Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

safflower Related Abstracts

11 Effect of Weed Control and Different Plant Densities the Yield and Quality of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.)

Authors: Hasan Dalgiç, Fikret Akinerdem

Abstract:

This trial was made to determine effect of different plant density and weed control on yield and quality of winter sowing safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) in Selcuk University, Agricultural Faculty trial fields and the effective substance of Trifluran was used as herbicide. Field trial was made during the vegetation period of 2009-2010 with three replications according to 'Split Plots in Randomized Blocks' design. The weed control techniques were made on main plots and row distances was set up on sub-plots. The trial subjects were consisting from three weed control techniques as fallowing: herbicide application (Trifluran), hoeing and control beside the row distances of 15 cm and 30 cm. The results were ranged between 59.0-76.73 cm in plant height, 40.00-47.07 cm in first branch height, 5.00-7.20 in number of branch per plant, 6.00-14.73 number of head per plant, 19.57-21.87 mm in head diameter, 2125.0-3968.3 kg ha-1 in seed yield, 27.10-28.08 % in crude oil rate and 531.7-1070.3 kg ha-1. According to the results, Remzibey safflower cultivar showed the highest seed yield on 30 cm of row distance and herbicide application by means of the direct effects of plant height, first branch height, number of branch per plant, number of head per plant, table diameter, crude oil rate and crude oil yield.

Keywords: Herbicide, seed yield, safflower, row spacing, oil ratio, oil yield

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10 Effect of Different Salt Concentrations and Temperatures on Seed Germination and Seedling Characters in Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) Genotypes

Authors: Rahim Ada, Zamari Temory, Hasan Dalgiç

Abstract:

Germination and seedling responses of seven safflower seed genotypes (Dinçer, Remzibey, Black Sun2 cultivars and A19, F4, I1, J19 lines) to different salinity concentrations (0, 5, 10, and 20 g l-1) and temperatures (10 and 20 oC) evaluated in Completely Randomized Factorial Designs in Department of Field Crops of Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey. Seeds in the control (distilled water) had at 10 and 20 oC the highest germination percentage (93.88 and 94.32 %), shoot length (4.60 and 8.72 cm), root length (4.27 and 6.54 cm), shoot dry weight (22.37 mg and 25.99 mg), and root dry weight (2.22 and 2.47 mg). As the salt concentration increased, values of all characters were decreased. In this experiment, in 20 g l-1 salt concentration found germination percentage (21.28 and 26.66 %), shoot (1.32 and 1.35 cm) and root length (1.04 and 1.10 cm), shoot (8.05 mg and 7.49 mg) and root dry weight (0.83 and 0.98 mg) at 10, and 20 oC.

Keywords: temperature, safflower, NaCl, shoot and root length, salt concentration

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9 Combustion Characteristics of Bioethanol-Biodiesel-Diesel Fuel Blends Used in a Common Rail Diesel Engine

Authors: Hasan Aydoğan

Abstract:

The changes in the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of bioethanol-safflower biodiesel and diesel fuel blends used in a common rail diesel engine were investigated in this experimental study. E20B20D60 (20% bioethanol, 20% biodiesel, 60% diesel fuel by volume), E30B20D50, E50B20D30 and diesel fuel (D) were used as fuel. The tests were performed at full throttle valve opening and variable engine speeds. The results of the tests showed decreases in engine power, engine torque, carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC) and smoke density values with the use of bioethanol-biodiesel and diesel fuel blends, whereas, increases were observed in nitrogen oxide (NOx) and brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) values. When combustion characteristics were examined, it was seen that the values were close to one another.

