Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 23

Rural development Related Abstracts

23 Rural Development through Women Participation in Livestock Care and Management in District Faisalabad

Authors: Arfan Riasat, M. Iqbal Zafar, Gulfam Riasat


Pakistani women actively participate in livestock management activities, along with their normal domestic chores. The study was designed to measure the position and contribution of rural women, their constraints in livestock management activities and mainly how the rural women contribute for development in the district Faisalabad. It was envisioned that women participation in livestock activities have rarely been investigated. A multistage random sampling technique was used to collect the data from Tehsil Summandry of the district selected at random. Two union councils were taken by using simple random sampling technique. Four Chak (village) from each union council were selected at random and fifteen woman were further selected randomly from each selected chak. The results show that a vast majority of women were illiterate, having annual family income of one to two lac. They are living in joint family system. Their main occupation is agriculture and they spend long hours in whole livestock related activities to support their families. A large proportion of the respondents reported that they had to face problems and constraints in livestock activities in the context of decision making, medication, awareness, training along with social and economic issues. Analysis indicated that education level of women, income of household, age were significantly associated with level of participation. Women participation in livestock activities increased production and they were involved in income generating activities for better economic conditions of their families.

Keywords: Management, Women, Livestock, Participation, Rural development

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
22 Impact of Grassroot Democracy on Rural Development of Villages in the State of Haryana

Authors: Minakshi Jain, Sachin Yadav


Gram Panchayat is the smallest unit of Democracy in India. Grassroots Democracy has been further strengthened by implementation of the 73rd Constitutional Amendment act (CAA) in 1992. To analyse the impact of grassroots democracy the three villages are selected, which have the representation of each section of the society. The selected villages belongs to the same block and district of Haryana state. Villages are selected to access the marginalized group such as women and other backward class. These groups are isolated and do not participate in the grassroots level development process. The caste continue to be a relevant factor in determining the rural leadership. The earlier models of Panchayati Raj failed to benefit the marginalized groups of the society. The 73rd CAA, advocates a uniform three tier system of Panchayat at District level (Zilla Panchayat), Taluka/Block level (Block Panchayat), and village level (Gram Panchayat). The socio-economic profile of representatives in each village is important factor in rural development. The study will highlight the socio-economic profile of elected members at gram Panchayat level, Block Level and District level. The analysis reveals that there is a need to educate and develop the capacity and capability of the elected representative. Training must be imparted to all of them to enable them to function as per provision in the act. The paper will analyse the impact of act on rural development than propose some measures to further strengthen the Panchayati Raj Institution (PRI’s) at grassroots level.

Keywords: Democracy, Function, Rural development, marginalized people

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
21 Local Development and Community Participation in Owo Local Government Area of Ondo State, Nigeria

Authors: Tolu Lawal


The genuine development of the grassroots particularly in the developing societies depends largely on the participation of the rural populace in policy conception and implementation, especially in the area of development policies, fundamentally, the rural people play a vital and significance role in economic and political development of the nation. This is because the bulk of the economic produce as well as votes come from these areas. However, the much needed development has continued to elude the rural communities inspire of the various development policies carried out by successive governments in the state. The exclusion of rural communities from planning and implementation of facilities meant to benefit them, and the international debate on sustainable rural development led Ondo State government to re-think its rural development policy with a view to establishing more effective strategies for rural development. The 31s initiatives introduced in 2009 emphasizes the important role of communities in their own development. The paper therefore critically assessed the 31s initiative of the present government in Ondo State with a view to knowing its impact on rural people. The study adopted both primary and secondary data to source its information. Interviews were conducted with the key informants, and field survey (visit) was also part of method of collecting data. Documents, reports and records on 31s initiatives in the selected villages and from outside were also consulted. The paper submitted that 31s initiative has not impacted positively on the lives of rural dwellers in Ondo-State, most especially in the areas of infrastructure and integrated development. The findings also suggested that 31s initiatives is not hopeless, but needs a different kind of investment, for example introducing measures of accountability, addressing the politicization of the initiative and exploiting key principles of development and service delivery.

Keywords: Development, Infrastructure, Participation, Rural development

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
20 Contribution for Rural Development Trough Training in Organic Farming

Authors: Raquel P. F. Guiné, Paula M. R. Correia, Daniela V. T. A. Costa, Moisés Castro, Luis T. Guerra, Cristina A. Costa


The aim of this work was to characterize a potential target group of people interested in participating into a training program in organic farming in the context of mobile-learning. The information sought addressed in particular, but not exclusively, possible contents, formats and forms of evaluation that will contribute to define the course objectives and curriculum, as well as to ensure that the course meets the needs of the learners and their preferences. The sample was selected among different European countries. The questionnaires were delivered electronically for answering online and in the end 135 consented valid questionnaires were obtained. The results allowed characterizing the target group and identifying their training needs and preferences towards m-learning formats, giving valuable tools to design the training offer.

