Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 96

Safety Related Abstracts

96 Status of Radiation Protection at Radiation Oncology, BPKM Cancer Hospital, Nepal

Authors: Surendra B. Chand, P. P. Chaurasia, M. P. Adhikari, R. N. Yadav

Abstract:

Objective: The objective of this work was to evaluate all the safety procedures toward the radiation protection for workers in the radiation oncology department. Materials and Methods: The annual thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) reports for five years of the staffs were evaluated, radiation surveys were done in the control consoles, radiotherapy machines room and waiting areas of all machines using Aloka survey meter. Results: The five years TLD reports shows that the whole body dose of the individual staffs is found within the annual dose limit except the accidental exposures. Radiation exposures in the working areas are also safe limits. Conclusion: The radiation safety practices for radiation protection are satisfactory and the radiation workers of the departments are found working within the safe limit.

Keywords: Safety, Radiation Protection, TLD, ICRP, dose limits, radiation devices

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95 The Status and Role of Women in Indian IT Industry and Relevant Role and Scope of HRM

Authors: Shivani Kolarkar

Abstract:

Splendid growth in Indian IT has generated women employment on a large scale in India and continues to do it. Indian IT industry has achieved this in spite of total masculine dominance in other Indian engineering industries, where the ratio of women employment is almost negligible as compared to men. Indian IT today proudly enjoys a strong pool of technically educated, intellectual, and skillful women employees. IT industry has encouraged technical education for women in India, to a great extent. The software industry has definitely contributed to developing a positive and dignified role and status of women employees in Indian IT industry. It has promoted women’s social and economic role and status. In spite of all, gender discrimination still persists in Indian IT, also, which is low as compared to other industries, but it is a matter of concern. An Indian woman is bound to carry dual roles which are equally over-stressed for IT women employees. Long working hours, night shifts, work pressures and insufficient safety majors and necessary facilities for women contributes to making her physical-mental life, family and married life troublesome. Which forces her either to cluster at low-end jobs in IT/elsewhere or to sacrifice her career. Nature, role and status of HRM needs to be broadened, deepened and shaped into research-oriented multidimensional perspective in the context of really enhancing role and status of Indian IT women with high appreciation of women employees’ dignity and entity.

Keywords: Safety, attrition, Technical Education, Gender Discrimination, Job Satisfaction, HRM, Indian IT, software industry, women employment

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
94 Data-Mining Approach to Analyzing Industrial Process Information for Real-Time Monitoring

Authors: Seung-Lock Seo

Abstract:

This work presents a data-mining empirical monitoring scheme for industrial processes with partially unbalanced data. Measurement data of good operations are relatively easy to gather, but in unusual special events or faults it is generally difficult to collect process information or almost impossible to analyze some noisy data of industrial processes. At this time some noise filtering techniques can be used to enhance process monitoring performance in a real-time basis. In addition, pre-processing of raw process data is helpful to eliminate unwanted variation of industrial process data. In this work, the performance of various monitoring schemes was tested and demonstrated for discrete batch process data. It showed that the monitoring performance was improved significantly in terms of monitoring success rate of given process faults.

Keywords: Data Mining, Safety, monitoring, Industrial Processes, process data

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
93 Environmental Safety and Occupational Health Risk Assessment for Rocket Static Test

Authors: Phontip Kanlahasuth

Abstract:

This paper presents the environmental safety and occupational health risk assessment of rocket static test by assessing risk level from probability and severity and then appropriately applying the risk control measures. Before the environmental safety and occupational health measures are applied, the serious hazards level is 31%, medium level is 24% and low level is 45%. Once risk control measures are practically implemented, the serious hazard level can be diminished, medium level is 38%, low level is 45% and eliminated level is 17%. It is clearly shown that the environmental safety and occupational health measures can significantly reduce the risk level.

Keywords: Probability, Safety, Environment, risk analysis, Risk, Occupational Health, Risk Assessment, Hazard, rocket static test, acceptable risk, severity, risk level

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92 Proposal to Increase the Efficiency, Reliability and Safety of the Centre of Data Collection Management and Their Evaluation Using Cluster Solutions

Authors: Martin Juhas, Bohuslava Juhasova, Igor Halenar, Andrej Elias

Abstract:

This article deals with the possibility of increasing efficiency, reliability and safety of the system for teledosimetric data collection management and their evaluation as a part of complex study for activity “Research of data collection, their measurement and evaluation with mobile and autonomous units” within project “Research of monitoring and evaluation of non-standard conditions in the area of nuclear power plants”. Possible weaknesses in existing system are identified. A study of available cluster solutions with possibility of their deploying to analysed system is presented.