Keywords: Biodiesel, Bioethanol, safflower, combustion characteristics

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8 Ecological Effect on Aphid Population in Safflower Crop

Authors: Jan M. Mari

Abstract:

Safflower is a renowned drought tolerant oil seed crop. Previously its flowers were used for cooking and herbal medicines in China and it was cultivated by small growers for his personal needs of oil. A field study was conducted at experimental field, faculty of crop protection, Sindh Agricultural University Tandojam, during winter, 2012-13, to observe ecological effect on aphid population in safflower crop. Aphid population gradually increased with the growth of safflower. It developed with maximum aphid per leaf on 3rd week of February and it decreased in March as crop matured. A non-significant interaction was found with temperature of aphid, zigzag and hoverfly, respectively and a highly significant interaction with temperature was found with 7-spotted, lacewing, 9-spotted, and Brumus, respectively. The data revealed the overall mean population of zigzag was highest, followed by 9-spotted, 7-spotted, lace wing, hover fly and Brumus, respectively. In initial time the predator and prey ratio indicated that there was not a big difference between predator and prey ratio. After January 1st, the population of aphid increased suddenly until 18th February and it established a significant difference between predator prey ratios. After that aphid population started decreasing and it affected ratio between pest and predators. It is concluded that biotic factors, 7-spotted, zigzag, 9-spotted Brumus and lacewing exhibited a strong and positive correlation with aphid population. It is suggested that aphid pest should be monitored regularly and before reaching economic threshold level augmentation of natural enemies may be managed.

Keywords: Ecology, Population, safflower, aphid

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7 Relative Toxicity of Apparent Pesticides against Safflower Capsule Fly, Acanthiophilus helianthi Rossi (Diptera: Tephritidae) under Laboratory Conditions

Authors: Karim Saeidi

Abstract:

Safflower capsule fly, Acanthiophilus helianthi Rossi (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a key pest of safflower in Iran. The toxicity of Methidathion, Malathion, Deltamethrin, and Lufenuron to adult males and females of Acanthiophilus helianthi was studied under laboratory conditions. Malathion was the most toxic among the tested compounds followed by Methidathion, Lufenuron, and Deltamethrin to Acanthiophilus helianthi at 24 h post treatment, the respective LC50 values were 0.40 ppm, 0.68 ppm, 10.99 ppm, and 11.75 ppm for males and 0.46 ppm, 0.97 ppm, 13.45 ppm, and 16.32 ppm for females. At 48 h post treatment, Malathion was the most toxic followed by Methidathion, Deltamethrin, and Lufenuron to Acanthiophilus helianthi, LC50 values were 0.08 ppm, 0.54 ppm, 1.80 ppm, and 1.96 ppm for males and 0.34 ppm, 0.64 ppm, 1.88 ppm, and 2.37 ppm for females. At 72 h post treatment, Malathion was the most toxic followed by Methidathion, Lufenuron, and Deltamethrin to Acanthiophilus helianthi LC50 values were 0.04 ppm, 0.33 ppm, 0.44 ppm, and 0.71 ppm for males and 0.09 ppm, 0.36 ppm, 0.75 ppm, and 0.82 ppm for females. It is observed that LC50 values for treated adult females increased more than in the treated adult males at 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h post treatment. It means that the adult males were more susceptible to the tested insecticides than the adult females.

Keywords: safflower, methidathion, deltamethrin, tephritidae, malathion, Lufenuron, safflower capsule fly, Acanthiophilus helianthi

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6 Potential of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) for Phytoremediation of Soils Contaminated with Heavy Metals

Authors: Krasimir I. Ivanov, Violina R. Angelova, Vanja I. Akova, Stefan V. Krustev

Abstract:

A field study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of safflower plant for phytoremediation of contaminated soils. The experiment was performed on an agricultural fields contaminated by the Non-Ferrous-Metal Works near Plovdiv, Bulgaria. The concentrations of Pb, Zn and Cd in safflower (roots, stems, leaves and seeds), safflower oil and meal were determined. A correlation was found between the quantity of the mobile forms and the uptake of Pb, Zn and Cd by the safflower seeds. Safflower is a plant which is tolerant to heavy metals and can be grown on contaminated soils, and which can be referred to the hyperaccumulators of cadmium and the accumulators of lead and zinc, and can be successfully used in the phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soils. The processing of seeds to oil and using the obtained oil for nutritional purposes will greatly reduce the cost of phytoremediation. The possibility of further industrial processing will make safflower economically interesting crops for farmers of phytoremediation technology.

