases was investigated in this research. A commercial cooler for the CEMS operated at 4 C was used. Several gases emitted from a coal power plant (i.e. CO2, SO2, NO, NO2 and CO) were mixed with humid air, and then introduced into the cooler to observe its effect. Concentrations of SO2, NO, NO2 and CO were made as 200 ppm. The CO2 concentration was 8%. The inlet absolute humidity was produced as 12.5% at 100 C using a bubbling method. It was found that the reduction rate of SO2 was the highest (~21%), followed by NO2 (~17%), CO2 (~11%) and CO (~10%). In contrast, the cooler was not affected by NO gas. The result indicated that the cooler caused a significant effect on the water soluble gases due to condensate water in the cooler. To overcome this problem, a correction factor may be applied. However, water vapor might be different, and emissions of target gases are also various. Therefore, the correction factor is not only a solution, but also a better available method should be employed.

Keywords: monitoring, Sampling, Reproductive, cooler, CEMS

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2 Output-Feedback Control Design for a General Class of Systems Subject to Sampling and Uncertainties

Authors: Tomas Menard


The synthesis of output-feedback control law has been investigated by many researchers since the last century. While many results exist for the case of Linear Time Invariant systems whose measurements are continuously available, nowadays, control laws are usually implemented on micro-controller, then the measurements are discrete-time by nature. This fact has to be taken into account explicitly in order to obtain a satisfactory behavior of the closed-loop system. One considers here a general class of systems corresponding to an observability normal form and which is subject to uncertainties in the dynamics and sampling of the output. Indeed, in practice, the modeling of the system is never perfect, this results in unknown uncertainties in the dynamics of the model. We propose here an output feedback algorithm which is based on a linear state feedback and a continuous-discrete time observer. The main feature of the proposed control law is that only discrete-time measurements of the output are needed. Furthermore, it is formally proven that the state of the closed loop system exponentially converges toward the origin despite the unknown uncertainties. Finally, the performances of this control scheme are illustrated with simulations.

Keywords: Dynamical systems, Sampling, Uncertain Systems, output feedback control law

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1 Adaptation of Research Methodology in a Culture: A Reflection from Bangladesh

Authors: Umme Habiba Jasmine, Mzikazi Nduna


Due to the dearth of exploratory research in Bangladesh on parenting practices and transmission thereof, there is a lack of information on culture-sensitive methodology in studying this topic. This paper aims to share some methodological reflections from the research field, which will address this knowledge gap. Eleven dyads of biological mothers and maternal grandmothers of school-going children constituted the sample, and a female fieldworker conducted one-to-one, semi-structured, in-depth interviews with them. The participants were recruited through purposive sampling through a representative of a cooperative society in Mirpur area in Bangladesh. Four dyads of the sample outside that eleven dyads were discarded because of the unavailability of the other participant of the dyads or unsuitability for an in-depth interview. The sample recruitment strategy of approaching mothers without their known reference body had to be discarded because of existing social insecurity in Dhaka city. To meet the cultural demand of the research field the researcher had to change in the research plan and comply with the cultural tradition of mutual entertainment with food while conducting interviews which helped in engaging in positive interaction. Also, the researcher had to compromise the strict confidentiality to a collectivistic sense of confidentiality of the in-depth interview sessions. This study suggests future researchers to investigate Bangladeshi traditional practices and accommodate the applicable ones in their research plan for qualitative studies, especially the Bengali tradition of hospitality and shared confidentiality for building rapport and for proper access to the targeted information and research participants. Sample recruitment should always accompany a well-accepted reference person in the targeted research field.

Keywords: Ethics, Sampling, Confidentiality, culture-sensitive, parenting practices

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