Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 48

Salinity Related Abstracts

48 Origin of Salinity Problems during Tsunami and Remedial Measures in Coastal Areas

Authors: N. K. Gupta, R. C. Bhattacharjee

Abstract:

In the aftermath of the tsunami in 2004 and terrible humanitarian disaster affecting thousands of kilometers of coastal south, the immediate priority is to begin the process of reconstruction of livelihoods including basic services. It is likely that many coastal wetlands would have been affected by the large inflow of salt-water and littoral sediments during the tsunami, with longer-term effects including changes in their hydrogeology caused by changes to coastlines and damage to sea-defenses. The reconstruction process is likely to provide opportunities to better integrate environmental protection and management with economic development in the region, including the opportunity to conserve and restore coastal habitats. Presented herein is a study pertaining to salinity problems encountered in coastal south during tsunami in 2004 and the consequent loss of fertility of agricultural land including remedial measures to revitalize economic growth in the region.

Keywords: Tsunami, Reconstruction, Salinity, costal area

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47 Environmental Implications of Groundwater Quality in Irrigated Agriculture in Kebbi State, Nigeria

Authors: O. I. Ojo, W. B. R. Graham, I. W. Pishiria

Abstract:

The quality of groundwater used for irrigation in Kebbi State, northwestern Nigeria was evaluated. Open-well, tube-well and borehole water samples were collected from various locations in the State. The water samples analyzed had pH values below the normal range for irrigation water and very low to moderate salinity (electrical conductivity 0.05-0.82 dS.m-1). The adjusted sodium adsorption ratio values in all the samples were also very low (<0.2), indicating very low sodicity hazards. However, irrigation water of very low salinity (<0.2dS.m-1) and low SAR can lead to problems of infiltration into soils. The Ca: Mg ratio (<1) in most of the samples may lead to Ca deficiency in soils after long term use. The nitrate concentration in most of the samples was high ranging from 4.5 to >50mg/L.

Keywords: irrigation, Characteristics, Salinity, ground water quality, soil drainage, Fadama

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46 Effect of Pre-treatment with Salicylic Acid on Vegetative Growth and Yield Components of Wheat under Salinity

Authors: Saad M. Howladar, Mike Dennett

Abstract:

At first harvest, results showed that salinity (tap water, 100 and 200 mM NaCl) induced a significant decrease in all growth parameters in both Yecora Rojo and Paragon cultivars. The greatest effect of salinity was a decrease in leaf area. The same tendency was observed with specific leaf area, and total fresh and dry weights and their components. Green leaf and tiller numbers were reduced by the same extent in both cultivars. The corresponding final harvest, all growth parameters also reduced with increased salinity. Yield and yield components were also reduced by salinity with similar effects in both cultivars. Chlorophyll fluorescence, expressed as Fv/Fm, and gas exchange parameters were decreased significantly with increase in salinity in both cultivars. In contrast, seed protein content was increased significantly with increase in salinity. Salicylic acid (SA) application induced no significant improvements in growth parameters and yield components.

Keywords: Growth, Yield, Salinity, salicylic acid, chlorophyll fluorescence, gas exchange

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45 Pre-Soaking Application of Salicylic Acid on Four Wheat Cultivars under Saline Concentrations

Authors: Saad M. Howladar, Mike Dennett

Abstract:

The effect of salinity (0-200 mMNaCl) on wheat growth (leaf and tiller numbers, and fresh and dry weights) underseed soaking (6 and 24 hs) insalicylic acid (SA) was investigated. The impact of salinity was less pronounced in salt tolerant cultivars (Sakha 93 and S24) than Paragon and S24. Chlorophyll content was increased as a response to salinity stress. It was raised in 100 mMNaCl more than 200 mMNaCl. The same trend was found in 24 hs soaking, except chlorophyll content in Paragon and S24 under 200 mMNaCl was more than 100 mMNaCl. SA application induced a positive effect on growth parameters in some cultivars, particularly Paragon under saline and non-saline condition. Soaking for 6 hs was more effective than 24 hs soaking, especially in Paragon and Sakha 93. SA supply caused a slight effect on chlorophyll content but this was not significant and there was no significant difference between both soaking hs. The effect of SA on growth parameters and chlorophyll content depends on cultivar genotype and SA concentration.

Keywords: Salinity, salicylic acid, growth parameters, chlorophyll content, wheat cultivars

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44 Isolation and Characterization of Salt-Tolerance of Rhizobia under the Effects of Salinity

Authors: Sarra Sobti, Baelhadj Hamdi-Aïssa

Abstract:

The bacteria of the soil, usually called rhizobium, have a considerable importance in agriculture because of their capacity to fix the atmospheric nitrogen in symbiosis with the plants of the family of legumes. The present work was to study the effect of the salinity on growth and nodulation of alfalfa-rhizobia symbiosis at different agricultural experimental sites in Ouargla. The experiment was conducted in 3 steps. The first one was the isolation and characterization of the Rhizobia; next, the evolution of the isolates tolerance to salinity at three levels of NaCl (6, 8,12 and 16 g/L); and the last step was the evolution of the tolerance on symbiotic characteristics. The results showed that the phenotypic characterizations behave practically as Rhizobia spp, and the effects of salinity affect the symbiotic process. The tolerance to high levels of salinity and the survival and persistence in severe and harsh desert conditions make these rhizobia highly valuable inoculums to improve productivity of the leguminous plants cultivated under extreme environments.

