Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

RPC Related Abstracts

6 Reduction of the Risk of Secondary Cancer Induction Using VMAT for Head and Neck Cancer

Authors: Muhammad Afzal, Jalil Ur Rehman, Ramesh C, Tailor, Isa Khan, Jahanzeeb Ashraf, Geofferry S. Ibbott


The purpose of this analysis is to estimate secondary cancer risks after VMAT compared to other modalities of head and neck radiotherapy (IMRT, 3DCRT). Computer tomography (CT) scans of Radiological Physics Center (RPC) head and neck phantom were acquired with CT scanner and exported via DICOM to the treatment planning system (TPS). Treatment planning was done using four arc (182-178 and 180-184, clockwise and anticlockwise) for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) , Nine fields (200, 240, 280, 320,0,40,80,120 and 160), which has been commonly used at MD Anderson Cancer Center Houston for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and four fields for three dimensional radiation therapy (3DCRT) were used. True beam linear accelerator of 6MV photon energy was used for dose delivery, and dose calculation was done with CC convolution algorithm with prescription dose of 6.6 Gy. Primary Target Volume (PTV) coverage, mean and maximal doses, DVHs and volumes receiving more than 2 Gy and 3.8 Gy of OARs were calculated and compared. Absolute point dose and planar dose were measured with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and GafChromic EBT2 film, respectively. Quality Assurance of VMAT and IMRT were performed by using ArcCHECK method with gamma index criteria of 3%/3mm dose difference to distance to agreement (DD/DTA). PTV coverage was found 90.80 %, 95.80 % and 95.82 % for 3DCRT, IMRT and VMAT respectively. VMAT delivered the lowest maximal doses to esophagus (2.3 Gy), brain (4.0 Gy) and thyroid (2.3 Gy) compared to all other studied techniques. In comparison, maximal doses for 3DCRT were found higher than VMAT for all studied OARs. Whereas, IMRT delivered maximal higher doses 26%, 5% and 26% for esophagus, normal brain and thyroid, respectively, compared to VMAT. It was noted that esophagus volume receiving more than 2 Gy was 3.6 % for VMAT, 23.6 % for IMRT and up to 100 % for 3DCRT. Good agreement was observed between measured doses and those calculated with TPS. The averages relative standard errors (RSE) of three deliveries within eight TLD capsule locations were, 0.9%, 0.8% and 0.6% for 3DCRT, IMRT and VMAT, respectively. The gamma analysis for all plans met the ±5%/3 mm criteria (over 90% passed) and results of QA were greater than 98%. The calculations for maximal doses and volumes of OARs suggest that the estimated risk of secondary cancer induction after VMAT is considerably lower than IMRT and 3DCRT.

Keywords: TLD, IMRT, VMAT, RPC, EBT2 film

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5 Dosimetric Comparison among Different Head and Neck Radiotherapy Techniques Using PRESAGE™ Dosimeter

Authors: Muhammad Afzal, Muhammad Isa Khan, Jalil Ur Rehman, Geofferry S. Ibbott, Ramesh C. Tailor, Jahnzeeb Ashraf


Purpose: The purpose of this analysis was to investigate dose distribution of different techniques (3D-CRT, IMRT and VMAT) of head and neck cancer using 3-dimensional dosimeter called PRESAGETM Dosimeter. Materials and Methods: Computer tomography (CT) scans of radiological physics center (RPC) head and neck anthropomorphic phantom with both RPC standard insert and PRESAGETM insert were acquired separated with Philipp’s CT scanner and both CT scans were exported via DICOM to the Pinnacle version 9.4 treatment planning system (TPS). Each plan was delivered twice to the RPC phantom first containing the RPC standard insert having TLD and film dosimeters and then again containing the Presage insert having 3-D dosimeter (PRESAGETM) by using a Varian True Beam linear accelerator. After irradiation, the standard insert including point dose measurements (TLD) and planar Gafchromic® EBT film measurement were read using RPC standard procedure. The 3D dose distribution from PRESAGETM was read out with the Duke Midsized optical scanner dedicated to RPC (DMOS-RPC). Dose volume histogram (DVH), mean and maximal doses for organs at risk were calculated and compared among each head and neck technique. The prescription dose was same for all head and neck radiotherapy techniques which was 6.60 Gy/friction. Beam profile comparison and gamma analysis were used to quantify agreements among film measurement, PRESAGETM measurement and calculated dose distribution. Quality assurances of all plans were performed by using ArcCHECK method. Results: VMAT delivered the lowest mean and maximum doses to organ at risk (spinal cord, parotid) than IMRT and 3DCRT. Such dose distribution was verified by absolute dose distribution using thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) system. The central axial, sagittal and coronal planes were evaluated using 2D gamma map criteria(± 5%/3 mm) and results were 99.82% (axial), 99.78% (sagital), 98.38% (coronal) for VMAT plan and found the agreement between PRESAGE and pinnacle was better than IMRT and 3D-CRT plan excludes a 7 mm rim at the edge of the dosimeter. Profile showed good agreement for all plans between film, PRESAGE and pinnacle and 3D gamma was performed for PTV and OARs, VMAT and 3DCRT endow with better agreement than IMRT. Conclusion: VMAT delivered lowered mean and maximal doses to organs at risk and better PTV coverage during head and neck radiotherapy. TLD, EBT film and PRESAGETM dosimeters suggest that VMAT was better for the treatment of head and neck cancer than IMRT and 3D-CRT.


