Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Saccharomyces cerevisiae Related Abstracts

13 Production of Ethanol from Mission Grass

Authors: Thanyalak Chaisuwan, Apanee Luengnaruemitchai, Sujitra Wongkasemjit, Darin Khumsupan, Tidarat Komolwanich, Sirirat Prasertwasu


Bioethanol production has become a subject of interest for many researchers due to its potential to replace fossil fuels. Since the most popular sources of bioethanol originate from food crops including corn and sugarcane, many people become more concerned with increasing demand for food supply. Lignocellulosic biomass, such as grass, could be a practical alternative to replace the conventional fossil fuels due to its low cost, renewability, and abundance in nature. Mission grass (Pennisetum polystachion) is one of the candidates for bioethanol production. This research is focused on the detoxification and fermentation of hydrolysate from mission grass. Glucose in the hydrolysate was detoxified by overliming process at various pH. Although overliming at pH 12 gave the highest yeast population, the ethanol yield was low due to glucose degradation. Overliming at pH 10 showed the highest yield of ethanol production. Various strains of Baker’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) will be utilized to produce ethanol at the optimal overliming pH.

Keywords: Detoxification, Lignocellulosic Biomass, Pennisetum polystachion, bioethanol production, overliming, Saccharomyces cerevisiae

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12 Production of High-Content Fructo-Oligosaccharides

Authors: J. A. Teixeira, C. Nobre, C. C. Castro, A.-L. Hantson, L. R. Rodrigues, G. De Weireld


Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) are produced from sucrose by Aureobasidium pullulans in yields between 40-60% (w/w). To increase the amount of FOS it is necessary to remove the small, non-prebiotic sugars, present. Two methods for producing high-purity FOS have been developed: the use of microorganisms able to consume small saccharides; and the use of continuous chromatography to separate sugars: simulated moving bed (SMB). It is herein proposed the combination of both methods. The aim of this study is to optimize the composition of the fermentative broth (in terms of salts and sugars) that will be further purified by SMB. A yield of 0.63 gFOS.g Sucrose-1 was obtained with A. pullulans using low amounts of salts in the initial fermentative broth. By removing the small sugars, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zymomonas mobilis increased the percentage of FOS from around 56.0% to 83% (w/w) in average, losing only 10% (w/w) of FOS during the recovery process.

Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Zymomonas mobilis, fructo-oligosaccharides, microbial treatment

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11 Computational Identification of Signalling Pathways in Protein Interaction Networks

Authors: Angela U. Makolo, Temitayo A. Olagunju


The knowledge of signaling pathways is central to understanding the biological mechanisms of organisms since it has been identified that in eukaryotic organisms, the number of signaling pathways determines the number of ways the organism will react to external stimuli. Signaling pathways are studied using protein interaction networks constructed from protein-protein interaction data obtained using high throughput experimental procedures. However, these high throughput methods are known to produce very high rates of false positive and negative interactions. In order to construct a useful protein interaction network from this noisy data, computational methods are applied to validate the protein-protein interactions. In this study, a computational technique to identify signaling pathways from a protein interaction network constructed using validated protein-protein interaction data was designed. A weighted interaction graph of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker’s Yeast) organism using the proteins as the nodes and interactions between them as edges was constructed. The weights were obtained using Bayesian probabilistic network to estimate the posterior probability of interaction between two proteins given the gene expression measurement as biological evidence. Only interactions above a threshold were accepted for the network model. A pathway was formalized as a simple path in the interaction network from a starting protein and an ending protein of interest. We were able to identify some pathway segments, one of which is a segment of the pathway that signals the start of the process of meiosis in S. cerevisiae.

Keywords: Protein Interaction Networks, Bayesian networks, Signalling pathways, Saccharomyces cerevisiae

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10 The Effect of High-Pressure Processing on the Inactivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in Different Concentration of Manuka Honey and Its Relation with ° Brix

Authors: Noor Akhmazillah Fauzi, Mohammed Mehdi Farid, Filipa V. Silva


The aim of this paper is to investigate if different concentration of Manuka honey (as a model food) has a major influence on the inactivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (as the testing microorganism) after subjecting it to HPP. Honey samples with different sugar concentrations (20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 °Brix) were prepared aseptically using sterilized distilled water. No dilution of honey was made for the 80 °Brix sample. For the 0 °Brix sample (control), sterilized distilled water was used. Thermal treatment at 55 °C for 10 min (conventionally applied in honey pasteurisation in industry) was carried out for comparison purpose. S. cerevisiae cell numbers in honey samples were established before and after each HPP and thermal treatment. The number of surviving cells was determined after a proper dilution of the untreated and treated samples by the viable plate count method. S. cerevisiae cells, in different honey concentrations (0 to 80 °Brix), subjected to 600 MPa (at ambient temperature) showed an increasing resistance to inactivation with °Brix. A significant correlation (p < 0.05) between cell reduction and °Brix was found. Cell reduction in high pressure-treated samples varied linearly with °Brix (R2 > 0.9), confirming that the baroprotective effect of the food is due to sugar content. This study has practical implications in establishing efficient process design for commercial manufacturing of high sugar food products and on the potential use of HPP for such products.