Keywords: Tolerance, Soil, Symbiosis, Salinity, rhizobia, nodulation, Medicago sativa L

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
43 Application of Water Soluble Polymers in Chemical Enhanced Oil Recovery

Authors: M. Shahzad Kamal, Abdullah S. Sultan, Usamah A. Al-Mubaiyedh, Ibnelwaleed A. Hussein

Abstract:

Oil recovery from reservoirs using conventional oil recovery techniques like water flooding is less than 20%. Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques are applied to recover additional oil. Surfactant-polymer flooding is a promising EOR technique used to recover residual oil from reservoirs. Water soluble polymers are used to increase the viscosity of displacing fluids. Surfactants increase the capillary number by reducing the interfacial tension between oil and displacing fluid. Hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) is widely used in polymer flooding applications due to its low cost and other desirable properties. HPAM works well in low-temperature and low salinity-environment. In the presence of salts HPAM viscosity decrease due to charge screening effect and it can precipitate at high temperatures in the presence of salts. Various strategies have been adopted to extend the application of water soluble polymers to high-temperature high-salinity (HTHS) reservoir. These include addition of monomers to acrylamide chain that can protect it against thermal hydrolysis. In this work, rheological properties of various water soluble polymers were investigated to find out suitable polymer and surfactant-polymer systems for HTHS reservoirs. Polymer concentration ranged from 0.1 to 1 % (w/v). Effect of temperature, salinity and polymer concentration was investigated using both steady shear and dynamic measurements. Acrylamido tertiary butyl sulfonate based copolymer showed better performance under HTHS conditions compared to HPAM. Moreover, thermoviscosifying polymer showed excellent rheological properties and increase in the viscosity was observed with increase temperature. This property is highly desirable for EOR application.

Keywords: Rheology, Salinity, Enhanced Oil Recovery, polyacrylamide, polymer flooding

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42 Effect of Pre-Treatment with Salicylic Acid on Vegetative Growth and Yield Components of Saudi’s Wheat under Salinity

Authors: Mike Dennett, Saad Howladar

Abstract:

At first harvest, results showed that salinity (tap water, 100 and 200 mM NaCl) induced a significant decrease in all growth parameters in both Yecora Rojo and Paragon cultivars. The greatest effect of salinity was a decrease in leaf area. The same tendency was observed with specific leaf area, and total fresh and dry weights and their components. Green leaf and tiller numbers were reduced by the same extent in both cultivars. The corresponding final harvest, all growth parameters also reduced with increased salinity. Yield and yield components were also reduced by salinity with similar effects in both cultivars. Chlorophyll fluorescence, expressed as Fv/Fm, and gas exchange parameters were decreased significantly with increase in salinity in both cultivars. In contrast, seed protein content was increased significantly with increase in salinity. Salicylic acid (SA) application induced no significant improvements in growth parameters and yield components.

Keywords: Growth, Yield, Salinity, salicylic acid, chlorophyll fluorescence, gas exchange

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41 The Assessment Groundwater Geochemistry of Some Wells in Rafsanjan Plain, Southeast of Iran

Authors: Milad Mirzaei Aminiyan, Abdolreza Akhgar, Farzad Mirzaei Aminiyan

Abstract:

Water quality is the critical factor that influence on human health and quantity and quality of grain production in semi-humid and semi-arid area. Pistachio is a main crop that accounts for a considerable portion of Iranian agricultural exports. Give that pistachio tree is a tolerant type of tree to saline and alkaline soil and water conditions, but groundwater and irrigation water quality play important roles in main production this crop. For this purpose, 94 well water samples were taken from 25 wells and samples were analyzed. The results showed give that region’s geological, climatic characteristics, statistical analysis, and based on dominant cations and anions in well water samples (piper diagram); four main types of water were found: Na-Cl, K-Cl, Na-SO4, and K-SO4. It seems that most wells in terms of water quality (salinity and alkalinity) and based on Wilcox diagram have critical status. The analysis suggested that more than eighty-seven percentage of the well water samples have high values of EC that these values are higher than into critical limit EC value for irrigation water, which may be due to the sandy soils in this area. Most groundwater were relatively unsuitable for irrigation but it could be used by application of correct management such as removing and reducing the ion concentrations of Cl‾, SO42‾, Na+ and total hardness in groundwater and also the concentrated deep groundwater was required treatment to reduce the salinity and sodium hazard. Given that irrigation water quality in this area was relatively unsuitable for most agriculture production but pistachio tree was adapted to this area conditions. The integrated management of groundwater for irrigation is the way to solve water quality issues not only in Rafsanjan area, but also in other arid and semi-arid areas.

