Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

RSSI Related Abstracts

9 Preliminary Evaluation of Passive UHF-Band RFID for Identifying Floating Objects on the Sea

Authors: Yasuhiro Sato, Kodai Noma, Kenta Sawada, Kazumasa Adachi, Yoshinori Matsuura, Saori Iwanaga


RFID system is used to identify objects such as passenger identification in public transportation, instead of linear or 2-dimensional barcodes. Key advantages of RFID system are to identify objects without physical contact, and to write arbitrary information into RFID tag. These advantages may help to improve maritime safety and efficiency of activity on the sea. However, utilization of RFID system for maritime scenes has not been considered. In this paper, we evaluate the availability of a generic RFID system operating on the sea. We measure RSSI between RFID tag floating on the sea and RFID antenna, and check whether a RFID reader can access a tag or not, while the distance between a floating buoy and the ship, and the angle are changed. Finally, we discuss the feasibility and the applicability of RFID system on the sea through the results of our preliminary experiment.

Keywords: RFID, RSSI, experimental evaluation, maritime use

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8 Performance Analysis of Wireless Sensor Networks in Areas for Sports Activities and Environmental Preservation

Authors: Teles de Sales Bezerra, Saulo Aislan da Silva Eleuterio, José Anderson Rodrigues de Souza, Ítalo de Pontes Oliveira


This paper presents a analysis of performance the Received Strength Signal Indicator (RSSI) to Wireless Sensor Networks, with a finality of investigate a behavior of ZigBee devices operating into real environments. The test of performance was realize using two Series 1 ZigBee Module and two modules of development Arduino Uno R3, evaluating in this form a measurements of RSSI into environments like places of sports, preservation forests and water reservoir.

Keywords: Environments, Wireless Sensor Networks, RSSI, Arduino

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7 The Selection of the Nearest Anchor Using Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI)

Authors: Hichem Sassi, Tawfik Najeh, Noureddine Liouane


The localization information is crucial for the operation of WSN. There are principally two types of localization algorithms. The Range-based localization algorithm has strict requirements on hardware; thus, it is expensive to be implemented in practice. The Range-free localization algorithm reduces the hardware cost. However, it can only achieve high accuracy in ideal scenarios. In this paper, we locate unknown nodes by incorporating the advantages of these two types of methods. The proposed algorithm makes the unknown nodes select the nearest anchor using the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) and choose two other anchors which are the most accurate to achieve the estimated location. Our algorithm improves the localization accuracy compared with previous algorithms, which has been demonstrated by the simulating results.

Keywords: Localization, RSSI, WSN, DV-Hop

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6 Comparative Analysis of Sigmoidal Feedforward Artificial Neural Networks and Radial Basis Function Networks Approach for Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Ashish Payal, C. S. Rai, B. V. R. Reddy


With the increasing use and application of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN), need has arisen to explore them in more effective and efficient manner. An important area which can bring efficiency to WSNs is the localization process, which refers to the estimation of the position of wireless sensor nodes in an ad hoc network setting, in reference to a coordinate system that may be internal or external to the network. In this paper, we have done comparison and analysed Sigmoidal Feedforward Artificial Neural Networks (SFFANNs) and Radial Basis Function (RBF) networks for developing localization framework in WSNs. The presented work utilizes the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI), measured by static node on 100 x 100 m2 grid from three anchor nodes. The comprehensive evaluation of these approaches is done using MATLAB software. The simulation results effectively demonstrate that FFANNs based sensor motes will show better localization accuracy as compared to RBF.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks, Localization, GPS, Artificial Neural Network, Backpropagation, RSSI, multi-layer perceptron, radial basis function

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5 Localization of Buried People Using Received Signal Strength Indication Measurement of Wireless Sensor