Keywords: Reliability, Safety, Efficiency, teledosimetric data, cluster solution

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
91 Effect on Occupational Health Safety and Environment at Work from Metal Handicraft Using Rattanakosin Local Wisdom

Authors: Witthaya Mekhum, Waleerak Sittisom

Abstract:

This research investigated the effect on occupational health safety and environment at work from metal handicraft using Rattanakosin local wisdom focusing on pollution, accidents, and injuries from work. The sample group in this study included 48 metal handicraft workers in 5 communities by using questionnaires and interview to collect data. The evaluation form TISI 18001 was used to analyze job safety analysis (JSA). The results showed that risk at work reduced after applying the developed model. Banbu Community produces alloy bowl rubbed with stone. The high risk process is melting and hitting process. Before the application, the work risk was 82.71%. After the application of the developed model, the work risk was reduced to 50.61%. Banbart Community produces monk’s food bowl. The high risk process is blow pipe welding. Before the application, the work risk was 93.59%. After the application of the developed model, the work risk was reduced to 48.14%. Bannoen Community produces circle gong. The high risk process is milling process. Before the application, the work risk was 85.18%. After the application of the developed model, the work risk was reduced to 46.91%. Teethong Community produces gold leaf. The high risk process is hitting and spreading process. Before the application, the work risk was 86.42%. After the application of the developed model, the work risk was reduced to 64.19%. Ban Changthong Community produces gold ornament. The high risk process is gold melting process. Before the application, the work risk was 67.90%. After the application of the developed model, the work risk was reduced to 37.03%. It can be concluded that with the application of the developed model, the work risk of 5 communities was reduced in the 3 main groups: (1) Work illness reduced by 16.77%; (2) Pollution from work reduced by 10.31%; (3) Accidents and injuries from work reduced by 15.62%.

Keywords: Safety, Occupational Health, local wisdom, Rattanakosin

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90 Safety Approach Highway Alignment Optimization

Authors: Seyed Abbas Tabatabaei, Marjan Naderan Tahan, Arman Kadkhodai

Abstract:

An efficient optimization approach, called feasible gate (FG), is developed to enhance the computation efficiency and solution quality of the previously developed highway alignment optimization (HAO) model. This approach seeks to realistically represent various user preferences and environmentally sensitive areas and consider them along with geometric design constraints in the optimization process. This is done by avoiding the generation of infeasible solutions that violate various constraints and thus focusing the search on the feasible solutions. The proposed method is simple, but improves significantly the model’s computation time and solution quality. On the other, highway alignment optimization through Feasible Gates, eventuates only economic model by considering minimum design constrains includes minimum reduce of circular curves, minimum length of vertical curves and road maximum gradient. This modelling can reduce passenger comfort and road safety. In most of highway optimization models, by adding penalty function for each constraint, final result handles to satisfy minimum constraint. In this paper, we want to propose a safety-function solution by introducing gift function.

Keywords: Optimization, Safety, alignment, highway geometry

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89 Design and Development of Herbal Formulations: Challenges and Solutions

Authors: B. Sathyanarayana

Abstract:

As per the report of World Health Organization, more than 80% of world population uses medicines made from herbal and natural materials. They have stood the test of time for their safety, efficacy, cultural acceptability and lesser side effects. Quality assurance and control measures, such as national quality specification and standards for herbal materials, good manufacturing practices (GMP) for herbal medicines, labelling, and licensing schemes for manufacturing, imports and marketing, should be in place in every country where herbal medicines are regulated. These measures are vital for ensuring the safety and efficacy of herbal medicines. In the case of herbal products challenge begins at the stage of designing itself except the classical products. Selection of herbal ingredients, officinal parts to be used, proportions are vital. Once the formulation is designed one should take utmost care to produce the standardized product of assured quality and safety. Quality control measures should cover the validation of quality and identity of raw materials, in process control (as per SOP and GMP norms) and at the level of final product. Quality testing, safety and efficacy studies of the final product are required to ensure the safe and effective use of the herbal products in human beings. Medicinal plants being the materials of natural resource are subjected to great variation making it really difficult to fix quality standards especially in the case of polyherbal preparations. Manufacturing also needs modification according to the type of ingredients present. Hence, it becomes essential to develop Standard operative Procedure for a specific herbal product. Present paper throws a light on the challenges that are encountered during the design and development of herbal products.

