Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

RT-PCR Related Abstracts

16 Biocompatibilities of Various Calcium Silicate Cements

Authors: Seok Woo Chang, Kee Yeon Kum, Kwang Shik Bae, WooCheol Lee

Abstract:

Aim: The objective of this study was to compare the biocompatibilities and mineralization potential of ProRoot MTA and newly developed calcium phosphate based cement, Capseal. Materials and Methods: The biocompatibilities and mineralization-related gene expressions (Bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteocalcin (OCN)) of ProRoot MTA and Capseal were also compared by a methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assay and reverse transcription-polymerization chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis on 1, 3, and 7 days, respectively. Empty rings were used as control group. The results were statistically analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test with a Bonferroni correction. P-value of < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The biocompatibilities of ProRoot MTA and Capseal were equally favorable. ProRoot MTA and Capseal affected the messenger RNA expression of osteocalcin and osteonectin. Conclusions: Based on the results, both ProRoot MTA and Capseal could be a useful biomaterial in clinical endodontics.

Keywords: Biocompatibility, calcium silicate cement, MTT, RT-PCR

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15 Molecular Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of Influenza a(H3N2) Virus Circulating during the 2010-2011 in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Ghazanfar Ali, Fahad N Almajhdi

Abstract:

This study provides data on the viral diagnosis and molecular epidemiology of influenza A(H3N2) virus isolated in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Nasopharyngeal aspirates from 80 clinically infected patients in the peak of the 2010-2011 winter seasons were processed for viral diagnosis by RT-PCR. Sequencing of entire HA and NA genes of representative isolates and molecular epidemiological analysis were performed. A total of 06 patients were positive for influenza A, B and respiratory syncytial viruses by RT-PCR assays; out of these only one sample was positive for influenza A(H3N2) by RT-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of the HA and NA gene sequences showed identities higher than 99-98.8 % in both genes. They were also similar to reference isolates in HA sequences (99 % identity) and in NA sequences (99 % identity). Amino acid sequences predicted for the HA gene were highly identical to reference strains. The NA amino acid substitutions identified did not include the oseltamivir-resistant H275Y substitution. Conclusion: Viral isolation and RT-PCR together were useful for diagnosis of the influenza A (H3N2) virus. Variations in HA and NA sequences are similar to those identified in worldwide reference isolates and no drug resistance was found.

Keywords: Saudi Arabia, RT-PCR, influenza A (H3N2), genetic characterization, viral isolation

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14 GABARAPL1 (GEC1) mRNA Expression Levels in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease

Authors: Ali Bayram, Burak Uz, Ilhan Dolasik, Remzi Yiğiter

Abstract:

The GABARAP (GABAA-receptor-associated protein) family consists of GABARAP, GABARAPL1 (GABARAP-like 1) and GABARAPL2 (GABARAP-like 2). GABARAPL1, like GABARAP, was described to interact with both GABAA receptor and tubulin, and to be involved in intracellular GABAA receptor trafficking and promoting tubulin polymerization. In addition, GABARAPL1 is thought to be involved in various physiological (autophagosome closure, regulation of circadian rhythms) and/or pathological mechanisms (cancer, neurodegeneration). Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neuro degenerative disorder characterized with impaired cognitive functions. Disruption of the GABAergic neuro transmission as well as cholinergic and glutamatergic interactions, may also be involved in the pathogenesis of AD. GABARAPL1 presents a regulated tissue expression and is the most expressed gene among the GABARAP family members in the central nervous system. We, herein, conducted a study to investigate the GABARAPL1 mRNA expression levels in patients with AD. 50 patients with AD and 49 control patients were enrolled to the present study. Messenger RNA expression levels of GABARAPL1 were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction. GABARAPL1 mRNA expression in AD / control patients was 0,495 (95% confidence interval: 0,404-0,607), p= 0,00000002646. Reduced activity of GABARAPL1 gene might play a role, at least partly, in the pathophysiology of AD.