Keywords: Rural development, Organic Farming, Survey, mobile-learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 342
19 Demographic Component Role in Rural Development in the Region of Bucovina

Authors: Morar (Bumbu) Nicoleta Ileana


Located in the northeastern part of Romania in a cross-border area, Bucovina region, due to historical events that took place here, is characterized by the cohabitation in the same area of a significant number of ethnic communities, represented in 54% by rural population. In addition to providing the natural, economic history and decision makers, the demographic component is responsible for the region's development trajectory to which it belongs. The influence that people exert on rural development is shown by the values of the different demographic indicator. This study will analyze the demographic indicators obtained against a strong database, emphasizing the indicators that favor the rural development of the region and those that prevent it. The study is useful in defining the rightful directions that rural economic development can focus on, also representing an important tool in developing strategies for the development of rural settlements of Bucovina region.

Keywords: Rural development, demographic indicators, Bucovina, development directions

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
18 The Green Propaganda: Paradoxes of Costa Rica as the Poster Child for Sustainable Tourism

Authors: Maria Jose Ramos Villagra


Since the boom of tourism in the late 80s and 90s, Costa Rica is considered as one of the leading countries for tourism. The size and geography of its territory, its low population density, and its image of being one of the most stable Latin American democracies make Costa Rica an attractive and safe target for foreign investors. Land ownership by foreign investors has increased as the natural resources in rural communities have been exhausted. When nature becomes an instrument to increase profit, it loses its communal value contributing to local communities losing their sovereignty and access to basic resources. The rural regions in proximity to the most tourist areas are often the most marginalized. The purpose of this research is to use the case of the rural community Sardinal and its struggle to protect its aquifer to investigate the economic and cultural consequences of the tourism boom in Costa Rican rural communities. The process of reclaiming the access to and the preservation of the aquifer enabled individuals to redefine their political views and their political power. The case of Sardinal broke the stereotypes about rural individuals and their ability to politically educate themselves and organize. Sardinal´s conflict brought to light the necessity of questioning the role of modern tourism as part of Costa Rica’s national identity, and as a tool for development

Keywords: Water, Environment, Tourism, Economy, Ecotourism, Rural development, Costa Rica, Sardinal

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
17 A Study on Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on Rural Development

Authors: N. Amruth Raj, Suja S. Nair


The last six decades have borne witness to a radical change in the private sectors relationship with both the state and civil society. Firms have been increasingly called upon to adopt strategies beyond the financial aspects of their operations and consider the social and environmental impact of their business activities. In this context, many companies have modified their policies and activities and engaged into Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) especially on Rural development in India. At the firm level, CSR is implemented through various practices, which aim to enhance the company’s social and environmental performance and may cover various topics. Examples of CSR practices are abundant in Andhra Pradesh relevant literature. For instance, in India especially at Andhra Pradesh companies like Amara Raaja requires from its suppliers to prohibit child labour, Nagarjuna Cements applies a series of programs for reducing its CO2 emissions, LANCO group of Industries addresses health and safety issues in the workplace whereas GVK works limited has adopted a series of policies for addressing human rights and environmental abuse related to its operations.

Keywords: Rural development, CSR, limitations, objectives, need

Procedia PDF Downloads 145
16 Thermodynamic Performance of a Low-Cost House Coated with Transparent Infrared Reflective Paint