Keywords: Challenges, Safety, Quality, Efficacy, herbal product

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88 Influence of Mooring Conditions on Side-By-Side Offloading System Safety Performance

Authors: Liu Shengnan, Sun Liping, Zhu Jianxun

Abstract:

Based on three dimensional potential flow theory, hydrodynamic response analysis is carried on the multi floating bodies system composed of FPSO moored with yoke and shuttle tanker. It considered hydrodynamic interaction between FPSO and shuttle tanker, interaction between the hull and yoke mooring systems, hawsers, fenders, and then focuses on hawsers of the side-by-side offloading system. The influence of hawsers parameters on system safety is studied in respects of hawser stiffness, length and arrangement. Through analysis in different environment conditions and two typical loading conditions, it can be found that a better safety performance can be achieved through these three ways including enlarging the number of hawsers as well as the stiffness of hawsers, changing the length and arrangement of hawsers.

Keywords: Safety, yoke mooring, side-by-side offloading, multi floating body, hawser

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87 Management of Al-Khaldiyah Road (Al Khobar) in Order to Optimize Safety and Improve Sight View

Authors: Tahar Ayadat, Amer Alsari, Hassan Alhalal, Andi Asiz, Omar KM Ouda

Abstract:

Al Khaldiyah is a regional road situated in west-south of Al Khobar, precisely in the area of Half Moon Bay. It is characterized by four lines, which become six lines in some places, in both directions extending over about 10 km length. The road extends between the bridge near the Air Force Base and Half Moon Bay Road. Many accidents have been observed in this road notably over the last two years. Many injuries and deaths were recorded, some of the victims were PMU students. Consequently, management of the road to eliminate or reduce accidents to a large extend becomes imperative. The main goal of this project are to propose sustainable solutions for the purpose optimizing safety and improving its sight view by designing some appropriate junctions including bridge and tunnel in the critical locations.

Keywords: Management, Safety, Sustainable, Traffic, solutions, Road, accident

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
86 A Study of Safety of Data Storage Devices of Graduate Students at Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University

Authors: Komol Phaisarn, Natcha Wattanaprapa

Abstract:

This research is a survey research with an objective to study the safety of data storage devices of graduate students of academic year 2013, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. Data were collected by questionnaire on the safety of data storage devices according to CIA principle. A sample size of 81 was drawn from population by purposive sampling method. The results show that most of the graduate students of academic year 2013 at Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University use handy drive to store their data and the safety level of the devices is at good level.

Keywords: Security, Safety, Storage Devices, graduate students

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85 Risk Assessment of Reinforcement System on Fractured Rock Mass, Gate Shaft Project, Jatigede Dam, Sumedang, West Java, Indonesia

Authors: A. Ardianto, M. A. Putera Agung, S. Pramusandi

Abstract:

Power waterway is one of dam structures and as an intake vertical tunnel or well function for hydroelectric power plants in Jatigede area, Sumedang, West Java. Gate shaft is also one of parts the power waterway system. The paper concerns some consideration in determining a critical state parameter on the back stability analysis of gate shaft or excavation wall stability during excavation. Study analysis was carried out using without and with reinforcement system. Results study showed that reinforcement shaft could reduce the total displacement and safety factor could increases significantly. Based on the back calculation results, it was recommended to install some reinforcement materials and drainage system to reduce pore water pressure.

Keywords: Safety, Displacement, reinforcement, power waterway

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84 An Analysis of New Service Interchange Designs

Authors: Joseph E. Hummer

Abstract:

An efficient freeway system will be essential to the development of Africa, and interchanges are a key to that efficiency. Around the world, many interchanges between freeways and surface streets, called service interchanges, are of the diamond configuration, and interchanges using roundabouts or loop ramps are also popular. However, many diamond interchanges have serious operational problems, interchanges with roundabouts fail at high demand levels, and loops use lots of expensive land. Newer service interchange designs provide other options. The most popular new interchange design in the US at the moment is the double crossover diamond (DCD), also known as the diverging diamond. The DCD has enormous potential, but also has several significant limitations. The objectives of this paper are to review new service interchange options and to highlight some of the main features of those alternatives. The paper tests four conventional and seven unconventional designs using seven measures related to efficiency, cost, and safety. The results show that there is no superior design in all measures investigated. The DCD is better than most designs tested on most measures examined. However, the DCD was only superior to all other designs for bridge width. The DCD performed relatively poorly for capacity and for serving pedestrians. Based on the results, African freeway designers are encouraged to investigate the full range of alternatives that could work at the spot of interest. Diamonds and DCDs have their niches, but some of the other designs investigated could be optimum at some spots.