Keywords: honey, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, high pressure processing, °Brix

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9 Evaluation of the Capabilities of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus plantarum in Improvement of Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity in Carob Kibble

Authors: Vijay Jayasena, Thi Huong Vu, Zhongxiang Fang, Gary Dykes


Carob kibble has recently received attention due to the presence of high level of polyphenol antioxidants. The capacity of microorganisms to improve antioxidant activities and total phenolics in carob kibble was investigated in the study. Two types of microorganisms including lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) and yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) were used in single and in their combination as starters. The total phenolic content was determined by the Folin–Ciocalteu method. Antioxidant activities were assessed scavenging capacity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS). The study found that S. cerevisiae alone considerably improved 55% total phenolics content at 15 h, while L. plantarum caused in a loss of 20% through the process. Antioxidant capacity of the yeast-fermented samples significantly increased by 43 % and 10 % in ABTS and DPPH assays, respectively. However, reduction of 13 % and 32 % inhibition were recorded in the carob treated with L. plantarum. In the combination of S. cerevisiae and L. plantarum (1:1), both total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of carob kibble were a similar trend as these of S. cerevisiae single, but a lower improvement. The antioxidant power of the extracts was linearly correlated to their total phenolic contents (R=0.75). The results suggested that S. cerevisiae alone was the better for enhancement of both total phenolic content and antioxidant activity in carob kibble using submerged fermentation. The efficiency of fermentation reached the highest at 15h. Thus submerged fermentation with S. cerevisiae offers a tool with simple and cost effective to further increase the bioactive potential of carob kibble, which is in use for food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus plantarum, total phenolics, carob kibble

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8 Concentration of D-Pinitol from Carob Kibble Using Submerged Fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Authors: Vijay Jayasena, Thi Huong Vu, Zhongxiang Fang, Gary Dykes


D-pinitol (3-O-methyl ether of D-chiro-inosito) has been known to have health benefits for diabetic patients. Carob kibble has received attention due to the presence of high value D-pinitol and polyphenol antioxidants. D-pinitol was concentrated from carob kibble using submerged fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Total carbohydrates and D-pinitol were determined by the phenol-sulphuric acid method and HPLC, respectively. The content of D-pinitol increased from approximately 43 to 70 mg/g dry weight after fermentation. The yeast consumed over 70% of total carbohydrates in carob kibble without any negative effect on D-pinitol content. A range of substrate medium pH’s from 5.0 – 7.0 had no significant effect on the removal of carbohydrates and D-pinitol. This method may provide a practical solution for production of D-pinitol from carob in a cost effective manner.

Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, submerged fermentation, carob kibble, d-pinitol, total carbohydrates

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7 Effect of Initial pH and Fermentation Duration on Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Carob Kibble Fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Authors: Thi Huong Vu, Gary Dykes, Haelee Fenton, Thi Huong Tra Nguyen


In the present study, a submerged fermentation of carob kibble with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) was performed. The total phenolic content and antioxidant activity in fermented carob kibble were determined by Folin–Ciocalteu method and scavenging capacity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS). The study showed that S. cerevisiae improved total phenolic content by 45 % and 50 % in acetone and water extracts respectively. Similarly, the antioxidant capacity of water extracts increased by 25 % and 41%, while acetone extracts indicated by 70% and 80% in DPPH and ABTS respectively. It is also found that initial pH 7.0 was more effective in improvement of total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The efficiency of treatment was recorded at 15 h. This report suggested that submerged fermentation with S. cerevisiae is a potential and cost effective manner to further increase bioactive compounds in carob kibble, which are in use for food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, submerged fermentation, total phenolics, carob kibble

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6 Metabolic and Adaptive Laboratory Evolutionary Engineering (ALE) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Second Generation Biofuel Production