Authors: Ochuko K. Overen, Edson L. Meyer


Uncontrolled heat transfer between the inner and outer space of low-cost housings through the thermal envelope result in indoor thermal discomfort. As a result, an excessive amount of energy is consumed for space heating and cooling. Thermo-optical properties are the ability of paints to reduce the rate of heat transfer through the thermal envelope. The aim of this study is to analyze the thermal performance of a low-cost house with its walls inner surface coated with transparent infrared reflective paint. The thermo-optical properties of the paint were analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscopy/ Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX), Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) and thermal photographic technique. Meteorological indoor and ambient parameters such as; air temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, wind speed and direction of a low-cost house in Golf-course settlement, South Africa were monitored. The monitoring period covers both winter and summer period before and after coating. The thermal performance of the coated walls was evaluated using time lag and decrement factor. The SEM image shows that the coat is transparent to light. The presence of Al as Al2O and other elements were revealed by the EDX spectrum. Before coating, the average decrement factor of the walls in summer was found to be 0.773 with a corresponding time lag of 1.3 hours. In winter, the average decrement factor and corresponding time lag were 0.467 and 1.6 hours, respectively. After coating, the average decrement factor and corresponding time lag were 0.533 and 2.3 hour, respectively in summer. In winter, an average decrement factor of 1.120 and corresponding time lag of 3 hours was observed. The findings show that the performance of the coats is influenced by the seasons. With a 74% reduction in decrement factor and 1.4 time lag increase in winter, it implies that the coatings have more ability to retain heat within the inner space of the house than preventing heat flow into the house. In conclusion, the results have shown that transparent infrared reflective paint has the ability to reduce the propagation of heat flux through building walls. Hence, it can serve as a remedy to the poor thermal performance of low-cost housings in South Africa.

Keywords: Energy Efficiency, Rural development, Paints, Thermal comfort, time lag, low-cost housing, decrement factor

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
15 Local Governance Systems for Value Chains' Promotion: A Chance for Rural Development in Tunisia

Authors: Neil Fourati


Collaboration between public and private stakeholders for agricultural development are today lacking in Tunisia. The last dictatorship witnessed by the country has deteriorated the necessary trust between the state and small farmers for the realization of development projects, in particular in the interior, disadvantaged regions of the country. These regions, where the youth unemployment rate is above 30%, have been the heart of the uprising that preceded the revolution. The transitional period that the country is going through since 2011 is an opportunity for the emergence of new governance systems in the context of the decentralization. The latter is recognized in the 2nd Tunisian Republic constitution as the basis of regional management. Civil society participation to the decision-making process is considered as a mean to identify measures that are more coherent with local populations’ needs. The development of agriculture and food value chains in rural areas is relevant within the framework of the implementation of new decisions systems that require public-private collaborations. These new systems can lead to actions in favor of improving living conditions of rural populations. The diverisification of activities around agriculture can be a solution for job creation and local value creation. The project for the promotion of sustainable agriculture and rural development in Tunisia has designed and implemented a multi-stakeholder dialogue process for the development of local value chains platforms in disadvantaged areas of the country. The platforms gather public and private organizations ; as well civil society organizations ; that intervene in a locality in relation to the production transformation or product’s commercialization. The role of these platforms is to formulate realize and evaluate collaborative actions or projects for the promotion of the concerned product and territory. The dialogue process steps allow to create the necessary collaboration conditions in order to promote viable collectivities, dynamic economies and healthy environments. Effectively, the dialogue process steps allow to identify the local leaders. These leaders recognize the development constraints and opportunities. They deal with key and gathering subjects around the collaborative projects or actions. They take common decisions in order to create effective coalitions for the implementation of common actions. The plateforms realize quick success so as to build trust. The project has supported the formulation of 22 collaborative projects. Seven priority collaborative projects have been realized. Each collaborative project includes 3 parts : the signature of the collaboration conventions between public and private organizations, investment in the relevant material in order to increase productivity and the quality of local and products and finally management and technical training in favour of producers’ organizations for the promotion of local products. The implementation of this process has enabled to enhance the capacities of collaboration between local actors : producers, traders, processors and support structures from public sector and civil society. It also allowed to improve the efficiency and relevance of actions and measures for agriculture and rural development programs. Thus, the process for the development of local value chain platform is a basis for sustainable development of agriculture.

Keywords: Governance, Value chains, Rural development, public private collaboration

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
14 Thermal Behaviour of a Low-Cost Passive Solar House in Somerset East, South Africa

Authors: Ochuko K. Overen, Edson L. Meyer, Golden Makaka, Sampson Mamphweli


Low-cost housing provided for people with small incomes in South Africa are characterized by poor thermal performance. This is due to inferior craftsmanship with no regard to energy efficient design during the building process. On average, South African households spend 14% of their total monthly income on energy needs, in particular space heating; which is higher than the international benchmark of 10% for energy poverty. Adopting energy efficient passive solar design strategies and superior thermal building materials can create a stable thermal comfort environment indoors. Thereby, reducing energy consumption for space heating. The aim of this study is to analyse the thermal behaviour of a low-cost house integrated with passive solar design features. A low-cost passive solar house with superstructure fly ash brick walls was designed and constructed in Somerset East, South Africa. Indoor and outdoor meteorological parameters of the house were monitored for a period of one year. The ASTM E741-11 Standard was adopted to perform ventilation test in the house. In summer, the house was found to be thermally comfortable for 66% of the period monitored, while for winter it was about 79%. The ventilation heat flow rate of the windows and doors were found to be 140 J/s and 68 J/s, respectively. Air leakage through cracks and openings in the building envelope was 0.16 m3/m2h with a corresponding ventilation heat flow rate of 24 J/s. The indoor carbon dioxide concentration monitored overnight was found to be 0.248%, which is less than the maximum range limit of 0.500%. The prediction percentage dissatisfaction of the house shows that 86% of the occupants will express the thermal satisfaction of the indoor environment. With a good operation of the house, it can create a well-ventilated, thermal comfortable and nature luminous indoor environment for the occupants. Incorporating passive solar design in low-cost housing can be one of the long and immediate solutions to the energy crisis facing South Africa.