Authors: Feng Tao, Han Ye, Shaoyi Liao


City constructions collapse after earthquake and people will be buried under ruins. Search and rescue should be conducted as soon as possible to save them. Therefore, according to the complicated environment, irregular aftershocks and rescue allow of no delay, a kind of target localization method based on RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indication) is proposed in this article. The target localization technology based on RSSI with the features of low cost and low complexity has been widely applied to nodes localization in WSN (Wireless Sensor Networks). Based on the theory of RSSI transmission and the environment impact to RSSI, this article conducts the experiments in five scenes, and multiple filtering algorithms are applied to original RSSI value in order to establish the signal propagation model with minimum test error respectively. Target location can be calculated from the distance, which can be estimated from signal propagation model, through improved centroid algorithm. Result shows that the localization technology based on RSSI is suitable for large-scale nodes localization. Among filtering algorithms, mixed filtering algorithm (average of average, median and Gaussian filtering) performs better than any other single filtering algorithm, and by using the signal propagation model, the minimum error of distance between known nodes and target node in the five scene is about 3.06m.

Keywords: Localization, RSSI, centroid algorithm, signal propagation model, mixed filtering

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4 The Feasibility and Usability of Antennas Silence Zone for Localization and Path Finding

Authors: S. Malebary, W. Xu


Antennas are important components that enable transmitting and receiving signals in mid-air (wireless). The radiation pattern of omni-directional (i.e., dipole) antennas, reflects the variation of power radiated by an antenna as a function of direction when transmitting. As the performance of the antenna is the same in transmitting and receiving, it also reflects the sensitivity of the antenna in different directions when receiving. The main observation when dealing with omni-directional antennas, regardless the application, is they equally radiate power in all directions in reference to Equivalent Isotropically Radiated Power (EIRP). Disseminating radio frequency signals in an omni-directional manner form a doughnut-shape-field with a cone in the middle of the elevation plane (when mounted vertically). In this paper, we investigate the existence of this physical phenomena namely silence cone zone (the zone where radiated power is nulled). First, we overview antenna types and properties that have the major impact on the shape of the electromagnetic field. Then we model various off the shelf dipoles in Matlab based on antennas’ features (dimensions, gain, operating frequency, … etc.) and compare the resulting radiation patterns. After that, we validate the existence of the null zone in Omni-directional antennas by conducting experiments and generating waveforms (using USRP1 and USRP2) at various frequencies using different types of antennas and gains in indoor/outdoor. We capture the generated waveforms around antennas' null zone in the reactive, near, and far field with a spectrum analyzer mounted on a drone, using various off the shelf antennas. We analyze the captured signals in RF-Explorer and plot the impact on received power and signal amplitude inside and around the null zone. Finally, it is concluded from evaluation and measurements the existence of null zones in Omni-directional antennas which we plan on extending this work in the near future to investigate the usability of the null zone for various applications such as localization and path finding.

Keywords: antennas, Frequency, RSSI, amplitude, radiation pattern, omni-directional, field regions, FSPL, silence zone cone

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3 Methodology for Temporary Analysis of Production and Logistic Systems on the Basis of Distance Data