Keywords: Safety, Diamond, Capacity, Cost, interchange, diverging diamond

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
83 Effect of Composition Fuel on Safety of Combustion Process

Authors: Lourdes I. Meriño, Viatcheslav Kafarov, Maria Gómez

Abstract:

Fuel gas used in the burner receives as contributors other gases from different processes and this result in variability in the composition, which may cause an incomplete combustion. The burners are designed to operate in a certain curve, the calorific power dependent on the pressure and gas burners. When deviation of propane and C5+ is huge, there is a large release of energy, which causes it to work out the curves of the burners, because less pressure is required to force curve into operation. That increases the risk of explosion in an oven, besides of a higher environmental impact. There should be flame detection systems, and instrumentation equipment, such as local pressure gauges located at the entrance of the gas burners, to permit verification by the operator. Additionally, distributed control systems must be configured with different combustion instruments associated with respective alarms, as well as its operational windows, and windows control guidelines of integrity, leaving the design information of this equipment. Therefore, it is desirable to analyze when a plant is taken out of service and make good operational analysis to determine the impact of changes in fuel gas streams contributors, by varying the calorific power. Hence, poor combustion is one of the cause instability in the flame of the burner and having a great impact on process safety, the integrity of individuals and teams and environment.

Keywords: Safety, combustion process, fuel composition, fuel gas

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82 A Cohort Study of Early Cardiologist Consultation by Telemedicine on the Critical Non-STEMI Inpatients

Authors: Wisit Wichitkosoom

Abstract:

Objectives: To find out the more effect of early cardiologist consultation using a simple technology on the diagnosis and early proper management of patients with Non-STEMI at emergency department of district hospitals without cardiologist on site before transferred. Methods: A cohort study was performed in Udonthani general hospital at Udonthani province. From 1 October 2012–30 September 2013 with 892 patients diagnosed with Non-STEMI. All patients mean aged 46.8 years of age who had been transferred because of Non-STEMI diagnosed, over a 12 week period of studied. Patients whose transferred, in addition to receiving proper care, were offered a cardiologist consultation with average time to Udonthani hospital 1.5 hour. The main outcome measure was length of hospital stay, mortality at 3 months, inpatient investigation, and transfer rate to the higher facilitated hospital were also studied. Results: Hospital stay was significantly shorter for those didn’t consult cardiologist (hazard ratio 1.19; approximate 95% CI 1.001 to 1.251; p = 0.039). The 136 cases were transferred to higher facilitated hospital. No statistically significant in overall mortality between the groups (p=0.068). Conclusions: Early cardiologist consultant can reduce length of hospital stay for patients with cardiovascular conditions outside of cardiac center. The new basic technology can apply for the safety patient.

Keywords: Telemedicine, Safety, Critical, non STEMI

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81 Reliability Analysis of Partial Safety Factor Design Method for Slopes in Granular Soils

Authors: K. E. Daryani, H. Mohamad

Abstract:

Uncertainties in the geo-structure analysis and design have a significant impact on the safety of slopes. Traditionally, uncertainties in the geotechnical design are addressed by incorporating a conservative factor of safety in the analytical model. In this paper, a risk-based approach is adopted to assess the influence of the geotechnical variable uncertainties on the stability of infinite slopes in cohesionless soils using the “partial factor of safety on shear strength” approach as stated in Eurocode 7. Analyses conducted using Monte Carlo simulation show that the same partial factor can have very different levels of risk depending on the degree of uncertainty of the mean values of the soil friction angle and void ratio.

Keywords: Reliability, Safety, Sand, Infinite Slopes, probability of failure

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80 Aerodynamic Analysis of Vehicles

Authors: V. A. C. Vale, E. T. L. Cöuras Ford, J. U. L. Mendes

Abstract:

Two of the objective principal in the study of the aerodynamics of vehicles are the safety and the acting. Those objectives can be reached through the development of devices modify the drainage of air about of the vehicle and also through alterations in the way of the external surfaces. The front lowest profile of the vehicle, for instance, has great influence on the coefficient of aerodynamic penetration (Cx) and later on great part of the pressure distribution along the surface of the vehicle. The objective of this work was of analyzing the aerodynamic behavior that it happens on some types the trucks of vehicles, based on experimentation in aerodynamic tunnel, seeking to determine the aerodynamic efficiency of each one of them.