Keywords: alzheimer’s disease, RT-PCR, GABARAPL1, mRNA expression

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13 Expression of ULK-1 mRNA in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells from Patients with Alzheimer's Disease

Authors: Ali Bayram, Remzi Yiğiter

Abstract:

Objective: Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common cause of dementia, is a progressive neurodegenerative disease. At present, diagnosis of AD is rather late in the disease. Therefore, we attempted to find peripheral biomarkers for the early diagnosis of AD. Herein, we conducted a study to investigate the unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase-1 (ULK1) mRNA expression levels in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with Alzheimer's disease. Method: To determine whether ULK1 gene expression are altered in AD patients, we measured their gene expression in human peripheral blood cell in 50 patients with AD and 50 age and gender matched healthy controls by quantitative real-time PCR technique. Results: We found that both ULK1 gene expression in peripheral blood cell were significantly decreased in patients with AD as compared with controls (p <0.05). Lower levels of ULK1 gene expression were significantly associated with the increased risk for AD. Conclusions: Serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in autophagy in response to starvation. Acts upstream of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase PIK3C3 to regulate the formation of autophagophores, the precursors of autophagosomes. Part of regulatory feedback loops in autophagy: acts both as a downstream effector and negative regulator of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) via interaction with RPTOR. Activated via phosphorylation by AMPK and also acts as a regulator of AMPK by mediating phosphorylation of AMPK subunits PRKAA1, PRKAB2, and PRKAG1, leading to negatively regulate AMPK activity. May phosphorylate ATG13/KIAA0652 and RPTOR; however such data need additional evidences. Plays a role early in neuronal differentiation and is required for granule cell axon formation. Alzheimer is the most common neurodegenerative disease. Our results provide useful information that the ULK1 gene expression is decreased in the neurodegeneration and AD patients with, indicating their possible systemic involvement in AD.

Keywords: RT-PCR, mRNA expression, Alzheimer’s sisease, ULK1

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12 mRNA Expression of NFKB1 with Parkinson's Disease

Authors: Ali Bayram, Burak Uz, Remzi Yiğiter

Abstract:

The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression levels of homo sapiens nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells 1, transcript variant 1 (NFKB1*1) mRNA in the peripheral blood of patients with Parkinson to elucidate the role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease (PD). The study group comprised 50 patients with the diagnosis of PD who have applied to Gaziantep University Faculty of Medicine, and Department of Neurology. 50 healthy individuals without any neuro degenerative disease are included as controls. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) was obtained from blood samples of patient and control groups. Complementary deoxyribonucleic acid (cDNA) was obtained from RNA samples using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique. The gene expression of NFKB1*1 in patient/control groups were observed to decrease significantly, and the differences between groups with the Mann-Whitney method within 95% confidence interval (p<0.05) were analyzed. This salient finding provide a clue for our hypothesis that reduced activity of NFKB1*1 gene might play a role, at least partly, in the pathophysiology of PD.

Keywords: Parkinson’s disease, RT-PCR, mRNA expression, NFKB1

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11 Diagnosis of Rotavirus Infection among Egyptian Children by Using Different Laboratory Techniques

Authors: Mohamed A. Alhammad, Hadia A. Abou-Donia, Mona H. Hashish, Mohamed N. Massoud

Abstract:

Background: Rotavirus is the leading etiologic agent of severe diarrheal disease in infants and young children worldwide. The present study was aimed 1) to detect rotavirus infection as a cause of diarrhoea among children under 5 years of age using the two serological methods (ELISA and LA) and the PCR technique (2) to evaluate the three methodologies used for human RV detection in stool samples. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out on 247 children less than 5 years old, diagnosed clinically as acute gastroenteritis and attending Alexandria University Children Hospital at EL-Shatby. Rotavirus antigen was screened by ELISA and LA tests in all stool samples, whereas only 100 samples were subjected to RT-PCR method for detection of rotavirus RNA. Results: Out of the 247 studied cases with diarrhoea, rotavirus antigen was detected in 83 (33.6%) by ELISA and 73 (29.6%) by LA, while the 100 cases tested by RT-PCR showed that 44% of them had rotavirus RNA. Rotavirus diarrhoea was significantly presented with a marked seasonal peak during autumn and winter (61.4%). Conclusion: The present study confirms the huge burden of rotavirus as a major cause of acute diarrhoea in Egyptian infants and young children. It was concluded that; LA is equal in sensitivity to ELISA, ELISA is more specific than LA, and RT-PCR is more specific than ELISA and LA in diagnosis of rotavirus infection.