Keywords: Energy Efficiency, Rural development, Thermal comfort, low-cost housing, passive solar design

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
13 Importance of Cadastral Infrastructure in Rural Development

Authors: Tayfun Çay, Saban Inam, Necdet Sahiner


Environmental factors such as rapid population growth, changing economic conditions, desertification and climate change increase demand for the acquisition and use of land. Demands on the land are increasing due to the lack of production of soils and scarcity. This causes disagreements on the land. Reducing the pressure on the land and protecting the natural resources, public investments should be directed economically and rationally. This will make it possible to achieve equivalent living conditions between the rural area and the urban area. Initiating the development from the rural area and the cadastre needs to be redefined to allow the management of the land. The planned, regular, effective agriculture and rural development policies that Turkey will implement in the process of European Union membership will also significantly shape Turkey's position in the European Union. For this reason, Turkey enjoys the most appropriate use of natural resources, which is one of the main objectives of the European Union's recent rural development policy. This study deals with the urgent need to provide cadastral data infrastructure that will form the basis for land management which is supposed to support economic and societal sustainable development in rural and urban areas.

Keywords: Rural development, land management, Cadastre, agricultural reform implementation project, land parcel identification system

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
12 OASIS: An Alternative Access to Potable Water, Renewable Energy and Organic Food

Authors: Julien G. Chenet, Mario A. Hernandez, U. Leonardo Rodriguez


The tropical areas are places where there is scarcity of access to potable water and where renewable energies need further development. They also display high undernourishment levels, even though they are one of the resources-richest areas in the world. In these areas, it is common to count on great extension of soils, high solar radiation and raw water from rain, groundwater, surface water or even saltwater. Even though resources are available, access to them is limited, and the low-density habitat makes central solutions expensive and investments not worthy. In response to this lack of investment, rural inhabitants use fossil fuels and timber as an energy source and import agrochemical for soils fertilization, which increase GHG emissions. The OASIS project brings an answer to this situation. It supplies renewable energy, potable water and organic food. The first step is the determination of the needs of the communities in terms of energy, water quantity and quality, food requirements and soil characteristics. Second step is the determination of the available resources, such as solar energy, raw water and organic residues on site. The pilot OASIS project is located in the Vichada department, Colombia, and ensures the sustainable use of natural resources to meet the community needs. The department has roughly 70% of indigenous people. They live in a very scattered landscape, with no access to clean water and energy. They use polluted surface water for direct consumption and diesel for energy purposes. OASIS pilot will ensure basic needs for a 400-students education center. In this case, OASIS will provide 20 kW of solar energy potential and 40 liters per student per day. Water will be treated form groundwater, with two qualities. A conventional one with chlorine, and as the indigenous people are not used to chlorine for direct consumption, second train is with reverse osmosis to bring conservable safe water without taste. OASIS offers a solution to supply basic needs, shifting from fossil fuels, timber, to a no-GHG-emission solution. This solution is part of the mitigation strategy against Climate Change for the communities in low-density areas of the tropics. OASIS is a learning center to teach how to convert natural resources into utilizable ones. It is also a meeting point for the community with high pedagogic impact that promotes the efficient and sustainable use of resources. OASIS system is adaptable to any tropical area and competes technically and economically with any conventional solution, that needs transport of energy, treated water and food. It is a fully automatic, replicable and sustainable solution to sort out the issue of access to basic needs in rural areas. OASIS is also a solution to undernourishment, ensuring a responsible use of resources, to prevent long-term pollution of soils and groundwater. It promotes the closure of the nutrient cycle, and the optimal use of the land whilst ensuring food security in depressed low-density regions of the tropics. OASIS is under optimization to Vichada conditions, and will be available to any other tropical area in the following months.