Keywords: Salinity, Groundwater Quality, irrigation water quality, alkalinity, Rafsanjan plain, pistachio

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40 Vitamin C Enhances Growth and Productivity of Sunflower Plants Grown under Newly-Reclaimed Saline Soil Conditions

Authors: Wael M. Semida, Saad M. Howladar, Mostafa M. Rady

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted during the two successive seasons of 2012 and 2013 in the Experimental Farm (newly-reclaimed saline soil; EC = 7.8 dS m-1), Faculty of Agriculture, Fayoum University, Fayoum, Egypt to investigate the effect of vitamin C foliar application at the rates of 1, 2, 3 and 4 mM on the possibility of improving growth, seed and oil yields, and some chemical constituents of Helianthus annuus L. plants under the adverse conditions of the selected soil. Significant positive influences of all vitamin C treatments were observed on growth, seed and oil yields and some chemical constituents in both seasons. Compared to unsprayed plants (control), spraying plants with various rates of vitamin C significantly increased vegetative growth traits (i.e. plant height, No. of leaves plant-1, leaf area leaf-1, total leaves area plant-1, and dry weights of leaves and shoot plant-1) and seed and oil yields and their components (i.e. head diameter, seed weight head-1, 100-seed weight, seed yield feddan-1 and oil yield feddan-1). In addition, the concentrations of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophylls, total carotenoids and total phenols in fresh leaves, and total carbohydrates, total soluble sugars, free proline and some nutrients (i.e. N, P, K, Fe, Mn, and Zn) in dry leaves were also increased significantly with all vitamin C applications. Vitamin C treatment at the rate of 3 mM was generated the best results. These results are important as the potential of vitamin C to alleviate the harmful effects of salt stress offer an opportunity to increase the resistance of sunflower plants to grow under saline conditions of the newly-reclaimed soils.

Keywords: Growth, Sunflower, Chemical Composition, Salinity, seed yield, oil content, Helianthus annuus L, ascorbic acid

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39 Extraction of Osmolytes from the Halotolerant Fungus Aspergillus oryzae

Authors: H. Nacef, L. Larous

Abstract:

Salin soils occupy about 7% of land area; they are characterized by unsuitable physical conditions for the growth of living organisms. However, researches showed that some microorganisms especially fungi are able to grow and adapt to such extreme conditions; it is due to their ability to develop different physiological mechanisms in their adaptation. The aim of this study is to identify qualitatively the osmolytes that the biotechnological important fungus A. oryzae accumulated and/or produced in its adaptation, which they were detected by Thin-layer chromatography technique (TLC) using several systems, from different media (Wheat brane, MNM medium and MM medium). The results showed that The moderately halotolerant fungus A. oryzae, accumulates mixture of molecules, containing polyols and sugars , some amino acids in addition to some molecules which were not defined. Wheat bran was the best medium for the extraction of these molecules, where the proportion was 85.71%, followed by MNM medium 64.28%, then the minimum medium MM 14.28%. Properties of osmolytes are becoming increasingly useful in molecular biology, agriculture pharmaceutical, medicinal, and biotechnological interests.

Keywords: Salinity, aspergillus oryzae, halo tolerance, osmolytes, compatible solutes

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38 Microbial Diversity of El-Baida Marsh: Setif, Algeria

Authors: H. Necef, A. Benayad

Abstract:

Fungi are becoming more and more important in our life. Therefore, as a start for the symposium on filamentous fungi in biotechnology a short survey of the role of fungi in biotechnology. Salin soils occupy about 7% of land area; they are characterized by unsuitable physical conditions for the growth of living organisms. However, researches showed that some microorganisms especially fungi are able to grow and adapt to such extreme conditions; it is due to their ability to develop different physiological mechanisms in their adaptation. This is the first study on the physiological and biological characteristics of El-Beida marsh. Nine soil samples were taken at different points in two steps, the first was in winter (low temperature), and the second was in summer (high temperature). The physicochemical analyses of the soil were conducted, then the isolation process was applied using two methods, direct method and dilution method (10-1, 10-2, 10-3, 10-4). Different species of fungi were identified belong to 21 genera in addition to 3 yeast species, Aspergillus showed the highest proportion by 43%, then Penicillium by 20% then Alternaria by 7%, in addition to various genera in different proportions. As for the sampling periods, it was observed that the spread of fungi in winter was higher than in summer with the proportion 75.47% and 24.53% respectively. Some halotolerant fungi have a biotechnological importance especially if the salinity of the medium is necessary for the fermentation, and if the halotolerance genes of the fungus will define, this will open the research to study and improve this property for the industrial important micro-organisms.

Keywords: Identification, Fungi, Salinity, aspergillus oryzae, halotolerance

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37 The Effect of Gibberellic Acid on Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Metabolism in Phaseolus Vulgaris L. Plant Exposed to Drought and Salt Stresses

Authors: Fazilet Özlem Çekiç, Seyda Yılmaz

Abstract:

Salinity and drought are important environmental problems in the world and have negative effects on plant metabolism. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), four-carbon non-protein amino acid, is a significant component of the free amino acid pool. GABA is widely distributed in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. Environmental stress factors increase GABA accumulation in plants. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of gibberellic acid (GA) on GABA metabolism system during drought and salt stress factors in Phaseolus vulgaris L. plants. GABA, Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity, chlorophyll, and lipid peroxidation (MDA) analyses were determined. According to our results we can suggest that GA play a role in GABA metabolism during salt and drought stresses in bean plants. Also GABA shunt is an important metabolic pathway and key signaling allowing to adapt to drought and salt stresses.