Authors: Farnaz Yusuf, Naseem A. Gaur


The increase in environmental concerns, rapid depletion of fossil fuel reserves and intense interest in achieving energy security has led to a global research effort towards developing renewable sources of fuels. Second generation biofuels have attracted more attention recently as the use of lignocellulosic biomass can reduce fossil fuel dependence and is environment-friendly. Xylose is the main pentose and second most abundant sugar after glucose in lignocelluloses. Saccharomyces cerevisiae does not readily uptake and use pentose sugars. For an economically feasible biofuel production, both hexose and pentose sugars must be fermented to ethanol. Therefore, it is important to develop S. cerevisiae host platforms with more efficient xylose utilization. This work aims to construct a xylose fermenting yeast strains with engineered oxido-reductative pathway for xylose metabolism. Engineered strain was further improved by adaptive evolutionary engineering approach. The engineered strain is able to grow on xylose as sole carbon source with the maximum ethanol yield of 0.39g/g xylose and productivity of 0.139g/l/h at 96 hours. The further improvement in strain development involves over expression of pentose phosphate pathway and protein engineering of xylose reductase/xylitol dehydrogenase to change their cofactor specificity in order to reduce xylitol accumulation.

Keywords: biofuel, Lignocellulosic Biomass, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, xylose

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5 Genome Sequencing of the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain 202-3

Authors: Yina A. Cifuentes Triana, Andrés M. Pinzón Velásco, Marío E. Velásquez Lozano


In this work the sequencing and genome characterization of a natural isolate of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast (strain 202-3), identified with potential for the production of second generation ethanol from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysates is presented. This strain was selected because its capability to consume xylose during the fermentation of sugarcane bagasse hydrolysates, taking into account that many strains of S. cerevisiae are incapable of processing this sugar. This advantage and other prominent positive aspects during fermentation profiles evaluated in bagasse hydrolysates made the strain 202-3 a candidate strain to improve the production of second-generation ethanol, which was proposed as a first step to study the strain at the genomic level. The molecular characterization was carried out by genome sequencing with the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform paired end; the assembly was performed with different programs, finally choosing the assembler ABYSS with kmer 89. Gene prediction was developed with the approach of hidden Markov models with Augustus. The genes identified were scored based on similarity with public databases of nucleotide and protein. Records were organized from ontological functions at different hierarchical levels, which identified central metabolic functions and roles of the S. cerevisiae strain 202-3, highlighting the presence of four possible new proteins, two of them probably associated with the positive consumption of xylose.

Keywords: genome sequencing, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cellulosic ethanol, xylose consumption

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4 Induction of Adaptive Response in Yeast Cells under Influence of Extremely High Frequency Electromagnetic Field

Authors: Sergei Voychuk


Introduction: Adaptive response (AR) is a manifestation of radiation hormesis, which deal with the radiation resistance that may be increased with the pretreatment with small doses of radiation. In the current study, we evaluated the potency of radiofrequency EMF to induce the AR mechanisms and to increase a resistance to UV light. Methods: Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains, which were created to study induction of mutagenesis and recombination, were used in the study. The strains have mutations in rad2 and rad54 genes, responsible for DNA repair: nucleotide excision repair (PG-61), postreplication repair (PG-80) and mitotic (crossover) recombination (T2). An induction of mutation and recombination are revealed due to the formation of red colonies on agar plates. The PG-61 and T2 are UV sensitive strains, while PG-80 is sensitive to ionizing radiation. Extremely high frequency electromagnetic field (EHF-EMF) was used. The irradiation was performed in floating mode and frequency changed during exposure from 57 GHz to 62 GHz. The power of irradiation was 100 mkW, and duration of exposure was 10 and 30 min. Treatment was performed at RT and then cells were stored at 28° C during 1 h without any exposure but after that they were treated with UV light (254nm) for 20 sec (strain T2) and 120 sec (strain PG-61 and PG-80). Cell viability and quantity of red colonies were determined after 5 days of cultivation on agar plates. Results: It was determined that EHF-EMF caused 10-20% decrease of viability of T2 and PG-61 strains, while UV showed twice stronger effect (30-70%). EHF-EMF pretreatment increased T2 resistance to UV, and decreased it in PG-61. The PG-80 strain was insensitive to EHF-EMF and no AR effect was determined for this strain. It was not marked any induction of red colonies formation in T2 and PG-80 strain after EHF or UV exposure. The quantity of red colonies was 2 times more in PG-61 strain after EHF-EMF treatment and at least 300 times more after UV exposure. The pretreatment of PG-61 with EHF-EMF caused at least twice increase of viability and consequent decrease of amount of red colonies. Conclusion: EHF-EMF may induce AR in yeast cells and increase their viability under UV treatment.