Keywords: Heavy Metals, Phytoremediation, safflower, polluted soils

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5 Oil Contents, Mineral Compositions, and Their Correlations in Wild and Cultivated Safflower Seeds

Authors: Rahim Ada, Mustafa Harmankaya, Sadiye Ayse Celik

Abstract:

The safflower seed contains about 25-40% solvent extract and 20-33% fiber. It is well known that dietary phospholipids lower serum cholesterol levels effectively. The nutrient composition of safflower seed changes depending on region, soil and genotypes. This research was made by using of six natural selected (A22, A29, A30, C12, E1, F4, G8, G12, J27) and three commercial (Remzibey, Dincer, Black Sun1) varieties of safflower genotypes. The research was conducted on field conditions for two years (2009 and 2010) in randomized complete block design with three replications in Konya-Turkey ecological conditions. Oil contents, mineral contents and their correlations were determined in the research. According to the results, oil content was ranged from 22.38% to 34.26%, while the minerals were in between the following values: 1469, 04-2068.07 mg kg-1 for Ca, 7.24-11.71 mg kg-1 for B, 13.29-17.41 mg kg-1 for Cu, 51.00-79.35 mg kg-1 for Fe, 3988-6638.34 mg kg-1 for K, 1418.61-2306.06 mg kg-1 for Mg, 11.37-17.76 mg kg-1 for Mn, 4172.33-7059.58 mg kg-1 for P and 32.60-59.00 mg kg-1 for Zn. Correlation analysis that was made separately for the commercial varieties and wild lines showed that high level of oil content was negatively affected by all the investigated minerals except for K and Zn in the commercial varieties.

Keywords: Oil, Quality, safflower, mineral content

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4 Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.)

Authors: Elitsa N. Kolentsova, Violina R. Angelova, Mariana N. Perifanova-Nemska, Galina P. Uzunova

Abstract:

Comparative research has been conducted to allow us to determine the accumulation of heavy metals (Pb, Zn and Cd) in the vegetative and reproductive organs of safflower, and to identify the possibility of its growth on soils contaminated by heavy metals and efficacy for phytoremediation. The experiment was performed on an agricultural field contaminated by the Non-Ferrous-Metal Works (MFMW) near Plovdiv, Bulgaria. The experimental plots were situated at different distances (0.1, 0.5, 2.0, and 15 km) from the source of pollution. The contents of heavy metals in plant materials (roots, stems, leaves, seeds) were determined. The quality of safflower oils (heavy metals and fatty acid composition) was also determined. The quantitative measurements were carried out with inductively-coupled plasma (ICP). Safflower is a plant that is tolerant to heavy metals and can be referred to the hyperaccumulators of lead and cadmium and the accumulators of zinc. The plant can be successfully used in the phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soils. The processing of safflower seeds into oil and the use of the obtained oil will greatly reduce the cost of phytoremediation.

Keywords: Heavy Metals, Phytoremediation, safflower, accumulation, polluted soils

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3 Study of Dormancy-Breaking of Bitter Apple Seed (Citrullus Colocynthis L. Schard)

Authors: Asghar Rahimi, Majid Puryousef

Abstract:

This study aimed to examine dormancy-breaking of bitter apple (Citrullus colocynthis) seed. Seeds of wild bitter apple collected from the Balochestan zone in east of Iran were subjected to different treatments including temperatures (20 and 30°C) and some dormancy breaking methods on breaking seed dormancy of bitter apple. Only 6 treatments from 12 dormancy breaking treatments were effective in dormancy breaking, therefore only effective treatments were analyzed. In general, germination percentage of cleaved seeds, soaked seeds in hot water (98°c) and soaking in H2SO4 in both temperatures was higher than other treatments and germination percentage of scarified seeds with sandy paper in both temperature was lower than other treatments. Also germination percentage of soaked seeds in hot water (98°c) and naturally cracked seeds in temperature 20°c was higher than 30°c.