Keywords: Rural development, Social Inclusion, climate change adaptation and mitigation, sustainable access to clean and renewable resources

Procedia PDF Downloads 122
11 Fruit Growing in Romania and Its Role for Rural Communities’ Development

Authors: Maria Toader, Gheorghe Valentin Roman


The importance of fruit trees and bushes growing for Romania is due the concordance that exists between the different ecological conditions in natural basins, and the requirements of different species and varieties. There are, in Romania, natural areas dedicated to the main trees species: plum, apple, pear, cherry, sour cherry, finding optimal conditions for harnessing the potential of fruitfulness, making fruit quality both in terms of ratio commercial, and content in active principles. The share of fruits crops in the world economy of agricultural production is due primarily to the role of fruits in nourishment for human, and in the prevention and combating of diseases, in increasing the national income of cultivator countries and to improve comfort for human life. For Romania, the perspectives of the sector are positive, and are due to European funding opportunities, which provide farmers a specialized program that meets the needs of development and modernization of fruit growing industry, cultivation technology and equipment, organization and grouping of producers, creating storage facilities, conditioning, marketing and the joint use of fresh fruit. This paper shows the evolution of fruit growing, in Romania compared to other states. The document presents the current situation of the main tree species both in terms of surface but also of the productions and the role that this activity may have for the development of rural communities.

Keywords: Productivity, Rural development, Fruit growing, fruits trees

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
10 The Success of Local Community Participation in Ecotourism Site: A Case Study of Sukau

Authors: Awangku Hassanal Bahar Pengiran Bagul


Ecotourism has been the signature tourism activity for Sabah since the 90s, and it has become a model of sustainable tourism development for Malaysia due to its ability to enhance conservation activities and local community development. This paper outlines the experience in developing indicators for the success of the local community participation of an ecotourism site, Sukau, in Sabah. The research was qualitative in nature and employed case study as its methodology. The outcome of this research suggested that Sukau has a mixed success with local community participation for the ecotourism activity. The community is in need of coaching and capacity building to intensify the ecotourism activity However, the ecotourism has successfully promoted conservation at its surrounding area.

Keywords: Sustainable Tourism, Community, Ecotourism, Rural development, success

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
9 Resourcing Remote Rural Social Enterprises to Foster Resilience and Regional Development

Authors: Heather Fulford, Melanie Liddell


The recruitment and retention of high quality employees can prove to be challenging for social enterprises, particularly in some of the core business support functions such as marketing, communications, IT and finance. This holds true for social enterprises in urban contexts, where roles with more attractive remuneration in these business functions can often be found quite readily in the private sector. For social enterprises situated in rural locations, the challenges of staff recruitment and retention are even more acute. Such challenges can lead to a skills deficit in rural social enterprises, which can, at best, hinder their growth potential, and worse, jeopardise their chances of survival. This in turn, can have a negative impact on the sustainability and resilience of the surrounding rural community in which the social enterprise is located. The purpose of this paper is to report on aspects of a collaborative initiative established to stimulate innovation and business growth in remote rural businesses in Scotland. Launched in 2010, this initiative was designed to attract young students and graduates from the region to stay in the region upon completion of their studies, and to attract others from outside the region to re-locate there post-university. To facilitate this, SMEs in the region were offered wage subsidies to encourage them to recruit a student or graduate on a work placement for up to one year to participate in an innovation or business growth-oriented project. A number of the employers offering work placements were social enterprises. Through analysis of the placement project and role specifications devised by the participating social enterprises, an overview is provided of their business development needs and the skills they require to stimulate innovation and growth. Scrutiny of the reflective accounts compiled by the students and graduates at the close of their work placements highlights the benefits they derived from being able to put their academic knowledge and skills into action within a social enterprise. Examination of interviews conducted with a sample of placement employers reveals the contribution the students and graduates made during the business development projects with the social enterprises. The challenges of hosting such placements are also discussed. The paper concludes with indications of the lessons learned and an outline of the wider implications for other remote rural locations in which social enterprises play an important role in the local economy and life of the community.

