Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

safety climate Related Abstracts

5 Enhancing the Safety Climate and Reducing Violence against Staff in Closed Hospital Wards

Authors: Valerie Isaak


This study examines the effectiveness of an intervention program aimed at enhancing a unit-level safety climate as a way to minimize the risk of employees being injured by patient violence. The intervention program conducted in maximum security units in one of the psychiatric hospitals in Israel included a three day workshop. Safety climate was examined before and after the implementation of the intervention. We also collected data regarding incidents involving patient violence. Six months after the intervention a significant improvement in employees’ perceptions regarding management’s commitment to safety were found as well as a marginally significant improvement in communication concerning safety issues. Our research shows that an intervention program aimed at enhancing a safety climate is associated with a decrease in the number of aggressive incidents. We conclude that such an intervention program is likely to return the sense of safety and reduce the scope of violence.

Keywords: Violence, Performance, Public Sector, Intervention, safety climate

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4 Safety Climate Assessment and Its Impact on the Productivity of Construction Enterprises

Authors: Krzysztof J. Czarnocki, E. Czarnocka, K. Szaniawska, F. Silveira


Research background: Problems related to the occupational health and decreasing level of safety occur commonly in the construction industry. Important factor in the occupational safety in construction industry is scaffold use. All scaffolds used in construction, renovation, and demolition shall be erected, dismantled and maintained in accordance with safety procedure. Increasing demand for new construction projects unfortunately still is linked to high level of occupational accidents. Therefore, it is crucial to implement concrete actions while dealing with scaffolds and risk assessment in construction industry, the way on doing assessment and liability of assessment is critical for both construction workers and regulatory framework. Unfortunately, professionals, who tend to rely heavily on their own experience and knowledge when taking decisions regarding risk assessment, may show lack of reliability in checking the results of decisions taken. Purpose of the article: The aim was to indicate crucial parameters that could be modeling with Risk Assessment Model (RAM) use for improving both building enterprise productivity and/or developing potential and safety climate. The developed RAM could be a benefit for predicting high-risk construction activities and thus preventing accidents occurred based on a set of historical accident data. Methodology/Methods: A RAM has been developed for assessing risk levels as various construction process stages with various work trades impacting different spheres of enterprise activity. This project includes research carried out by teams of researchers on over 60 construction sites in Poland and Portugal, under which over 450 individual research cycles were carried out. The conducted research trials included variable conditions of employee exposure to harmful physical and chemical factors, variable levels of stress of employees and differences in behaviors and habits of staff. Genetic modeling tool has been used for developing the RAM. Findings and value added: Common types of trades, accidents, and accident causes have been explored, in addition to suitable risk assessment methods and criteria. We have found that the initial worker stress level is more direct predictor for developing the unsafe chain leading to the accident rather than the workload, or concentration of harmful factors at the workplace or even training frequency and management involvement.

Keywords: Civil Engineering, Productivity, Occupational Health, safety climate

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3 Sub-Optimum Safety Performance of a Construction Project: A Multilevel Exploration

Authors: Tas Yong Koh, Steve Rowlinson, Yuzhong Shen


In construction safety management, safety climate has long been linked to workers' safety behaviors and performance. For this reason, safety climate concept and tools have been used as heuristics to diagnose a range of safety-related issues by some progressive contractors in Hong Kong and elsewhere. However, as a diagnostic tool, safety climate tends to treat the different components of the climate construct in a linear fashion. Safety management in construction projects, in reality, is a multi-faceted and multilevel phenomenon that resembles a complex system. Hence, understanding safety management in construction projects requires not only the understanding of safety climate but also the organizational-systemic nature of the phenomenon. Our involvement, diagnoses, and interpretations of a range of safety climate-related issues which culminated in the project’s sub-optimum safety performance in an infrastructure construction project have brought about such revelation. In this study, a range of data types had been collected from various hierarchies of the project site organization. These include the frontline workers and supervisors from the main and sub-contractors, and the client supervisory personnel. Data collection was performed through the administration of safety climate questionnaire, interviews, observation, and document study. The findings collectively indicate that what had emerged in parallel of the seemingly linear climate-based exploration is the exposition of the organization-systemic nature of the phenomenon. The results indicate the negative impacts of climate perceptions mismatch, insufficient work planning, and risk management, mixed safety leadership, workforce negative attributes, lapsed safety enforcement and resources shortages collectively give rise to the project sub-optimum safety performance. From the dynamic causation and multilevel perspective, the analyses show that the individual, group, and organizational levels issues are interrelated and these interrelationships are linked to negative safety climate. Hence the adoption of both perspectives has enabled a fuller understanding of the phenomenon of safety management that point to the need for an organizational-systemic intervention strategy. The core message points to the fact that intervention at an individual level will only meet with limited success if the risks embedded in the higher levels in group and project organization are not addressed. The findings can be used to guide the effective development of safety infrastructure by linking different levels of systems in a construction project organization.