Keywords: Safety, Vehicles, Aerodynamic, Wind Tunnel, Acting

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79 Households’ Willingness to Pay for Environmental and General Health Safety during the Advent of Ebola Virus Diseases in Nigeria

Authors: Shittu Bisi Agnes

Abstract:

Studies on households’ willingness to pay for environmental and general health safety in the advent of Ebola virus Diseases in Nigeria was carried out. This is aimed at revealing the means by which the virus was eventually eradicated in Nigeria as widely claimed in the media. This study therefore attempted to determine the environmental and general health condition in the State Of Osun, how socio-economic characteristics of the people affected willingness to pay. And also provide platform for the reduction of environmental and general health problems. Data were collected with the aid of well-structured questionnaire and administer 150 randomly selected people of study area, and oral interview was also utilized. Data collected were analyzed using both descriptive tools and inferential statistics vis-a-viz regression analysis. Findings showed 92.5% of respondents was aware of ebola virus diseases outbreak in Nigeria, 8.5% was unaware of any disease outbreak. And 65.7% of respondents was strongly willing to pay for environmental and general health safety 27.1% was fairly willing, 5.7% was indifferent and 1.7% was unwilling to pay. 5% rated the level of environmental and general health condition in the area has been good, 53.6% rated theirs has been fair, 33.6% as been poor. The average willingness to pay per household per month were #500.00, #250.00, #150.00 and #100.00 respectively for the four categories. It was recommended that policy instruments to increase peoples' income will accelerate eradication of environmental and general health problems, environmental health education in form of talk shop, workshop, lectures and seminars could be organized at the political ward levels, churches, mosque, and at schools. Environmental and general health safety related information could be disseminated through mass media, market women, and functional unions.

Keywords: Safety, socio-economic, ebola virus diseases (EVD), pay, Osun

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78 Societal Stakes for Small Cruise Ships: A Recurrent Issue of Our Time

Authors: Maud Tixier

Abstract:

Societal issues are at stake for cruises anywhere, whatever the size of the ships and their destinations are. However, the Mediterranean sea is the main region where many operate and the challenges are both social and environmental. The presentation focuses on small ships, accounting for market niches, aimed at more specific cruise passengers and calling at less visited areas. How they cope with the benefit of all stakeholders is a persistent issue of our time.

Keywords: Management, Safety, Environment, Social, societal

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
77 Results of the Safety Evaluation of Cancer Vaccines Dealing with Novel Targets for Cancer Immunotherapy

Authors: Axel Mancebo, Ana M. Bada, Angel Casacó, Bárbara González, Avelina León, María E. Arteaga, Consuelo González, Belinda Sánchez, Adriana Carr, Nuris Ledón, Arianna Iglesias

Abstract:

Despite the many preventive and therapeutic modalities aimed at curing cancer, it remains as a serious world health problem. Promising recent developments suggest that cancer immunotherapy may be the next great hope for cancer treatment. EGFRs are receptor tyrosine kinases and it is considered an important therapeutic target related with tumor progression, and several types of molecular therapies, including monoclonal antibodies, small molecules, and vaccines, have been developed to target the HER family of receptors. On the other hand, gangliosides are membrane glycosphingolipids that contain two variants of sialic acid, the N-acetylated (NeuAc) and the N-glycolylated (NeuGc) variant. The high expression of this antigen-specific molecule has been associated with malignant tumor progression and immunosuppressive mechanisms, so ganglioside could be considered as the target for cancer immunotherapy. We have been working for several years in the safety evaluation of cancer vaccines targeting these two systems, the EGF receptor and ganglioside. We presented in this work results of repeated dose toxicity studies performed in Sprague Dawley rats and Cynomolgus monkeys, including clinical observations, body weight and rectal temperature measuring, clinical pathology analysis, gross necropsy and histological examination in rodent studies, and immunological evaluation. Immunizations were capable of inducing mainly inflammatory effects at the injection site, with findings largely attributable to the adjuvants used and probably enhanced by the immunological properties of the antigens. In general, these vaccines were shown to be well tolerated, and these studies in relevant species allow treating cancer patients with tumors during long periods with relative weight safety margin.