Keywords: Resource Management, Regional Development, Resilience, Rural development, Regeneration, Retention, recruitment, remuneration

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
8 Rural Population Participation in Minsu Industry as the Method for Rural Revitalization in China

Authors: Xiaoxin Zhao


Because of the long-time dual structure development in urban and rural areas, the rapid urbanization in China devours the rural resources and causes the unbalanced development of cities and the countryside. On one side, the urban sprawl is swallowing the villages in the peripheral area of cities and forms the ‘urban village’. On the other side, people from traditional and vernacular villages immigrate to the metropolis that their homeland becomes the ‘hollowed village’. In 2005, the national state council noticed the significance of rural development and promoted the ‘beautiful countryside’ project when Minsu was rising. In the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China (2017), president Xi Jinping announces the importance of ‘rural revitalization’ and states that the relationship between urban and rural areas should be an integrated development model. However, most Minsu projects in China was invested and managed by individual or group investors and focused on the profits but not the vernacular culture and rural development, and enhanced the urban-rural distinction. This paper introduces two Minsu projects in China designed by star-architects and advertised by social network media as case studies through photos and public comments collections. Architects as the servant to the investors, designed fancy houses, brings the urban life mode but expelled the real vernacular lifestyle as a cultural experience in rural areas. Moreover, to advertise the Minsu hotel, the social media propagates a distorted value that ‘luxury is good taste’ and motivates the vanity of people. Lastly, to maximize the profits, the investors set a high price that caused another unbalanced development in rural area since the price for one night in the Minsu hotel may exceed the monthly income of a local inhabitant. With these material, the author discusses the problems in Chinese Minsu industry and argues that the media, architects and investors play the negative role in the separation between Minsu cultural tourism and rural population. As a result, the author points out the significance of rural population participation that sharing the profits with them if we take Minsu industry as a method for rural revitalization in China.

Keywords: Rural development, vernacular, Minsu, rural population participation

Procedia PDF Downloads 137
7 Harmonising Ecology, Emotions and Economy: Case Study of Govardhan Ecovillage

Authors: Gauranga Das


People in cities have prosperity but there is immense pollution, chaos in the mind, anxiety and turbulence. People in the villages experience pristine pure environment but they also experience poverty. There is a need to find out ways by which the cities and the villages can complement each other through their strengths and take care of each other’s weaknesses. In order to do this, the case study of Govardhan Ecovillage has been explored in this paper. All its environment, social and economic initiatives along with eco-tourism and wellness features are being analyzed. The analysis shows that Govardhan Ecovillage is successfully able to harmonize its different initiatives and provide a package which has created a win-win solution for the city people and also the villagers. Such kind of Eco-tourism initiatives should be supported and replicated in other places in the world to benefit everyone.

Keywords: Biodiversity, Ecology, Wellness, Sustainability, Ecotourism, Rural development

Procedia PDF Downloads 131
6 Heritage Tourism and the Changing Rural Landscape: Case Study of Cultural Landscape of Honghe Hani Rice Terraces

Authors: Yan Wang, Mathis Stock


The World Heritage Site of Honghe Hani rice terrace, also a marginal rural region in Southern China, is undergoing rapid change because of urbanization and heritage tourism. Influenced by out-migration and changing ways of living in the urbanization process, the place sees a tendency of losing its rice terrace landscape, traditional housings and other forms of cultural traditions. However, heritage tourism tends to keep the past, valorize them for tourism purposes and diversifies rural livelihood strategies. The place stands at this development trajectories, where the same resources are subjected to different uses by different actors. The research seeks to answer the questions of how the site is transformed and co-constructed by different institutions, practices and actors, and the how heritage tourism affects local livelihood. The research aims to describe the transformation of villages, rice terraces, and cultural traditions, analyze the place-making process, and assess the role of heritage tourism in local livelihood transition. The research uses a mixed of methods including direct observation, participant observation, interviews; collects various data of images, words, narratives, and statistics, and analyze them qualitatively and qualitatively. Theoretically, it is hoped that the research would reexamine the concept of heritage, the world heritage practice from UNESCO, reveal the conflicts it entails in development and brings more thoughts from a functional perspective on heritage in relation to rural development. Practically, it is also anticipated that the research could access the linkage between heritage tourism and local livelihood, and generate concrete suggestions on how tourism could engage locals and improve their livelihood.

Keywords: Transformation, Rural development, Cultural landscape, Heritage Tourism, Place Making, Hani rice terraces, livelihood strategy

Procedia PDF Downloads 23
5 Staying When Everybody Else Is Leaving: Coping with High Out-Migration in Rural Areas of Serbia