Keywords: multilevel analysis, safety climate, construction safety management, dynamic causation

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2 An Investigation on the Relationship between Taxi Company Safety Climate and Safety Performance of Taxi Drivers in Iloilo City

Authors: Jasper C. Dioco


The study was done to investigate the relationship of taxi company safety climate and drivers’ safety motivation and knowledge on taxi drivers’ safety performance. Data were collected from three Taxi Companies with taxi drivers as participants (N = 84). The Hiligaynon translated version of Transportation Companies’ Climate Scale (TCCS), Safety Motivation and Knowledge Scale, Occupational Safety Motivation Questionnaire and Global Safety Climate Scale were used to study the relationships among four parameters: (a) Taxi company safety climate; (b) Safety motivation; (c) Safety knowledge; and (d) Safety performance. Correlational analyses found that there is no relation between safety climate and safety performance. A Hierarchical regression demonstrated that safety motivation predicts the most variance in safety performance. The results will greatly impact how taxi company can increase safe performance through the confirmation of the proximity of variables to organizational outcome. A strong positive safety climate, in which employees perceive safety to be a priority and that managers are committed to their safety, is likely to increase motivation to be safety. Hence, to improve outcomes, providing knowledge based training and health promotion programs within the organization must be implemented. Policy change might include overtime rules and fatigue driving awareness programs.

Keywords: safety performance, safety climate, safety knowledge, safety motivation, taxi drivers

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1 Why Do They Stay? Employee Perseverance in a No-Texting While Driving Organizational Road Safety Intervention

Authors: Clara H. Rispler, Gil Luria


Introduction: This interdisciplinary study explores factors that contribute to the perseverance of participants in an organizational "non-texting-while driving" road safety intervention. Method: The study sample included 257 employees from 8 organizations in Israel. Subjects completed a 4 month non-texting while driving OHS intervention. The changes over time among participants were examined both by questionnaires with validated measures via questionnaires and by an objective smartphone monitoring application. Data collection included new and innovative technological monitoring for real time measuring of texting while driving behavior, as well as other uses performed with the Smartphone while driving (i.e. opening social media applications while driving). In this study, monitoring the drivers’ behaviour encompassed tracking exact usage of the smart phone capabilities by counting the number of “clicks” the user’s hands made on the smartphone’s screen. For confidentiality and ethical reasons, monitoring did not include any exposure of content, only the behaviour of engaging the available technology while driving (the actual multitasking). Results: Analysis showed that organizational Safety climate and gender (male) were positively related to perseverance in an occupational road safety intervention. Contrary to our hypothesis, safety motivation was not found to influence perseverance. Conclusions: safety climate and gender have a positive role in predicting perseverance in a safety intervention within an organizational setting, and in promoting the desired behavior change. Practical applications: The organizational intervention presented in the current study was shown to be effective in reducing the use of phone while driving. It seems that the organization is a good channel to change the risky habit of using smartphone while driving. Managers should adopt such intervention especially in organizations with high safety climate and with high percentage of male employees. The research increases understanding of psychological aspects and new behaviours, such as smartphone dependency and the need for constant communication and connection. It also contributes to organizational psychology by testing how organizational practices can influence employee usage of technology, with texting as the exemplar. The study offers a practical contribution to safety research, using organizational and managerial interventions, as well as advanced technologies (i.e. smartphone applications and monitoring capabilities) to monitor and eliminate road accidents and injuries caused or related to distraction

Keywords: Gender, safety climate, organizational health and safety (OHS) programs, perseverance, texting while driving

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