Keywords: Safety, toxicology, Cancer vaccines, rats, non human primates

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
76 Analysis of Peoples' Adherence to Safety Measures that Curb Ebola Virus Diseases in Nigeria (A Case Study of State of Osun)

Authors: Shittu Bisi Agnes

Abstract:

Ebola virus Diseases outbreak in Nigeria caused a lot of concerns considering the mode of transmission and no known cure discovered. Therefore a lot of safety measures were taken which eventually led to the eradication of the virus in Nigeria. This therefore attempted to determine the various safety measures, how socio-economic characteristic of the people affected adherence to safety measures. And provide reasonable recommendations for total eradication of the virus, future outbreak and general environmental safety Data were collected with the aid of well structured questionnaires and administered 180 randomly selected of the state and oral interview was also utilize. Data collected were analysed using both descriptive tools and inferential statistics vis-a-vis regression analysis. Finding showed that 70.5% was strongly adhere to almost all the measures, 15.2% was fairly advent, 3% was poorly observing the selected measures while 1.3% was in different. 65% of the respondents was strongly aware of the advent of ebola virus diseases, 20% was fairly in awareness, 8.5% was poorly in awareness while 6.55% was in aware of any disease outbreak. Safety measures put forwards were; hand washing, use of hand sanitize-rs, no shaking of hands non-consumption of wildlife games(Bush Meat) and general health and environmental safety measures. It was recommended that policy instrument to increase peoples income will accelerate eradication of diseases as this will enable households to pay for monetary safety measures, health and environmental education, in form of talk shop, workshop, lectures could be organised at the political ward levels, schools, market women, religious bodies functional unions and mass media.

Keywords: Safety, outbreak, pay, ebola diseases

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75 Environmental Impact Assessment of Electromagnetic Fields Emitted from Mobile Base Station in Central Area of KSA

Authors: Mohammed Abdullah Alrajhi

Abstract:

The rapid growth in the number of mobile phone subscribers has resulted in an increased number of mobile base stations all over the world. Generally, mobile base stations are existing in huge numbers in populated areas than in non-populated ones to serve the largest number of users. The total number of mobile subscriptions in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia reached around 50 million at the end of 2014, with a penetration rate of 165.1% according to the quarterly electronic newsletter issued by the Communications and Information Technology Commission. The current investigation was conducted primarily to measure the level of electromagnetic fields emitted from 400 mobile base stations for the purpose of environmental safety and radiation protection in light of national guidelines for public exposure as well as the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). The outcomes of this investigation provide valuable comments and recommendation for safety and protection of electromagnetic fields emitted from mobile base stations.

Keywords: Mobile, Safety, Protection, Electromagnetic Fields, ICNIRP

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74 Pattern of ICU Admission due to Drug Problems

Authors: Kamel Abd Elaziz Mohamed

Abstract:

Introduction: Drug related problems (DRPs) are of major concern, affecting patients of both sex. They impose considerable economic burden on the society and the health-care systems. Aim of the work: The aim of this work was to identify and categorize drug-related problems in adult intensive care unit. Patients and methods: The study was a prospective, observational study as eighty six patients were included. They were consecutively admitted to ICU through the emergency room or transferred from the general ward due to DRPs. Parameters included in the study as length of stay in ICU, need for cardiovascular support or mechanical ventilation, dialysis, as well as APACHE II score were recorded. Results: Drug related problems represent 3.6% of the total ICU admission. The median (range) of APACHE II score for 86 patients included in the study was 17 (10-23), and length of ICU stay was 2.4 (1.5-4.2) days. In 45 patients (52%), DRP was drug over dose (group 1), while other DRP was present in the other 41 patients (48%, group 11). Patients in group 1 were older (39 years versus 32 years in group 11), with significant impaired renal function. The need of inotropic drugs and mechanical ventilation as well as the length of stay (LOS) in ICU was significantly higher in group 1. There were no significant difference in GCS between both groups, however APACHE II score was significantly higher in group 1. Only four patients (4.6%) were admitted by suicidal attempt as well as three patients (3.4%) due to trauma drug-related admissions, all were in (group 1). Nineteen percent of the patients had drug related problem due to hypoglycaemic medication followed by tranquilizer (15%). Adverse drug effect followed by failure to receive medication were the most causes of drug problem in (group11).The total mortality rate was 4.6%, all of them were eventually non preventable. Conclusion: The critically ill patients admitted due to drug related problems represented a small proportion (3.6%) of admissions to the ICU. Hypoglycaemic medication was one of the most common causes of admission by drug related problems.