Keywords: Salinity, GABA, Drought, gibberellic acid, Phaseolus vulgaris L

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36 The Combined Influences of Salinity, Light and Nitrogen Limitation on the Growth and Biochemical Composition of Nannochloropsis sp. and Tetraselmis sp., Isolated from Penang National Park Coastal Waters, Malaysia

Authors: Mohamed M. Alsull

Abstract:

In the present study, two microalgae species “Nannochloropsis sp. and Tetraselmis sp.” isolated from Penang National Park coastal waters, Malaysia; were cultivated under combined various laboratory conditions “salinity, light, nitrogen limitation and starvation”. Growth rate, dry weight, chlorophyll a content, total lipid and protein contents, were estimated at mid exponential growth phase. Both Nannochloropsis sp. and Tetraselmis sp. showed remarkable decrease in growth rate, chlorophyll a content and protein content companied with increase in lipid content under nitrogen limitation and starvation conditions. Maintaining Nannochloropsis sp. under salinity 15‰ caused only significant decrease in total protein content; while Tetraselmis sp. grown at the same salinity caused decrease in the growth rate, chlorophyll a, dry weight and total protein content only when nitrogen was available.

Keywords: Light, Microalgae, Salinity, biochemical composition, nitrogen limitation

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35 The Effect of Salinity on Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation in Alfalfa and Faba Bean

Authors: Mouffok Ahlem, Belhamra Mohamed, Mouffok Sihem

Abstract:

The use of nitrogen fertilizers inevitable consequence, the increase in the nitrate content of water, which may contribute to the production of nitrite and the formation of carcinogenic nitrosamines. The nitrogen fertilizer may also affect the structure and function of the microbial community. And the fight against eutrophication of aquatic environments represents a cost to the student statements. The agronomic, ecological and economic legumes such as faba beans and alfalfa are not demonstrated, especially in the case of semi-arid and arid areas. Osmotic stress due to drought and / or salinity deficit, nutritional deficiencies is the major factors limiting symbiotic nitrogen fixation and productivity of pulses. To study the symbiotic nitrogen fixation in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in the region of Biskra, we used soil samples collected from 30 locations. This work has identified several issues of ecological and agronomic interest. Evaluation of symbiotic potential of soils in the region of Biskra; by trapping technique, show different levels of susceptibility to rhizobial microflora. The effectiveness of the rhizobial symbiosis in both legumes indicates that air dry biomass and the amount of nitrogen accumulated in the aerial part, depends mainly on the rate of nodulation and regardless of the species and locality. The correlation between symbiotic nitrogen fixation and some physico-chemical properties of soils shows that symbiotic nitrogen fixation in both legumes is strongly related to soil conditions of the soil. Salinity disrupts the physiological process of growth, development and more particularly that of the symbiotic fixation of atmospheric nitrogen. Against by phosphorus promotes rhizobial symbiosis.

Keywords: Salinity, rhizobia, faba bean, alfalfa

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34 Chloride Transport in Ultra High Performance Concrete

Authors: Radka Pernicova

Abstract:

Chloride resistance in Ultra High Performance Concrete (UHPC) is determined in this paper. This work deals with the one dimension chloride transport, which can be potentially dangerous particularly for the durability of concrete structures. Risk of reinforcement corrosion due to exposure to the concrete surface to direct the action of chloride ions (mainly in the form de-icing salts or groundwater) is dangerously increases. The measured data are investigated depending on the depth of penetration of chloride ions into the concrete structure. Comparative measurements with normal strength concrete are done as well. The experimental results showed that UHCP have improved resistance of chlorides penetration than NSC and also chloride diffusion depth is significantly lower in UHCP.

Keywords: Transport, Salinity, chloride, one dimensional diffusion, UHPC

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33 Evaluation of Groundwater Suitability for Irrigation Purposes: A Case Study for an Arid Region

Authors: Mustafa M. Bob, Norhan Rahman, Abdalla Elamin, Saud Taher

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to assess the suitability of Madinah city groundwater for irrigation purposes. Of the twenty three wells that were drilled in different locations in the city for the purposes of this study, twenty wells were sampled for water quality analyses. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) classification of irrigation water that is based on Sodium hazard (SAR) and salinity hazard was used for suitability assessment. In addition, the residual sodium carbonate (RSC) was calculated for all samples and also used for irrigation suitability assessment. Results showed that all groundwater samples are in the acceptable quality range for irrigation based on RSC values. When SAR and salinity hazard were assessed, results showed that while all groundwater samples (except one) fell in the acceptable range of SAR, they were either in the high or very high salinity zone which indicates that care should be taken regarding the type of soil and crops in the study area.