Authors: Anne Allmrodt


Regions of South-East Europe are characterised by high out-migration for decades. The reasons for leaving range from the hope of a better work situation to a better health care system and beyond. In Serbia, this high out-migration hits the rural areas in particular so that the population number is in the red repeatedly. It might not be hard to guess that this negative population growth has the potential to create different challenges for those who stay in rural areas. So how are they coping with the – statistically proven – high out-migration? Having this in mind, the study is investigating the people‘s individual awareness of the social phenomenon high out-migration and their daily life strategies in rural areas. Furthermore, the study seeks to find out the people’s resilient skills in that context. Is the condition of high out-migration conducive for resilience? The methodology combines a quantitative and a qualitative approach (mixed methods). For the quantitative part, a standardised questionnaire has been developed, including a multiple choice section and a choice experiment. The questionnaire was handed out to people living in rural areas of Serbia only (n = 100). The sheet included questions about people’s awareness of high out-migration, their own daily life strategies or challenges and their social network situation (data about the social network was necessary here since it is supposed to be an influencing variable for resilience). Furthermore, test persons were asked to make different choices of coping with high out-migration in a self-designed choice experiment. Additionally, the study included qualitative interviews asking citizens from rural areas of Serbia. The topics asked during the interview focused on their awareness of high out-migration, their daily life strategies, and challenges as well as their social network situation. Results have shown the following major findings. The awareness of high out-migration is not the same with all test persons. Some declare it as something positive for their own life, others as negative or not effecting at all. The way of coping generally depended – maybe not surprising – on the people’s social network. However – and this might be the most important finding - not everybody with a certain number of contacts had better coping strategies and was, therefore, more resilient. Here the results show that especially people with high affiliation and proximity inside their network were able to cope better and shew higher resilience skills. The study took one step forward in terms of knowledge about societal resilience as well as coping strategies of societies in rural areas. It has shown part of the other side of nowadays migration‘s coin and gives a hint for a more sustainable rural development and community empowerment.

Keywords: Social Networks, Resilience, Rural development, Coping, out-migration, south-east Europe

Procedia PDF Downloads 2
4 Environmental Law and Payment for Environmental Services: Perceptions of the Family Farmers of the Federal District, Brazil

Authors: Kever Bruno Paradelo Gomes, Rosana Carvalho Cristo Martins


Payment for Environmental Services (PSA) has been a strategy used since the late 1990s by Latin American countries to finance environmental conservation. Payment for Environmental Services has been absorbing a growing amount of time in the discussions around environmentally sustainable development strategies in the world. In Brazil, this theme has permeated the discussions since the publication of the new Forest Code. The objective of this work was to verify the perception of the resident farmers in the region of Ponte Alta, Gama, Federal District, Brazil, on environmental legislation and Payments for Environmental Services. The work was carried out in 99 rural properties of the family farmers of the Rural Nucleus Ponte Alta, Administrative Region of Gama, in the city of Brasília, Federal District, Brazil. The present research is characterized methodologically as a quantitative, exploratory, and descriptive nature. The data treatment was performed through descriptive statistical analysis and hypothesis testing. The perceptions about environmental legislation in the rural area of Ponte Alta, Gama, DF respondents were positive. Although most of the family farmers interviewed have some knowledge about environmental legislation, it is perceived that in practice, the environmental adequacy of property is ineffective given the current situation of sustainable rural development; there is an abyss between what is envisaged by legislation and reality in the field. Thus, as in the reports of other researchers, it is verified that the majority of respondents are not aware of PSA (62.62%). Among those interviewed who were aware of the subject, two learned through the course, three through the university, two through TV and five through other people. The planting of native forest species on the rural property was the most informed practice by farmers if they received some Environmental Service Payment (PSA). Reflections on the environment allow us to infer that the effectiveness and fulfillment of the incentives and rewards in the scope of public policies to encourage the maintenance of environmental services, already existing in all spheres of government, are of great relevance to the process of environmental sustainability of rural properties. The relevance of the present research is an important tool to promote the discussion and formulation of public policies focused on sustainable rural development, especially on payments for environmental services; it is a space of great interest for the strengthening of the social group dedicated to production. Public policies that are efficient and accessible to the small rural producers become decisive elements for the promotion of changes in behavior in the field, be it economic, social, or environmental.

Keywords: Public Policy, Sustainable Agriculture, Rural development, forest code

Procedia PDF Downloads 2
3 An Analysis and Some Treatment Methods for the Deeply Disadvantaged Rural Areas in Post-Socialist Economies: Case Study of Arges County, Romania

Authors: George Secareanu, Ioan Ianos, Igor Sirodoev, Cristina Merciu, Aurelian Giugal