Keywords: Safety, Cost, ICU, drug related problems

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73 Effects of Using a Recurrent Adverse Drug Reaction Prevention Program on Safe Use of Medicine among Patients Receiving Services at the Accident and Emergency Department of Songkhla Hospital Thailand

Authors: Thippharat Wongsilarat, Parichat tuntilanon, Chonlakan Prataksitorn

Abstract:

Recurrent adverse drug reactions are harmful to patients with mild to fatal illnesses, and affect not only patients but also their relatives, and organizations. To compare safe use of medicine among patients before and after using the recurrent adverse drug reaction prevention program . Quasi-experimental research with the target population of 598 patients with drug allergy history. Data were collected through an observation form tested for its validity by three experts (IOC = 0.87), and analyzed with a descriptive statistic (percentage). The research was conducted jointly with a multidisciplinary team to analyze and determine the weak points and strong points in the recurrent adverse drug reaction prevention system during the past three years, and 546, 329, and 498 incidences, respectively, were found. Of these, 379, 279, and 302 incidences, or 69.4; 84.80; and 60.64 percent of the patients with drug allergy history, respectively, were found to have caused by incomplete warning system. In addition, differences in practice in caring for patients with drug allergy history were found that did not cover all the steps of the patient care process, especially a lack of repeated checking, and a lack of communication between the multidisciplinary team members. Therefore, the recurrent adverse drug reaction prevention program was developed with complete warning points in the information technology system, the repeated checking step, and communication among related multidisciplinary team members starting from the hospital identity card room, patient history recording officers, nurses, physicians who prescribe the drugs, and pharmacists. Including in the system were surveillance, nursing, recording, and linking the data to referring units. There were also training concerning adverse drug reactions by pharmacists, monthly meetings to explain the process to practice personnel, creating safety culture, random checking of practice, motivational encouragement, supervising, controlling, following up, and evaluating the practice. The rate of prescribing drugs to which patients were allergic per 1,000 prescriptions was 0.08, and the incidence rate of recurrent drug reaction per 1,000 prescriptions was 0. Surveillance of recurrent adverse drug reactions covering all service providing points can ensure safe use of medicine for patients.

Keywords: Safety, recurrent drug, adverse reaction, use of medicine

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72 Determination of Anchor Lengths by Retaining Walls

Authors: Belabed Lazhar

Abstract:

The dimensioning of the anchored retaining screens passes always by the analysis of their stability. The calculation of anchoring lengths is practically carried out according to the mechanical model suggested by Kranz which is often criticized. The safety is evaluated through the comparison of interior force and external force. The force of anchoring over the length cut behind the failure solid is neglected. The failure surface cuts anchoring in the medium length of sealing. In this article, one proposes a new mechanical model which overcomes these disadvantages (simplifications) and gives interesting results.

Keywords: Safety, Stability, retaining walls, anchoring, mechanical modeling

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71 Assessment of Health and Safety Item on Construction Site in Ondo State

Authors: Ikumapayi Catherine Mayowa

Abstract:

The well-being of humans on a construction site is critical; abundant manpower had been lost through accidents which kill or make workers physically unfit to carry out construction activities, these, in turn, have multiple effects on the whole economy. Thus, it is necessary to put all safety items and regulations in place before construction activities can commence. This study was carried out in the Ondo state of Nigeria to investigate and analyze the state of health and safety of construction workers in the state. The study was done using first-hand observations, 50 construction project sites were visited in ten major towns of Ondo state, questionnaires were distributed, and the results were analyzed. The result shows that construction workers are being exposed to many construction site hazards due to lack of inadequate safety programs and lack of appropriate safety equipment for workers on site. From the data gotten from each site visited and the statistical analysis, it can be concluded that occurrences of an accident on construction sites depend significantly on the available safety facilities on the sites. The result of the regression statistics shows that the dependence of the frequency of occurrence of an accident on the availability of safety items on the site is 0.0362 which is less than 0.05 maximum significant level allowed. Therefore, a vital way of sustaining our building strategy is given a detail attention to the provision of adequate health and safety items on construction sites which will reduce the occurrence of accident, loss of manpower and death of skilled workers.

Keywords: Safety, Health, welfare, Construction Sites

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70 The Shadow of Terrorism in the World Tourism Industry: Impacts, Prevention and Recovery Strategies

Authors: Maria Brás

Abstract:

The main purpose of the presentation is to identify the impacts and appropriate measures to prevent potential attacks, or minimize the risk of an attack in tourist destination. Terrorism has been growing in the shadow of unpredictability, however, is possible to minimize the danger of a terrorist attack by doing the: (1) recognition; (2); evaluation; (3) avoidance; (4) threat reduction. The vulnerability of tourism industry to terrorism is an undeniable fact, and terrorists know it. They use this advantage attacking tourists for very specific reasons, such as the: (1) international coverage by the media, “if it bleeds it leads” ; (2) chances of getting different nationalities at the same place and time; (3) possibility of destroyed the economy of a destination, or destinations (“terrorism contamination effect”), through the reduction of tourist demand; (4) psychological, and social disruption based on fear of negative consequences. Security incidents, such as terrorism, include different preventive measures that can be conducted in partnership with: tourism industry (hotels, airports, tourist attractions, among others); central government; public and/or private sector; local community; and media. The recovery strategies must be based on the dissemination of positive information to the media; in creating new marketing strategies that emphasize the social and cultural values of the destination; encourage domestic tourism; get government, or state, financial support.