Keywords: Diarrhea, RT-PCR, rotavirus, immunoenzyme techniques, latex fixation tests

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10 Serological Assay and Genotyping of Hepatitis C Virus in Infected Patients in Zanjan Province

Authors: Farzaneh Mohammadi, Abdolreza Esmaeilzadeh, Maryam Erfanmanesh, Sousan Ghasemi

Abstract:

Background: Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), a public health problem, is an enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus and a member of the Hepacivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family. Liver cancer, cirrhosis, and end-stage liver are the outcomes of chronic infection with HCV. HCV isolates show significant heterogeneity in genetics around the world. Therefore, determining HCV genotypes is a vital step in determining prognosis and planning therapeutic strategies. Materials and Methods: Serum samples of 136 patients were collected and analyzed for anti-HCV antibodies using ELISA (The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) method. Then, positive samples were exposed to RT-PCR, which was performed under standard condition. Afterwards, they investigated for genotyping using allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR), and HCV genotype 2.0 line probe assay (LiPA). Results: Samples indicated 216 bp bands on 2% agarose gel. Analyses of the results demonstrated that the most dominant subtype was 3a with frequency of 38.26% in Zanjan Province followed by subtypes of 1b, 1a, 2, and 4 with frequencies of 25.73%, 22.05%, 5.14%, and 4.41%, respectively. The frequency of unknown HCV genotypes was 4.41%. Conclusions: According to the results, it was found that HCV high prevalent genotype in Zanjan is subtype 3a. Analysis of the results provides identification of certain HCV genotypes, and these valuable findings could affect the type and duration of the treatment.

Keywords: genotype, RT-PCR, anti-HCV antibody, Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), AS-PCR

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9 Expression of ACSS2 Genes in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease

Authors: Ali Bayram, Burak Uz, Remzi Yiğiter

Abstract:

The impairment of lipid metabolism in the central nervous system has been suggested as a critical factor of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathogenesis. Homo sapiens acyl-coenyme A synthetase short-chain family member 2 (ACSS2) gene encodes the enzyme acetyl-Coenzyme A synthetase (AMP forming; AceCS) providing acetyl-coenzyme A (Ac-CoA) for various physiological processes, such as cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis, as well as the citric acid cycle. We investigated ACSS2, transcript variant 1 (ACSS2*1), mRNA levels in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of patients with AD and compared them with the controls. The study group comprised 50 patients with the diagnosis of AD who have applied to Gaziantep University Faculty of Medicine, and Department of Neurology. 49 healthy individuals without any neurodegenerative disease are included as controls. ACSS2 mRNA expression in PBMC of AD/control patients was 0.495 (95% confidence interval: 0.410-0.598), p= .000000001902). Further studies are needed to better clarify this association.

Keywords: alzheimer’s disease, RT-PCR, mRNA expression, ACSS2 Genes

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8 Analysis of NMDA Receptor 2B Subunit Gene (GRIN2B) mRNA Expression in the Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Alzheimer's Disease Patients

Authors: Ali Bayram, Remzi Yiğiter, Semih Dalkilic

Abstract:

N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is a subtype of glutamate receptor and plays a pivotal role in learning, memory, neuronal plasticity, neurotoxicity and synaptic mechanisms. Animal experiments were suggested that glutamate-induced excitotoxic injuriy and NMDA receptor blockage lead to amnesia and other neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Huntington’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Aim of this study is to investigate association between NMDA receptor coding gene GRIN2B expression level and Alzheimer disease. The study was approved by the local ethics committees, and it was conducted according to the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki and guidelines for the Good Clinical Practice. Peripheral blood was collected 50 patients who diagnosed AD and 49 healthy control individuals. Total RNA was isolated with RNeasy midi kit (Qiagen) according to manufacturer’s instructions. After checked RNA quality and quantity with spectrophotometer, GRIN2B expression levels were detected by quantitative real time PCR (QRT-PCR). Statistical analyses were performed, variance between two groups were compared with Mann Whitney U test in GraphpadInstat algorithm with 95 % confidence interval and p < 0.05. After statistical analyses, we have determined that GRIN2B expression levels were down regulated in AD patients group with respect to control group. But expression level of this gene in each group was showed high variability. İn this study, we have determined that NMDA receptor coding gene GRIN2B expression level was down regulated in AD patients when compared with healthy control individuals. According to our results, we have speculated that GRIN2B expression level was associated with AD. But it is necessary to validate these results with bigger sample size.