Keywords: SAR, Salinity, TDS, irrigation suitability

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32 Growth and Yield Potential of Quinoa genotypes on Salt Affected Soils

Authors: Shahid Iqbal, Shahzad M. A. Basra, Irfan Afzal, Hafeez-ur-Rehman

Abstract:

Quinoa a facultative halophyte crop plant is a new introduction in Pakistan due to its superior nutritional profile and its abiotic stress tolerance, especially against salinity. Present study was conducted to explore halophytic behavior of quinoa. Four quinoa genotypes (A1, A2, A7 and A9) were evaluated against high salinity (control, 100, 200, 300 and 400 mM). Evaluation was made on the basis of ionic analysis (Na+, K+ and K+: Na+ ratio in shoot) and root- shoot fresh and dry weight at four leaf stage. Seedling growth i.e. fresh and dry weight of shoot and root increased by 100 mM salinity and then growth decreased gradually with increasing salinity level in all geno types. Mineral analysis indicated that A2 and A7 have more tolerant behavior having low Na+ and high K+ ¬concentration as compared to A1 and A9. Same geno types as above were also evaluated against high salinity (control, 10, 20, 30, and 40 dS m-1) in pot culture during 2012-13. It was found that increase in salinity up to 10 dS m-1 the plant height, stem diameter and yield related traits increased but decreased with further increase in salinity. Same trend was observed in ionic contents. Maximum grain yield was achieved by A7 (100 g plant-1) followed by A2 (82 g plant-1) at salinity level 10 dS m-1. Next phase was carried out through field settings by using salt tolerant geno types (A2 and A7) at Crop Physiology Research Area Farm (non saline soil as control)/ Proka Farm (salt affected with EC up to 15 dS m-1), University of Agriculture, Faisalabad and Soil Salinity Research Institute, Pindi Bhtiaan (SSRI) Farm (one normal as control and two salt affected fields with EC values up to 15 and 30 dS m-1) during 2013-14. Genotype A7 showed maximum growth and gave maximum yield (3200 kg ha-1) at Proka Farm which was statistically at par to the values of yield obtained on normal soils of Faisalabad. Geno type A7 also gave maximum yield 2800 kg ha-1 on normal field of Pindi bhtiaan followed by as obtained (2340) on salt problem field (15 dS m-1) of same location.

Keywords: genotype, Salinity, quinoa, halophyte

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31 Physico-Chemical Quality Study of Geothermal Waters of the Region DjéRid-Tunisia

Authors: Anis Eloud, Mohamed Ben Amor

Abstract:

Tunisia is a semi-arid country on ¾ of its territory. It is characterized by the scarcity of water resources and accentuated by climate variability. The potential water resources are estimated at 4.6 million m3 / year, of which 2.7 million m3 / year represent surface water and 1.9 million m3 / year feed all the layers that make up the renewable groundwater resources. Water available in Tunisia easily exceed health or agricultural salinity standards. Barely 50% of water resources are less than 1.5 g / l divided at 72% of surface water salinity, 20% of deep groundwater and only 8% in groundwater levels. Southern Tunisia has the largest web "of water in the country, these waters are characterized by a relatively high salinity may exceed 4 gl-1. This is the "root of many problems encountered during their operation. In the region of Djérid, Albian wells are numerous. These wells debit a geothermal water with an average flow of 390 L / s. This water is characterized by a relatively high salinity and temperature of which is around 65 ° C at the source. Which promotes the formation of limescale deposits within the water supply pipe and the cooling loss thereby increasing the load in direct relation with enormous expense and circuits to replace these lines when completely plugged. The present work is a study of geothermal water quality of the region Djérid from physico-chemical analyzes.

Keywords: Geothermal, Water Quality, Salinity, supply pipe

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30 Exploitation of Variability for Salinity Tolerance in Maize Hybrids (Zea Mays L.) at Early Growth Stage

Authors: Abdul Qayyum, Hafiz Muhammad Saeed, Mamoona Hanif, Etrat Noor, Waqas Malik, Shoaib Liaqat

Abstract:

Salinity is extremely serious problem that has a drastic effect on maize crop, environment and causes economic losses of country. An advance technique to overcome salinity is to develop salt tolerant geno types which require screening of huge germplasm to start a breeding program. Therefore, present study was undertaken to screen out 25 maize hybrids of different origin for salinity tolerance at seedling stage under three levels of salt stress 250 and 300 mM NaCl including one control. The existence of variation for tolerance to enhanced NaCl salinity levels at seedling stage in maize proved that hybrids had differing ability to grow under saline environment and potential variability within specie. Almost all the twenty five maize hybrids behaved varyingly in response to different salinity levels. However, the maize hybrids H6, H13, H21, H23 and H24 expressed better performance under salt stress in terms of all six characters and proved to be as highly tolerant while H22, H17 H20, H18, H4, H9, and H8 were identified as moderately tolerant. Hybrids H14, H5, H11 and H3 H12, H2, were expressed as most sensitive to salinity suggesting that screening is an effective tool to exploit genetic variation among maize hybrids and salt tolerance in maize can be enhanced through selection and breeding procedure.

