Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2

runoff coefficient Related Abstracts

2 Factors Affecting Harvested Rain Water Quality and Quantity in Yatta Area, Palestine

Authors: Issam Al-Khatib, Nibal Al-Batsh, Subha Ghannam


Yatta is the study area for this research, located 9 km south of Hebron City in the West Bank in Palestine. It has been connected to a water network since 1974 serving nearly 85% of the households. The water network is old and inadequate to meet the needs of the population. The water supply made available to the area is also very limited, estimated to be around 20 l/c.d. Residents are thus forced to rely on water vendors which supply water with a lower quality compared to municipal water while being 400% more expensive. As a cheaper and more reliable alternative, rainwater harvesting is a common practice in the area, with the majority of the households owning at least one cistern. Rainwater harvesting is of great socio-economic importance in areas where water sources are scarce or polluted. The quality of harvested rainwater used for drinking and domestic purposes in the Yatta area was assessed throughout a year long period. A total of 100 water samples were collected from (50 rainfed cisterns) with an average capacity of 69 m3, adjacent to cement-roof catchment with an average area of 145 m2. Samples were analyzed for a number of parameters including: pH, Alkalinity, Hardness, Turbidity, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), NO3, NH4, chloride and salinity. Microbiological contents such as Total Coliforms (TC) and Fecal Coliforms (FC) bacteria were also analyzed. Results showed that most of the rainwater samples were within WHO and EPA guidelines set for chemical parameters while revealing biological contamination. The pH values of mixed water ranged from 6.9 to 8.74 with a mean value of 7.6. collected Rainwater had lower pH values than mixed water ranging from 7.00 to 7.57 with a mean of 7.21. Rainwater also had lower average values of conductivity (389.11 µScm-1) compared to that of mixed water (463.74 µScm-1) thus indicating lower values of salinity (0.75%). The largest TDS value measured in rainwater was 316 mg/l with a mean of 199.86 mg /l. As far as microbiological quality is concerned, TC and FC were detected in 99%, 52% of collected rainwater samples, respectively. The research also addressed the impact of different socio-economic attributes on rainwater harvesting using information collected through a survey from the area. Results indicated that the majority of homeowners have the primary knowledge necessary to collect and store water in cisterns. Most of the respondents clean both the cisterns and the catchment areas. However, the research also arrives at a conclusion that cleaning is not done in a proper manner. Results show that cisterns with an operating capacity of 69 m3 would provide sufficient water to get through the dry summer months. However, the catchment area must exceed 146 m2 to produce sufficient water to fill a cistern of this size in a year receiving average precipitation.

Keywords: Water Quality, Rainwater Harvesting, runoff coefficient, microbiological contamination

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1 The Effects of Land Use Types to Determine the Status of Sustainable River

Authors: Michael Louis Sunaris, Robby Yussac Tallar


The concept of sustainable river is evolving in Indonesia today. Many rivers condition in Indonesia have decreased by quality and quantity. The degradation of this condition is caused by rapid land use change as a result of increased population growth and human activity. It brings the degradation of the existing watersheds including some types of land use that an important factor in determining the status of river sustainability. Therefore, an evaluation method is required to determine the sustainability status of waterbody within watershed. The purpose of this study is to analyze various types of land use in determining the status of river sustainability. This study takes the watersheds of Citarum Upstream as a study area. The results of the analysis prove the index of sustainability status of the river that changes from good to bad or average in the rivers in the study area. The rapid and uncontrolled changes of land use especially in the upper watersheds area are the main causes that happened over time. It was indicated that the cumulative runoff coefficients were increased significantly. These situations indicated that the damage of watersheds has an impact on the water surplus or deficit problem yearly. Therefore, the rivers in Indonesia should be protected and conserved. The sustainability index of the rivers is an index to indicate the condition of watersheds by defining status of rivers in order to achieve sustainable water resource management.

Keywords: land use change, runoff coefficient, a simple index, sustainable river

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