Keywords: Security, Safety, Prevention, Tourism, Terrorism, Impacts, Recovery

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69 Architectural Building Safety and Health Performance Model for Stratified Low-Cost Housing: Education and Management Tool for Building Managers

Authors: Zainal Abidin Akasah, Maizam Alias, Azuin Ramli

Abstract:

The safety and health performances aspects of a building are the most challenging aspect of facility management. It requires a deep understanding by the building managers on the factors that contribute to health and safety performances. This study attempted to develop an explanatory architectural safety performance model for stratified low-cost housing in Malaysia. The proposed Building Safety and Health Performance (BSHP) model was tested empirically through a survey on 308 construction practitioners using Partial Least Squares (PLS) and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) tool. Statistical analysis results supports the conclusion that architecture, building services, external environment, management approaches and maintenance management have positive influence on safety and health performance of stratified low-cost housing in Malaysia. The findings provide valuable insights for construction industry to introduce BSHP model in the future where the model could be used as a guideline for training purposes of managers and better planning and implementation of building management.

Keywords: Safety, Building Management, stratified low-cost housing, health model

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68 Innovations in the Implementation of Preventive Strategies and Measuring Their Effectiveness Towards the Prevention of Harmful Incidents to People with Mental Disabilities who Receive Home and Community Based Services

Authors: Carlos V. Gonzalez

Abstract:

Background: Providers of in-home and community based services strive for the elimination of preventable harm to the people under their care as well as to the employees who support them. Traditional models of safety and protection from harm have assumed that the absence of incidents of harm is a good indicator of safe practices. However, this model creates an illusion of safety that is easily shaken by sudden and inadvertent harmful events. As an alternative, we have developed and implemented an evidence-based resilient model of safety known as C.O.P.E. (Caring, Observing, Predicting and Evaluating). Within this model, safety is not defined by the absence of harmful incidents, but by the presence of continuous monitoring, anticipation, learning, and rapid response to events that may lead to harm. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of the C.O.P.E. model for the reduction of harm to individuals with mental disabilities who receive home and community based services. Methods: Over the course of 2 years we counted the number of incidents of harm and near misses. We trained employees on strategies to eliminate incidents before they fully escalated. We trained employees to track different levels of patient status within a scale from 0 to 10. Additionally, we provided direct support professionals and supervisors with customized smart phone applications to track and notify the team of changes in that status every 30 minutes. Finally, the information that we collected was saved in a private computer network that analyzes and graphs the outcome of each incident. Result and conclusions: The use of the COPE model resulted in: A reduction in incidents of harm. A reduction the use of restraints and other physical interventions. An increase in Direct Support Professional’s ability to detect and respond to health problems. Improvement in employee alertness by decreasing sleeping on duty. Improvement in caring and positive interaction between Direct Support Professionals and the person who is supported. Developing a method to globally measure and assess the effectiveness of prevention from harm plans. Future applications of the COPE model for the reduction of harm to people who receive home and community based services are discussed.

Keywords: Safety, Disability, Resilience, Mental Illness, patients, harm

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67 Fault Tree Analysis and Bayesian Network for Fire and Explosion of Crude Oil Tanks: Case Study

Authors: B. Zerouali, M. Kara, B. Hamaidi, H. Mahdjoub, S. Rouabhia

Abstract:

In this paper, a safety analysis for crude oil tanks to prevent undesirable events that may cause catastrophic accidents. The estimation of the probability of damage to industrial systems is carried out through a series of steps, and in accordance with a specific methodology. In this context, this work involves developing an assessment tool and risk analysis at the level of crude oil tanks system, based primarily on identification of various potential causes of crude oil tanks fire and explosion by the use of Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), then improved risk modelling by Bayesian Networks (BNs). Bayesian approach in the evaluation of failure and quantification of risks is a dynamic analysis approach. For this reason, have been selected as an analytical tool in this study. Research concludes that the Bayesian networks have a distinct and effective method in the safety analysis because of the flexibility of its structure; it is suitable for a wide variety of accident scenarios.

Keywords: Safety, Bayesian networks, prediction, crude oil tank, fault tree

Procedia PDF Downloads 439