Keywords: Nitrogen, safflower, foliar application, nano chelate

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2 Nitrogen Uptake of Different Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) Genotypes at Different Growth Stages in Semi-Arid Conditions

Authors: Zehra Aytac, Nurdilek Gulmezoglu

Abstract:

Safflower has been grown for centuries for many purposes worldwide. Especially it is important for the orange-red dye from its petal and for its high-quality oil obtained from the seeds. The crop is high adaptable to areas with insufficient rainfall and poor soil conditions. The plant has a deep taproot that can draw moisture and plant nutrients from deep to the subsoil. The research was carried out to study the nitrogen (N) uptake of different safflower cultivars and lines at different stages of growth and different plant parts in the experimental field of Faculty of Agriculture, Eskişehir Osmangazi University under semi-arid conditions. Different safflower cultivars and lines of varied origins were used as the material. The cultivars and lines were planted in a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Two different growth stages (flowering and harvest) and three different plant parts (head, stem+leaf and seed) were determined. The nitrogen concentration of different plant parts was determined by the Kjeldahl method. Statistical analysis were performed by analysis of variance for each growth stage and plant parts taking a level of p < 0.05 and p < 0.01 as significant according to the LSD test. As a result, N concentration showed significant differences among different plant parts and different growth stages for different safflower genotypes of varied origins.

Keywords: safflower, Carthamus tinctorius L, growth stages, head N, leaf N, N uptake, seed N

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1 Evaluation of Different Cropping Systems under Organic, Inorganic and Integrated Production Systems

Authors: Sidramappa Gaddnakeri, Lokanath Malligawad

Abstract:

Any kind of research on production technology of individual crop / commodity /breed has not brought sustainability or stability in crop production. The sustainability of the system over years depends on the maintenance of the soil health. Organic production system includes use of organic manures, biofertilizers, green manuring for nutrient supply and biopesticides for plant protection helps to sustain the productivity even under adverse climatic condition. The study was initiated to evaluate the performance of different cropping systems under organic, inorganic and integrated production systems at The Institute of Organic Farming, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad (Karnataka-India) under ICAR Network Project on Organic Farming. The trial was conducted for four years (2013-14 to 2016-17) on fixed site. Five cropping systems viz., sequence cropping of cowpea – safflower, greengram– rabi sorghum, maize-bengalgram, sole cropping of pigeonpea and intercropping of groundnut + cotton were evaluated under six nutrient management practices. The nutrient management practices are NM1 (100% Organic farming (Organic manures equivalent to 100% N (Cereals/cotton) or 100% P2O5 (Legumes), NM2 (75% Organic farming (Organic manures equivalent to 75% N (Cereals/cotton) or 100% P2O5 (Legumes) + Cow urine and Vermi-wash application), NM3 (Integrated farming (50% Organic + 50% Inorganic nutrients, NM4 (Integrated farming (75% Organic + 25% Inorganic nutrients, NM5 (100% Inorganic farming (Recommended dose of inorganic fertilizers)) and NM6 (Recommended dose of inorganic fertilizers + Recommended rate of farm yard manure (FYM). Among the cropping systems evaluated for different production systems indicated that the Groundnut + Hybrid cotton (2:1) intercropping system found more remunerative as compared to Sole pigeonpea cropping system, Greengram-Sorghum sequence cropping system, Maize-Chickpea sequence cropping system and Cowpea-Safflower sequence cropping system irrespective of the production systems. Production practices involving application of recommended rates of fertilizers + recommended rates of organic manures (Farmyard manure) produced higher net monetary returns and higher B:C ratio as compared to integrated production system involving application of 50 % organics + 50 % inorganic and application of 75 % organics + 25 % inorganic and organic production system only Both the two organic production systems viz., 100 % Organic production system (Organic manures equivalent to 100 % N (Cereals/cotton) or 100 % P2O5 (Legumes) and 75 % Organic production system (Organic manures equivalent to 75 % N (Cereals) or 100 % P2O5 (Legumes) + Cow urine and Vermi-wash application) are found to be on par. Further, integrated production system involving application of organic manures and inorganic fertilizers found more beneficial over organic production systems.

Keywords: Production Systems, Cropping systems, Cotton, safflower, Cowpea, groundnut, greengram, pigeonpea

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