Authors: M. Mueller, M. Kuehn, M. Voelker


In small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), the challenge is to create a well-grounded and reliable basis for process analysis, optimization and planning due to a lack of data. SMEs have limited access to methods with which they can effectively and efficiently analyse processes and identify cause-and-effect relationships in order to generate the necessary database and derive optimization potential from it. The implementation of digitalization within the framework of Industry 4.0 thus becomes a particular necessity for SMEs. For these reasons, the abstract presents an analysis methodology that is subject to the objective of developing an SME-appropriate methodology for efficient, temporarily feasible data collection and evaluation in flexible production and logistics systems as a basis for process analysis and optimization. The overall methodology focuses on retrospective, event-based tracing and analysis of material flow objects. The technological basis consists of Bluetooth low energy (BLE)-based transmitters, so-called beacons, and smart mobile devices (SMD), e.g. smartphones as receivers, between which distance data can be measured and derived motion profiles. The distance is determined using the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI), which is a measure of signal field strength between transmitter and receiver. The focus is the development of a software-based methodology for interpretation of relative movements of transmitters and receivers based on distance data. The main research is on selection and implementation of pattern recognition methods for automatic process recognition as well as methods for the visualization of relative distance data. Due to an existing categorization of the database regarding process types, classification methods (e.g. Support Vector Machine) from the field of supervised learning are used. The necessary data quality requires selection of suitable methods as well as filters for smoothing occurring signal variations of the RSSI, the integration of methods for determination of correction factors depending on possible signal interference sources (columns, pallets) as well as the configuration of the used technology. The parameter settings on which respective algorithms are based have a further significant influence on result quality of the classification methods, correction models and methods for visualizing the position profiles used. The accuracy of classification algorithms can be improved up to 30% by selected parameter variation; this has already been proven in studies. Similar potentials can be observed with parameter variation of methods and filters for signal smoothing. Thus, there is increased interest in obtaining detailed results on the influence of parameter and factor combinations on data quality in this area. The overall methodology is realized with a modular software architecture consisting of independently modules for data acquisition, data preparation and data storage. The demonstrator for initialization and data acquisition is available as mobile Java-based application. The data preparation, including methods for signal smoothing, are Python-based with the possibility to vary parameter settings and to store them in the database (SQLite). The evaluation is divided into two separate software modules with database connection: the achievement of an automated assignment of defined process classes to distance data using selected classification algorithms and the visualization as well as reporting in terms of a graphical user interface (GUI).

Keywords: Machine Learning, RSSI, event-based tracing, process classification, parameter settings, signal smoothing

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2 Coverage Probability Analysis of WiMAX Network under Additive White Gaussian Noise and Predicted Empirical Path Loss Model

Authors: Chaudhuri Manoj Kumar Swain, Susmita Das


This paper explores a detailed procedure of predicting a path loss (PL) model and its application in estimating the coverage probability in a WiMAX network. For this a hybrid approach is followed in predicting an empirical PL model of a 2.65 GHz WiMAX network deployed in a suburban environment. Data collection, statistical analysis, and regression analysis are the phases of operations incorporated in this approach and the importance of each of these phases has been discussed properly. The procedure of collecting data such as received signal strength indicator (RSSI) through experimental set up is demonstrated. From the collected data set, empirical PL and RSSI models are predicted with regression technique. Furthermore, with the aid of the predicted PL model, essential parameters such as PL exponent as well as the coverage probability of the network are evaluated. This research work may assist in the process of deployment and optimisation of any cellular network significantly.

Keywords: Regression analysis, RSSI, WiMAX, coverage probability, path loss

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1 Sleep Quality Analysis Based on WI-FI Received Signal Strength

Authors: Ho Wai Wong, Po Tung Zhang


Sleep is a state of reduced activity and energy consumption, which helps restoration and memory processing. Our health and work productivity hinge on the quality of our sleep. Thus, the quality of sleep needs to be monitored. Professional sleep-tracking often involves special equipment, such as electroencephalography and electromyography sensors, which are costly and not generally accessible. There are cheaper wearable electronic devices for monitoring sleep, but they will involve contact with the user, consequently hindering their sleeping quality during the monitoring process. Therefore, we are investigating the possibility of using a non-intrusive, simple, and commonly accessible sleep quality monitoring system in the home. Sleep quality can be determined through the degree and frequency of body movement during our sleep. In this project, as Wi-Fi waves will be interfered or obstructed when passing through objects, Wi-Fi received signal strength information (RSSI) is used to analyze body movements during sleep. Changes in signal strength indicate the movement of the user. The signal is further processed by a sleep quality score system, which subsequently displays the result of sleeping quality. The monitoring system includes a Wi-Fi access point and a laptop with Wi-Fi. The access point will send radio waves, and the laptop will receive radio waves as well as signal strength information of the waves. By analyzing the signal strength information and using the above sleep quality scoring system, the corresponding sleep quality can be identified.

Keywords: Sleep Quality, RSSI, Wi-Fi, body movements

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