Keywords: Variation, Salinity, Hybrids, maize

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29 Evaluation of Genetic Diversity for Salt Stress in Maize Hybrids (Zea Mays L.) at Seedling Stage

Authors: Hafiz Muhammad Saeed, Mamoona Hanif, Etrat Noor, Waqas Malik, Shoaib Liaqat, Abdu Qayyum

Abstract:

Salinity is extremely serious problem that has a drastic effect on maize crop, environment and causes economic losses of country. An advance technique to overcome salinity is to develop salt tolerant geno types which require screening of huge germ plasm to start a breeding program. Therefore, present study was undertaken to screen out 25 maize hybrids of different origin for salinity tolerance at seedling stage under three levels of salt stress 250 and 300 mM NaCl including one control. The existence of variation for tolerance to enhanced NaCl salinity levels at seedling stage in maize proved that hybrids had differing ability to grow under saline environment and potential variability within specie. Almost all the twenty five maize hybrids behaved varyingly in response to different salinity levels. However, the maize hybrids H6, H13, H21, H23 and H24 expressed better performance under salt stress in terms of all six characters and proved to be as highly tolerant while H22, H17 H20, H18, H4, H9, and H8 were identified as moderately tolerant. Hybrids H14, H5, H11 and H3 H12, H2, were expressed as most sensitive to salinity suggesting that screening is an effective tool to exploit genetic variation among maize hybrids and salt tolerance in maize can be enhanced through selection and breeding procedure.

Keywords: Variation, Salinity, Hybrids, maize

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28 Salinity Effects on Germination of Malaysian Rice Varieties and Weedy Rice Biotypes

Authors: M. Kamal Uddin, H. Mohd Dandan, Ame H. Alidin

Abstract:

Germination and seedling growth of plant species are reduced in saline due to an external osmotic potential. An experiment was conducted at the laboratory, Faculty of Sustainable Agriculture, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, to compare the salt effect on seed germination and growth of weedy rice and cultivated rice. Seeds (10 in each) were placed in petri dishes. Five salinity levels 0 (distilled water), 4, 8, 12 and 16 dSm-1 (NaCl) were applied. The number of germinated seeds was recorded daily. The final germination percentage, germination index (GI), seedling vigour index (SVI) mean germination time (MGT), shoot and root dry weight were estimated. At highest salinity (16 dSm-1) germination percentage was higher (100%) in weedy rice awn and weedy rice compact. Lowest germination percentage was in MR219 and TQR-8 (50-60%). Mean germination time (MGT) was found higher in all weedy rice biotypes compared to cultivated rice. At highest salinity (16dSm-1) weedy rice open produced the highest MGT (9.92) followed by weedy rice compact (9.73) while lowest MGT was in MR219 (9.48). At highest salinity (16dSm-1) germination index was higher in weedy rice awn (11.71) and compact type (9.62). Lowest germination index was in MR219 (5.90) and TQR-8 (8.94). At the highest salinity (16 dSm−1), seedling vigor index was highest in weedy rice awn (6.06) followed by weedy rice compact (5.26); while lowest was in MR219 (2.11) followed by MR269 (3.82).On the basis of Germination index, seedling vigor index and growth related results it could be concluded that weedy rice awn, compact and open biotypes were more salt tolerant compared to other cultivated rice MR219, MR269, and TQR-8.

Keywords: Sustainable Agriculture, Salinity, Germination, rice and weedy rice

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27 Effect of Organic Fertilizers on the Improvement of Soil Microbiological Functioning under Saline Conditions of Arid Regions: Impact on Carbon and Nitrogen Mineralization

Authors: Oustani Mabrouka, Halilat Md Tahar, Hannachi Slimane

Abstract:

This study was conducted on representative and contrasting soils of arid regions. It focuses on the compared influence of two organic fertilizers: poultry manure (PM) and bovine manure (BM) on improving the microbial functioning of non-saline (SS) and saline (SSS) soils, in particularly, the process of mineralization of nitrogen and carbon. The microbiological activity was estimated by respirometric test (CO2–C emissions) and the extraction of two forms of mineral nitrogen (NH4+-N and NO3--N). Thus, after 56 days of incubation under controlled conditions (28 degrees and 80 per cent of the field capacity), the two types of manures showed that the mineralization activity varies according to type of soil and the organic substrate itself. However, the highest cumulative quantities of CO2–C, NH4+–N and NO3-–N obtained at the end of incubation were recorded in non-saline (SS) soil treated with poultry manure with 1173.4, 4.26 and 8.40 mg/100 g of dry soil, respectively. The reductions in rates of release of CO2–C and of nitrification under saline conditions were 21 and 36, 78 %, respectively. The influence of organic substratum on the microbial density shows a stimulating effect on all microbial groups studied. The whole results show the usefulness of two types of manures for the improvement of the microbiological functioning of arid soils.