The paper addresses the social-economic problems in the rural areas of the Eastern European administration, where the economies are post-socialist. The fall of communism has led to the spread of a free economy, in which the state no longer dictates the economic policy, and the results for this meant that several small economies could not handle these transformations. Thus, the rural environment has eroded the most under these circumstances; there were consistent social and economic consequences, which led to the widening of the gaps between the performing areas and the deeply disadvantaged ones. The result of such transformations was mainly a mass migration of the young population within the country, due to the poor living conditions. The present paper aims to determine and treat the deeply disadvantaged rural areas. These were determined with the help of four broad categories of indicators, namely: an economic one, a social one, an educational one, and infrastructure. The next step was to identify how to develop these areas, and the proposed development was mainly based on local resources so that the implementation costs could be as low as possible. Following the determination of the deeply disadvantaged rural areas, one can observe, throughout the analysis a compact arrangement for these areas, specifically in the southern part of the county, in the plain area, but also in the north of the county, in the vicinity of the Municipality of Campulung Muscel, as a result of the industrial decline of the city. The research considers the approach and implementation of applied models that support the long-term development of deeply disadvantaged communes. These include: the model of the multiscale association, the model of cluster leadership and a model for an integration of the environment in the policies of smart development, all applied at the level of the rural settlements.

Keywords: Rural development, developing economy, deeply disadvantaged rural areas, post-socialist space

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2 Diversity and Use of Agroforestry Yards of Family Farmers of Ponte Alta – Gama, Federal District, Brazil

Authors: Kever Bruno Paradelo Gomes, Rosana Carvalho Martins


The home gardens areas are production systems, which are located near the homes and are quite common in the tropics. They consist of agricultural and forest species and may also involve the raising of small animals to produce food for subsistence as well as income generation, with a special focus on the conservation of biodiversity. Home gardens are diverse Agroforestry systems with multiple uses, among many, food security, income aid, traditional medicine. The work was carried out on rural properties of the family farmers of the Ponte Alta Rural Nucleus, Gama Administrative Region, in the city of Brasília, Federal District- Brazil. The present research is characterized methodologically as a quantitative, exploratory and descriptive nature. The instruments used in this research were: bibliographic survey and semi-structured questionnaire. The data collection was performed through the application of a semi-structured questionnaire, containing questions that referred to the perception and behavior of the interviewed producer on the subject under analysis. In each question, the respondent explained his knowledge about sustainability, agroecological practices, environmental legislation, conservation methods, forest and medicinal species, ago social and socioeconomic characteristics, use and purpose of agroforestry and technical assistance. The sample represented 55.62% of the universe of the study. We interviewed 99 people aged 18-83 years, with a mean age of 49 years. The low level of education, coupled with the lack of training and guidance for small family farmers in the Ponte Alta Rural Nucleus, is one of the limitations to the development of practices oriented towards sustainable and agroecological agriculture in the nucleus. It is observed that 50.5% of the interviewed people landed with agroforestry yards less than 20 years ago, and only 16.17% of them are older than 35 years. In identifying agriculture as the main activity of most of the rural properties studied, attention is drawn to the cultivation of medicinal plants, fruits and crops as the most extracted products. However, it is verified that the crops in the backyards have the exclusive purpose of family consumption, which could be complemented with the marketing of the surplus, as well as with the aggregation of value to the cultivated products. Initiatives such as this may contribute to the increase in family income and to the motivation and value of the crop in agroecological gardens. We conclude that home gardens of Ponte Alta are highly diverse thus contributing to local biodiversity conservation of are managed by women to ensure food security and allows income generation. The tradition of existing knowledge on the use and management of the diversity of resources used in agroforestry yards is of paramount importance for the development of sustainable alternative practices.

Keywords: Agriculture, Sustainability, Rural development, agroforestry system

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
1 A Mediation Analysis of Social Capital: Direct and Indirect Effects of Community Influences on Civic Engagement among the Household-Header and Non-Household Header Volunteers in Thai Rural Communities

Authors: Aphiradee Wongsiri


The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of social capital in the relationships between community influences consisting of community attachment and community support on civic engagement among the household-header and non-household header volunteers. The data were collected from 216 household header volunteers and 204 non-household header volunteers across rural communities in seven sub-districts in Nong Khai Province, Thailand. A good fit structural equation modeling (SEM) was tested for both groups. The findings indicate that the SEM model for the group of household header volunteers, social capital had a direct effect on civic engagement, while community support had an indirect effect on civic engagement through social capital. On the other hand, the SEM model for the group of non-household header volunteers shows that social capital had a direct effect on civic engagement. Also, community attachment and community support had indirect effects on civic engagement through social capital. Therefore, social capital in this study played an important role as a mediator in the relationships between community influences and civic engagement in both groups.

Keywords: Social Capital, Rural development, civic engagement, volunteer

Procedia PDF Downloads 1