Keywords: alzheimer’s disease, RT-PCR, mRNA expression, N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor, NR2B, GRIN2B

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7 Comparison of Several Diagnostic Methods for Detecting Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Infection in Cattle

Authors: Azizollah Khodakaram- Tafti, Ali Mohammadi, Ghasem Farjanikish

Abstract:

Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is one of the most important viral pathogens of cattle worldwide caused by Pestivirus genus, Flaviviridae family.The aim of the present study was to comparison several diagnostic methods and determine the prevalence of BVDV infection for the first time in dairy herds of Fars province, Iran. For initial screening, a total of 400 blood samples were randomly collected from 12 industrial dairy herds and analyzed using reverse transcription (RT)-PCR on the buffy coat. In the second step, blood samples and also ear notch biopsies were collected from 100 cattle of infected farms and tested by antigen capture ELISA (ACE), RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC). The results of nested RT-PCR (outer primers 0I100/1400R and inner primers BD1/BD2) was successful in 16 out of 400 buffy coat samples (4%) as acute infection in initial screening. Also, 8 out of 100 samples (2%) were positive as persistent infection (PI) by all of the diagnostic tests similarly including RT-PCR, ACE and IHC on buffy coat, serum and skin samples, respectively. Immunoreactivity for bovine BVDV antigen as brown, coarsely to finely granular was observed within the cytoplasm of epithelial cells of epidermis and hair follicles and also subcutaneous stromal cells. These findings confirm the importance of monitoring BVDV infection in cattle of this region and suggest detection and elimination of PI calves for controlling and eradication of this disease.

Keywords: Cattle, RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, antigen capture ELISA, bovine viral diarrhea virus

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6 New Isolate of Cucumber Mosaic Virus Infecting Banana

Authors: Abdelsabour G. A. Khaled, Ahmed W. A. Abdalla And Sabry Y. M. Mahmoud

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Banana plants showing typical mosaic and yellow stripes on leaves as symptoms were collected from Assiut Governorate in Egypt. The causal agent was identified as Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) on the basis of symptoms, transmission, serology, transmission electron microscopy and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Coat protein (CP) gene was amplified using gene specific primers for coat protein (CP), followed by cloning into desired cloning vector for sequencing. In this study the CMV was transmitted into propagation host either by aphid or mechanically. The transmission was confirmed through Direct Antigen Coating Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (DAC-ELISA). Analysis of the 120 deduced amino acid sequence of the coat protein gene revealed that the EG-A strain of CMV shared from 97.50 to 98.33% with those strains belonging to subgroup IA. The cluster analysis grouped the Egyptian isolate with strains Fny and Ri8 belonging sub-group IA. It appears that there occurs a high incidence of CMV infecting banana belonging to IA subgroup in most parts of Egypt.

Keywords: Transmission, RT-PCR, banana, CMV, CP gene

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5 Molecular Identification and Genotyping of Human Brucella Strains Isolated in Kuwait

Authors: Abu Salim Mustafa

Abstract:

Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease endemic in Kuwait. Human brucellosis can be caused by several Brucella species with Brucella melitensis causing the most severe and Brucella abortus the least severe disease. Furthermore, relapses are common after successful chemotherapy of patients. The classical biochemical methods of culture and serology for identification of Brucellae provide information about the species and serotypes only. However, to differentiate between relapse and reinfection/epidemiological investigations, the identification of genotypes using molecular methods is essential. In this study, four molecular methods [16S rRNA gene sequencing, real-time PCR, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR and multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA)-16] were evaluated for the identification and typing of 75 strains of Brucella isolated in Kuwait. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing suggested that all the strains were B. melitensis and real-time PCR confirmed their species identity as B. melitensis. The ERIC-PCR band profiles produced a dendrogram of 75 branches suggesting each strain to be of a unique type. The cluster classification, based on ~ 80% similarity, divided all the ERIC genotypes into two clusters, A and B. Cluster A consisted of 9 ERIC genotypes (A1-A9) corresponding to 9 individual strains. Cluster B comprised of 13 ERIC genotypes (B1-B13) with B5 forming the largest cluster of 51 strains. MLVA-16 identified all isolates as B. melitensis and divided them into 71 MLVA-types. The cluster analysis of MLVA-16-types suggested that most of the strains in Kuwait originated from the East Mediterranean Region, a few from the African group and one new genotype closely matched with the West Mediterranean region. In conclusion, this work demonstrates that B. melitensis, the most pathogenic species of Brucella, is prevalent in Kuwait. Furthermore, MLVA-16 is the best molecular method, which can identify the Brucella species and genotypes as well as determine their origin in the global context. Supported by Kuwait University Research Sector grants MI04/15 and SRUL02/13.