Keywords: Carbon, Nitrogen, Microorganisms, Organic Matter, Salinity, Mineralization, arid regions

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26 Differential Response of Cellular Antioxidants and Proteome Expression to Salt, Cadmium and Their Combination in Spinach (Spinacia oleracea)

Authors: Rita Bagheri, Javed Ahmed, Humayra Bashir, M. Irfan Qureshi

Abstract:

Agriculture lands suffer from a combination of stresses such as salinity and metal contamination including cadmium at the same time. Under such condition of multiple stresses, plant may exhibit unique responses different from the stress occurring individually. Thus, it would be interesting to investigate that how plant respond to combined stress at level of antioxidants and proteome expression, and identifying the proteins which are involved in imparting stress tolerance. With an approach of comparative proteomics and antioxidant analysis, present study investigates the response of Spinacia oleracea to salt (NaCl), cadmium (Cd), and their combination (NaCl+Cd) stress. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used for resolving leaf proteome, and proteins of interest were identified using PDQuest software. A number of proteins expressed differentially, those indicated towards their roles in imparting stress tolerance, were digested by trypsin and analyzed on mass spectrometer for peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF). Data signals were then matched with protein databases using MASCOT. Results show that NaCl, Cd and both together (NaCl+Cd) induce oxidative stress which was highest in combined stress of Cd+NaCl. Correspondingly, the activities of enzymatic antioxidants viz., SOD, APX, GR and CAT, and non-enzymatic antioxidants had highest changes under combined stress compares to single stress over their respective controls. Among the identified proteins, several interesting proteins were identified that may be have role in Spinacia oleracia tolerance in individual and combinatorial stress of salt and cadmium. The functional classification of identified proteins indicates the importance and necessity of keeping higher ratio of defence and disease responsive proteins.

Keywords: Proteomics, Antioxidants, Salinity, Spinacia oleracea, combinatorial stress

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25 Effect of Salinity on Carbon Isotope Discrimination in Chamomile

Authors: Mehdi Ghanavati

Abstract:

The Effects of salinity level and duration on carbon isotope discrimination (Δ) of Matricaria chamomilla and Matricaria aurea were evaluated. Four ecotypes of M. chamomilla and four ecotypes of M. aurea were grown at different NaCl concentrations (control, 6, 12 and 18 dS/m) in sand culture condition. Carbon isotope discrimination (Δ) varied significantly (p<0.001) among ecotypes. The amount of carbon isotope discrimination (Δ) increased in first salinity level (6 dS/m), but in other levels (12 and 18 dS/m) it did not increase. Stages of salinity treatments (two stages: first from seedling stage until the end of the experiment and second stage of stress exertion began at stem elongation and seedlings emergence from rosette stage to harvest) had not a significant difference. Study of two spices of chamomile showed the M. aurea had a higher amount of carbon isotope discrimination (Δ) (22.9%) than M. chamomilla (22.48%).

Keywords: Salinity, carbon isotope discrimination, Matricaria chamomilla, Matricaria aurea

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24 Green Revolution and Reckless Use of Water and Its Implication on Climate Change Leading to Desertification: Situation of Karnataka, India

Authors: Arun Das

Abstract:

One of the basic objectives of Independent India five decades ago was to meet the increasing demand for food to its growing population. Self-sufficiency was accomplished towards food production and it was attained through launching green revolution program. The green revolution repercussions were not realized at that moment. Many projects were undertaken. Especially, major and minor irrigation projects were executed to harness the river water in the dry land regions of Karnataka. In the elevated topographical lands, extraction of underground water was a solace given by the government to protect the interest of the dry land farmers whose land did not come under the command area. Free borewell digging, pump sets, and electricity were provided. Thus, the self-sufficiency was achieved. Contrary to this, the Continuous long-term extraction of water for agriculture from bore well and in the irrigated tracks has lead to two-way effect such as soil leeching (Alkalinity and Salinity), secondly, depleted underground water to incredible deeps has pushed the natural process to an un-reparable damage which in turn the nature lost to support even a tiny plants like grass to grow, discouraging human and animal habitation, Both the process is silently turning southwestern, central, northeastern and north western regions of Karnataka into desert. The grave situation of Karnataka green revolution is addressed in this paper to alert reckless use of water and also some of the suggestions are recommended based on the ground information.

Keywords: Water, Desertification, green revolution, Salinity, alkalinity

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
23 Salinity Stress: Effects on Growth Biochemical Parameters and Ion Homeostasis in Spinach (Spinacia Oleracea L.)

Authors: Umar Jaafar, Mungadi

Abstract:

Plant growth, biochemical parameters, cytotoxic ion sequestration and ionic in balance were determined for spinach in response to varied concentrations of NaCl. The plant show decline in all vegetative parameters measured. Free proline content increase with increasing salt concentration and differ significantly (p<0.05) while the glycine betaine insignificantly (p>0.05) affected by concentration of NaCl. Salinity increases the cytotoxic ions, sodium chlorine ion and calcium with corresponding decrease in potassium ion concentrations. The ionic balance (Na+/K+) is low due to high content of potassium ion in plant accumulation ranging from 7700 to 6500 mg/kg. It can be concluded that the osmolyte accumulations, high number of leaves are possible indicators of salt tolerance in the spinach.