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4 Behavior of Composite Construction Precast Reactive Powder RC Girder and Ordinary RC Deck Slab

Authors: Nameer A. Alwash, Dunia A. Abd AlRadha, Arshed M. Aljanaby


This study present an experimental investigation of composite behavior for hybrid reinforced concrete slab on girder from locale material in Iraq, ordinary concrete, NC, in slab and reactive powder concrete in girder ,RPC, with steel fibers of different types(straight, hook, and mix between its), tested as simply supported span subjected under two point loading, also study effects on overall behavior such as the ultimate load, crack width and deflection. The result shows that the most suitable for production girder from RPC by using 2% micro straight steel fiber, in terms of ultimate strength and min crack width. Also the results shows that using RPC in girder of composite section increased ultimate load by 79% when compared with same section made of NC, and increased the shear strength which erased the effect of changing reinforcement in shear, and using RPC in girder and epoxy (in shear transfer between composite section) (meaning no stirrups) equivalent presence of shear reinforcement by 90% when compared with same section using Φ[email protected] as shear reinforcement. And the result shows that changing the cross section girder shape of the composite section to inverted T, with same section area, increased the ultimate load by 5% when compared with same section of rectangular shape girder.

Keywords: RPC, composite section, reactive powder concrete, hybrid concrete, RC girder, RC slab, shear connecters, inverted T section, shear reinforcment, shear span over effective depth

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3 Satellite Photogrammetry for DEM Generation Using Stereo Pair and Automatic Extraction of Terrain Parameters

Authors: Tridipa Biswas, Kamal Pandey


A Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is a simple representation of a surface in 3 dimensional space with elevation as the third dimension along with X (horizontal coordinates) and Y (vertical coordinates) in rectangular coordinates. DEM has wide applications in various fields like disaster management, hydrology and watershed management, geomorphology, urban development, map creation and resource management etc. Cartosat-1 or IRS P5 (Indian Remote Sensing Satellite) is a state-of-the-art remote sensing satellite built by ISRO (May 5, 2005) which is mainly intended for cartographic applications.Cartosat-1 is equipped with two panchromatic cameras capable of simultaneous acquiring images of 2.5 meters spatial resolution. One camera is looking at +26 degrees forward while another looks at –5 degrees backward to acquire stereoscopic imagery with base to height ratio of 0.62. The time difference between acquiring of the stereopair images is approximately 52 seconds. The high resolution stereo data have great potential to produce high-quality DEM. The high-resolution Cartosat-1 stereo image data is expected to have significant impact in topographic mapping and watershed applications. The objective of the present study is to generate high-resolution DEM, quality evaluation in different elevation strata, generation of ortho-rectified image and associated accuracy assessment from CARTOSAT-1 data based Ground Control Points (GCPs) for Aglar watershed (Tehri-Garhwal and Dehradun district, Uttarakhand, India). The present study reveals that generated DEMs (10m and 30m) derived from the CARTOSAT-1 stereo pair is much better and accurate when compared with existing DEMs (ASTER and CARTO DEM) also for different terrain parameters like slope, aspect, drainage, watershed boundaries etc., which are derived from the generated DEMs, have better accuracy and results when compared with the other two (ASTER and CARTO) DEMs derived terrain parameters.

Keywords: Photogrammetry, RPC, Digital Elevation Model (DEM), ASTER-DEM, CARTO-DEM, CARTOSAT-1, ortho-rectified image, stereo pair, terrain parameters

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2 Experimental Research on the Properties Reactive Powder Concrete (RPC)

Authors: J. Yang, M. A. Yazdi, S. Yousefi Oderji, B. Chen


This study investigates the influence of water-binder ratio, mineral admixtures (silica fume and ground granulated blast furnace slag), and copper coated steel fiber on fluidity diameter, compressive and flexural strengths of reactive powder concrete (RPC). The test results show that the binary combination of silica fume and blast-furnace slag provided a positive influence on the mechanical properties of RPC. Although the addition of fibers reduced the workability, results indicated a higher mechanical strength in the inclusion of fibers.

Keywords: Mechanical Properties, steel fiber, RPC, fluidity

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1 Flexural Toughness of Fiber Reinforced Reactive Powder Concrete (RPC)

Authors: S. Yousefi Oderji, B. Chen


According to the ASTM C1018 toughness index method, the single and combined toughness effects of copper coated steel fiber and polypropylene (pp) fiber on reactive powder concrete (RPC) were investigated. Through flexural toughness test of RPC with different fiber volume dosages, the corresponding load-deflection curves were also drawn. Test results indicate that the binary combination of fibers provide the best flexural toughness, and improve the post-peak load-deflection characteristics of RPC. However, the single effect of pp fibers was not pronounced on improving the flexural toughness of RPC.

Keywords: RPC, flexural toughness, toughness index

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