Keywords: RT-PCR, brucella, ERIC-PCR, MLVA-16

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4 Genotyping of Rotaviruses in Pediatric Patients with Gastroenteritis by Using Real-Time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction

Authors: Recep Kesli, Cengiz Demir, Riza Durmaz, Zekiye Bakkaloglu, Aysegul Bukulmez

Abstract:

Objective: Acute diarrhea disease in children is a major cause of morbidity worldwide and is a leading cause of mortality, and it is the most common agent responsible for acute gastroenteritis in developing countries. With hospitalized children suffering from acute enteric disease up to 50% of the analyzed specimen were positive for rotavirus. Further molecular surveillance could provide a sound basis for improving the response to epidemic gastroenteritis and could provide data needed for the introduction of vaccination programmes in the country. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of viral etiology of the gastroenteritis in children aged 0-6 years with acute gastroenteritis and to determine predominant genotypes of rotaviruses in the province of Afyonkarahisar, Turkey. Methods: An epidemiological study on rotavirus was carried out during 2016. Fecal samples obtained from the 144 rotavirus positive children with 0-6 years of ages and applied to the Pediatric Diseases Outpatient of ANS Research and Practice Hospital, Afyon Kocatepe University with the complaint of diarrhea. Bacterial agents causing gastroenteritis were excluded by using bacteriological culture methods and finally, no growth observed. Rotavirus antigen was examined by both the immunochromatographic (One Step Rotavirus and Adenovirus Combo Test, China) and ELISA (Premier Rotaclone, USA) methods in stool samples. Rotavirus RNA was detected by using one step real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). G and P genotypes were determined using RT-PCR with consensus primers of VP7 and VP4 genes, followed by semi nested type-specific multiplex PCR. Results: Of the total 144 rotavirus antigen-positive samples with RT-PCR, 4 (2,8%) were rejected, 95 (66%) were examined, and 45 (31,2%) have not been examined for PCR yet. Ninety-one (95,8%) of the 95 examined samples were found to be rotavirus positive with RT-PCR. Rotavirus subgenotyping distributions in G, P and G/P genotype groups were determined as; G1:45%, G2:27%, G3:13%, G9:13%, G4:1% and G12:1% for G genotype, and P[4]:33%, P[8]:66%, P[10]:1% for P genotype, and G1P[8]:%37, G2P[4]:%21, G3P[8]:%10, G4P[8]:%1, G9P[8]:%8, G2P[8]:%3 for G/P genotype . Not common genotype combination were %20 in G/P genotype. Conclusions: This study subscribes to the global agreement of the molecular epidemiology of rotavirus which will be useful in guiding the alternative and application of rotavirus vaccines or effective control and interception. Determining the diversity and rates of rotavirus genotypes will definitely provide guidelines for developing the most suitable vaccine.

Keywords: Gastroenteritis, RT-PCR, rotavirus, Genotyping

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3 Transcriptomic Response of Calmodulin Encoding Gene (CaM) in Pesticide Utilizing Talaromyces Fungal Strains

Authors: D. O. Adejoye, M. D. Asemoloye, S. G. Jonathan, A. Rafiq, O. J. Olawuyi

Abstract:

Calmodulin is one of the intracellular calcium proteins that regulates large spectrum of enzymes and cellular functions including metabolism of cyclic nucleotides and glycogen. The potentials of calmodulin gene in fungi necessitates their genetic response and their strong cassette of enzyme secretions for pesticide degradation. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the ‘Transcriptomic’ response of calmodulin encoding genes in Talaromyces fungi in response to 2, 2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate (DDVP or Dichlorvos) an organophosphate pesticide and γ-Hexachlorocyclohexane (Lindane) an organochlorine pesticide. Fungi strains isolated from rhizosphere from grasses rhizosphere in pesticide polluted sites were subjected to percentage incidence test. Two most frequent fungi were further characterized using ITS gene amplification (ITS1 and ITS4 combinations), they were thereafter subjected to In-vitro DDVP and lindane tolerance tests at different concentrations. They were also screened for presence and expression of calmodulin gene (caM) using RT-PCR technique. The two Talaromyces strains had the highest incidence of 50-72% in pesticide polluted site, they were both identified as Talaromyces astroroseus asemoG and Talaromyces purpurogenum asemoN submitted in NCBI gene-bank with accession numbers KY488464 and KY488468 respectively. T. astroroseus KY488464 tolerated DDVP (1.23±0.023 cm) and lindane (1.11±0.018 cm) at 25 % concentration while T. purpurogenum KY488468 tolerated DDVP (1.33±0.061 cm) and lindane (1.54±0.077 cm) at this concentration. Calmodulin gene was detected in both strains, but RT-PCR expression of caM gene revealed at 900-1000 bp showed an under-expression of caM in T. astrorosues KY488464 but overexpressed in T. purpurogenum KY488464. Thus, the calmodulin gene response of these fungal strains to both pesticides could be considered in monitoring the potentials of fungal strains to pesticide tolerance and bioremediation of pesticide in polluted soil.

Keywords: Tolerance, Pesticide, RT-PCR, Calmodulin gene, talaromyces

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2 Selection of Potential Starter Using Their Transcription Level

Authors: Elif Coskun Daggecen, Seyma Dokucu, Yekta Gezginc, Ismail Akyol

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Fermented dairy food quality is mainly determined by the sensory perception and influenced by many factors. Today, starter cultures for fermented foods are being developed to have a constant quality in these foods. Streptococcus thermophilus is one of the main species of most a starter cultures of yogurt fermentation. This species produces lactate by lactose fermentation from pyruvate. On the other hand, a small amount of pyruvate can alternatively be converted to various typical yoghurt flavor compounds such as diacetyl, acetoin, acetaldehyde, or acetic acid, for which the activity of three genes are shown to be especially important; ldh, nox and als. Up to date, commercially produced yoghurts have not yet met the desired aromatic properties that Turkish consumers find in traditional homemade yoghurts. Therefore, it is important to select starters carrying favorable metabolic characteristics from natural isolates. In this study, 30 strains of Str. Thermophilus were isolated from traditional Turkish yoghurts obtained from different regions of the country. In these strains, transcriptional levels of ldh, nox and als genes were determined via a newly developed qPCR protocol, which is a more reliable and precision method for analyzing the quantitative and qualitative expression of specific genes in different experimental conditions or in different organisms compared to conventional analytical methods. Additionally, the metabolite production potentials of the isolates were measured. Of all the strains examined, 60% were found to carry the metabolite production potential and the gene activity which appeared to be suitable to be used as a starter culture. Probable starter cultures were determined according to real-time PCR results.

Keywords: Gene expression, RT-PCR, Streptococcus thermophilus, starter culture

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1 Strategies to Improve Heat Stress Tolerance in Chickpea and Dissecting the Cross Talk Mechanism

Authors: Sanjeev Kumar, Renu Yadav

Abstract:

In northern India, chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) come across with terminal high-temperature stress during reproductive stage which leads to reduced yield. Hence, stable production of chickpea will depend on the development of new methods like ‘priming’ which allow improved adaptation to the drought and heat stress. In the present experiment, 11-day chickpea seedling was primed with mild drought stress and put on recovery stage by irrigating and finally 30-day seedlings were exposed to heat stress 38°C (4 hours), 35°C (8 hours) and 32°C (12 hours). To study the effect of combinatorial stress, heat and drought stress was applied simultaneously. Analyses of various physiological parameters like membrane damage assay, photosynthetic pigments, antioxidative enzyme, total sugars were estimated at all stages. To study the effect of heat stress on the metabolites of the plants, GC-MS and HPLC were performed, while at transcriptional level Real-Time PCR of predicted heat stress-related genes was done. It was concluded that the heat stress significantly affected the chickpea plant at physiological and molecular level in all the five varieties. Results also show less damaging effect in primed plants by increasing the activity of antioxidative enzymes and increased expression of heat shock proteins and heat shock factors.

Keywords: Oxidative Stress, Heat Stress, Priming, chickpea, RT-PCR, combinatorial stress

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