Keywords: Salinity, cytotoxic, osmolyte, spinach

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22 Exogenous Ascorbic Acid Increases Resistance to Salt of Carthamus tinctorius

Authors: Banu Aytül Ekmekçi

Abstract:

Salinity stress has negative effects on agricultural yield throughout the world, affecting production whether it is for subsistence or economic gain. This study investigates the inductive role of vitamin C and its application mode in mitigating the detrimental effects of irrigation with diluted (10, 20 and 30 %) NaCl + water on carthamus tinctorius plants. The results show that 10% of salt water exhibited insignificant changes, while the higher levels impaired growth by reducing seed germination, dry weights of shoot and root, water status and chlorophyll contents. However, irrigation with salt water enhanced carotenoids and antioxidant enzyme activities. The detrimental effects of salt water were ameliorated by application of 100 ppm ascorbic acid (vitamin C). The inductive role of vitamin was associated with the improvement of seed germination, growth, plant water status, carotenoids, endogenous ascorbic acid and antioxidant enzyme activities. Moreover, vitamin C alone or in combination with 30% NaCl water increased the intensity of protein bands as well as synthesized additional new proteins with molecular weights of 205, 87, 84, 65 and 45 kDa. This could increase tolerance mechanisms of treated plants towards water salinity.

Keywords: enzyme, stress, Salinity, NaCl, antioxidant, vitamin C

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21 The Effect of Salinity and Bentonite on the Hydrous Behaviors and Sodium Content of the Broad Bean Vicia faba var. Semilla violeta

Authors: T. Nouri, Y. H. A. Reguieg, A. Latigui, A. Ouaini

Abstract:

Salinity is considered as the most important abiotic factor. It limits growth and productivity of plants and degrades agricultural soils and ecosystem in arid and semi arid area. The study was conducted on Vicia faba L.’Semilla violeta’. Sowing was realized in plastic pots containing sandy substrates of bentonite 0, 3, 5, 7, and 10% associated with abiotic stresses of salinity corresponding to doses of NaCl, MgCl2 and MgSO4 20, 40, and 60 mmol/l respectively. The purpose of this work is to study the combined effect of salinity and of bentonite on a plant commonly cultivated in Algeria the broad bean Vicia faba has through the chemical and hydrous parameter. The results show that the combined action of strong concentration salt (40 and 60 mmol/l) and of bentonite a reduction of the relative content water reveals, against an increase in the content of hydrous deficit and of sodium. The growth of broad bean is significant in the substrate amended to 5 % of bentonite.

Keywords: Salinity, bentonite, Vicia faba L, sodium content, hydrous parameters

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20 Assessment of Water Quality Used for Irrigation: Case Study of Josepdam Irrigation Scheme

Authors: M. A. Adejumobi, J. O. Ojediran

Abstract:

The aim of irrigation is to recharge the available water in the soil. Quality of irrigation water is essential for the yield and quality of crops produced, maintenance of soil productivity and protection of the environment. The analysis of irrigation water arises as a need to know the impact of irrigation water on the yield of crops, the effect, and the necessary control measures to rectify the effect of this for optimum production and yield of crops. This study was conducted to assess the quality of irrigation water with its performance on crop planted, in Josepdam irrigation scheme Bacita, Nigeria. Field visits were undertaken to identify and locate water supply sources and collect water samples from these sources; X1 Drain, Oshin, River Niger loop and Ndafa. Laboratory experiments were then undertaken to determine the quality of raw water from these sources. The analysis was carried for various parameters namely; physical and chemical analyses after water samples have been taken from four sources. The samples were tested in laboratory. Results showed that the raw water sources shows no salinity tendencies with SAR values less than 1me/l and Ecvaules at Zero while the pH were within the recommended range by FAO, there are increase in potassium and sulphate content contamination in three of the location. From this, it is recommended that there should be proper monitoring of the scheme by conducting analysis of water and soil in the environment, preferable test should be carried out at least one year to cover the impact of seasonal variations and to determine the physical and chemical analysis of the water used for irrigation at the scheme.

Keywords: irrigation, Salinity, SCHEME, raw water quality

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19 Ascorbic Acid Application Mitigates the Salt Stress Effects on Helianthus annuus L. Plants Grown on a Reclaimed Saline Soil

Authors: Saad M. Howladar, Mostafa M. Rady, Majed M. Howladar

Abstract:

A field trial was conducted during two successive seasons (2013 and 2014) in Southeast Fayoum, Egypt (29º 17'N; 30º 53'E) to investigate the improving effect of ascorbic acid (Vit C) foliar spray at the rates of 0, 1, 2 or 3 mM on the growth, seed and oil yields, and some chemical constituents of sunflower plants grown on a reclaimed saline soil (EC = 7.98–7.83). Vit C application at all rates (1, 2 and 3 mM) was significantly increased growth traits, seed and oil yields, and the concentrations of endogenous Vit C, leaf photosynthetic pigments, total soluble sugars, free proline and nutrient elements as well as K/Na ratio. In contrast, Na concentration was significantly reduced with the application of all Vit C levels. Vit C foliar spray at the rate of 2 mM was found to be the best treatment, alleviating the inhibitory effects of salinity on sunflower plants grown on a reclaimed saline soil.

Keywords: Growth, Salinity, Helianthus annuus L, Vit C, seed and oil yields, osmoprotectants

Procedia PDF Downloads 306