Keywords: Adaptive Response, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, UV light, EHF-EMF

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3 Determination of Inactivation and Recovery of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cells after the Gas-Phase Plasma Treatment

Authors: Z. Herceg, V. Stulic, T. Vukusic, A. Rezek Jambrak


Gas phase plasma treatment is a new nonthermal technology used for food and water decontamination. In this study, we have investigated influence of the gas phase plasma treatment on yeast cells of S. cerevisiae. Sample was composed of 10 mL of yeast suspension and 190 mL of 0.01 M NaNO₃ with a medium conductivity of 100 µS/cm. Samples were treated in a glass reactor with a point- to-plate electrode configuration (high voltage electrode-titanium wire in the gas phase and grounded electrode in the liquid phase). Air or argon were injected into the headspace of the reactor at the gas flow of 5 L/min. Frequency of 60, 90 and 120 Hz, time of 5 and 10 min and positive polarity were defined parameters. Inactivation was higher with the applied higher frequency, longer treatment time and injected argon. Inactivation was not complete which resulted in complete recovery. Cellular leakage (260 nm and 280 nm) was higher with a longer treatment time and higher frequency. Leakage at 280 nm which defines a leakage of proteins was higher than leakage at 260 nm which defines a leakage of nucleic acids. The authors would like to acknowledge the support by Croatian Science Foundation and research project 'Application of electrical discharge plasma for preservation of liquid foods'.

Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, inactivation, gas-phase plasma treatment, cellular leakage

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2 Tetracycline as Chemosensor for Simultaneous Recognition of Al³⁺: Application to Bio-Imaging for Living Cells

Authors: Jesus Alfredo Ortega Granados, Pandiyan Thangarasu


Antibiotic tetracycline presents as a micro-contaminant in fresh water, wastewater and soils, causing environmental and health problems. In this work, tetracycline (TC) has been employed as chemo-sensor for the recognition of Al³⁺ without interring other ions, and the results show that it enhances the fluorescence intensity for Al³⁺ and there is no interference from other coexisting cation ions (Cd²⁺, Ni²⁺, Co²⁺, Sr²⁺, Mg²⁺, Fe³⁺, K⁺, Sm³⁺, Ag⁺, Na⁺, Ba²⁺, Zn²⁺, and Mn²⁺). For the addition of Cu²⁺ to [TET-Al³⁺], it appears that the intensity of fluorescence has been quenched. Other combinations of metal ions in addition to TC do not change the fluorescence behavior. The stoichiometry determined by Job´s plot for the interaction of TC with Al³⁺ was found to be 1:1. Importantly, the detection of Al³⁺⁺ successfully employed in the real samples like living cells, and it was found that TC efficiently performs as a fluorescent probe for Al³⁺ ion in living systems, especially in Saccharomyces cerevisiae; this is confirmed by confocal laser scanning microscopy.

Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, tetracycline, chemo-sensor, recognition of Al³⁺ ion

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1 The Use of a Miniature Bioreactor as Research Tool for Biotechnology Process Development

Authors: Muhammad Zainuddin Arriafdi, Hamudah Hakimah Abdullah, Mohd Helmi Sani, Wan Azlina Ahmad, Muhd Nazrul Hisham Zainal Alam


The biotechnology process development demands numerous experimental works. In laboratory environment, this is typically carried out using a shake flask platform. This paper presents the design and fabrication of a miniature bioreactor system as an alternative research tool for bioprocessing. The working volume of the reactor is 100 ml, and it is made of plastic. The main features of the reactor included stirring control, temperature control via the electrical heater, aeration strategy through a miniature air compressor, and online optical cell density (OD) sensing. All sensors and actuators integrated into the reactor was controlled using an Arduino microcontroller platform. In order to demonstrate the functionality of such miniature bioreactor concept, series of batch Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation experiments were performed under various glucose concentrations. Results attained from the fermentation experiments were utilized to solve the Monod equation constants, namely the saturation constant, Ks, and cells maximum growth rate, μmax as to further highlight the usefulness of the device. The mixing capacity of the reactor was also evaluated. It was found that the results attained from the miniature bioreactor prototype were comparable to results achieved using a shake flask. The unique features of the device as compared to shake flask platform is that the reactor mixing condition is much more comparable to a lab-scale bioreactor setup. The prototype is also integrated with an online OD sensor, and as such, no sampling was needed to monitor the progress of the reaction performed. Operating cost and medium consumption are also low and thus, making it much more economical to be utilized for biotechnology process development compared to lab-scale bioreactors.

Keywords: Biotechnology, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, miniature bioreactor, research tools

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