Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

rotavirus Related Abstracts

6 Diagnosis of Rotavirus Infection among Egyptian Children by Using Different Laboratory Techniques

Authors: Mohamed A. Alhammad, Hadia A. Abou-Donia, Mona H. Hashish, Mohamed N. Massoud

Abstract:

Background: Rotavirus is the leading etiologic agent of severe diarrheal disease in infants and young children worldwide. The present study was aimed 1) to detect rotavirus infection as a cause of diarrhoea among children under 5 years of age using the two serological methods (ELISA and LA) and the PCR technique (2) to evaluate the three methodologies used for human RV detection in stool samples. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out on 247 children less than 5 years old, diagnosed clinically as acute gastroenteritis and attending Alexandria University Children Hospital at EL-Shatby. Rotavirus antigen was screened by ELISA and LA tests in all stool samples, whereas only 100 samples were subjected to RT-PCR method for detection of rotavirus RNA. Results: Out of the 247 studied cases with diarrhoea, rotavirus antigen was detected in 83 (33.6%) by ELISA and 73 (29.6%) by LA, while the 100 cases tested by RT-PCR showed that 44% of them had rotavirus RNA. Rotavirus diarrhoea was significantly presented with a marked seasonal peak during autumn and winter (61.4%). Conclusion: The present study confirms the huge burden of rotavirus as a major cause of acute diarrhoea in Egyptian infants and young children. It was concluded that; LA is equal in sensitivity to ELISA, ELISA is more specific than LA, and RT-PCR is more specific than ELISA and LA in diagnosis of rotavirus infection.

Keywords: Diarrhea, RT-PCR, rotavirus, immunoenzyme techniques, latex fixation tests

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5 Evidence for Replication of an Unusual G8P[14] Human Rotavirus Strain in the Feces of an Alpine Goat: Zoonotic Transmission from Caprine Species

Authors: Amine Alaoui Sanae, Tagjdid Reda, Loutfi Chafiqa, Melloul Merouane, Laloui Aziz, Touil Nadia, El Fahim, E. Mostafa

Abstract:

Background: Rotavirus group A (RVA) strains with G8P[14] specificities are usually detected in calves and goats. However, these strains have been reported globally in humans and have often been characterized as originating from zoonotic transmissions, particularly in area where ruminants and humans live side-by-side. Whether human P[14] genotypes are two-way and can be transmitted to animal species remains to be established. Here we describe VP4 deduced amino-acid relationships of three Moroccan P[14] genotypes originating from different species and the receptiveness of an alpine goat to a human G8P[14] through an experimental infection. Material/methods: the human MA31 RVA strain was originally identified in a four years old girl presenting an acute gastroenteritis hospitalized at the pediatric care unit in Rabat Hospital in 2011. The virus was isolated and propagated in MA104 cells in the presence of trypsin. Ch_10S and 8045_S animal RVA strains were identified in fecal samples of a 2-week-old native goat and 3-week-old calf with diarrhea in 2011 in Bouaarfa and My Bousselham respectively. Genomic RNAs of all strains were subjected to a two-step RT-PCR and sequenced using the consensus primers VP4. The phylogenetic tree for MA31, Ch_10S and 8045_S VP4 and a set of published P[14] genotypes was constructed using MEGA6 software. The receptivity of MA31 strain by an eight month-old alpine goat was assayed. The animal was orally and intraperitonally inoculated with a dose of 8.5 TCID50 of virus stock at passage level 3. The shedding of the virus was tested by a real time RT-PCR assay. Results: The phylogenetic tree showed that the three Moroccan strains MA31, Ch_10S and 8045_S VP4 were highly related to each other (100% similar at the nucleotide level). They were clustered together with the B10925, Sp813, PA77 and P169 strains isolated in Belgium, Spain and Italy respectively. The Belgian strain B10925 was the most closely related to the Moroccan strains. In contrast, the 8045_S and Ch_10S strains were clustered distantly from the Tunisian calf strain B137 and the goat strain cap455 isolated in South Africa respectively. The human MA31 RVA strain was able to induce bloody diarrhea at 2 days post infection (dpi) in the alpine goat kid. RVA virus shedding started by 2 dpi (Ct value of 28) and continued until 5 dpi (Ct value of 25) with a concomitant elevation in the body temperature. Conclusions: Our study while limited to one animal, is the first study proving experimentally that a human P[14] genotype causes diarrhea and virus shedding in the goat. This result reinforce the potential role of inter- species transmission in generating novel and rare rotavirus strains such G8P[14] which infect humans.

Keywords: Human, Goat, rotavirus, interspecies transmission

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4 Efficiency on the Enteric Viral Removal in Four Potable Water Treatment Plants in Northeastern Colombia

Authors: Raquel Amanda Villamizar Gallardo, Oscar Orlando Ortíz Rodríguez

Abstract:

Enteric viruses are cosmopolitan agents present in several environments including water. These viruses can cause different diseases including gastroenteritis, hepatitis, conjunctivitis, respiratory problems among others. Although in Colombia there are not regulations concerning to routine viral analysis of drinking water, an enhanced understanding of viral pollution and resistance to treatments is desired in order to assure pure water to the population. Viral detection is often complex due to the need of specialized and time-consuming procedures. In addition, viruses are highly diluted in water which is a drawback from the analytical point of view. To this end, a fast and selective detection method for detection enteric viruses (i.e. Hepatitis A and Rotavirus) were applied. Micro- magnetic particles were functionalized with monoclonal antibodies anti-Hepatitis and anti-Rotavirus and they were used to capture, concentrate and separate whole viral particles in raw water and drinking water samples from four treatment plants identified as CAR-01, MON-02, POR-03, TON-04 and located in the Northeastern Colombia. Viruses were molecularly by using RT-PCR One Step Superscript III. Each plant was analyzed at the entry and exit points, in order to determine the initial presence and eventual reduction of Hepatitis A and Rotavirus after disinfection. The results revealed the presence of both enteric viruses in a 100 % of raw water analyzed in all plants. This represents a potential health hazard, especially for those people whose use this water for agricultural purposes. However, in drinking water analysis, enteric viruses was only positive in CAR-01, where was found the presence of Rotavirus. As a conclusion, the results confirm Rotavirus as the best indicator to evaluate the efficacy of potable treatment plant in eliminating viruses. CAR potable water plant should improve their disinfection process in order to remove efficiently enteric viruses.

Keywords: drinking water, rotavirus, hepatitis A, virus removal

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3 Genotyping of Rotaviruses in Pediatric Patients with Gastroenteritis by Using Real-Time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction

Authors: Recep Kesli, Cengiz Demir, Riza Durmaz, Zekiye Bakkaloglu, Aysegul Bukulmez

Abstract:

Objective: Acute diarrhea disease in children is a major cause of morbidity worldwide and is a leading cause of mortality, and it is the most common agent responsible for acute gastroenteritis in developing countries. With hospitalized children suffering from acute enteric disease up to 50% of the analyzed specimen were positive for rotavirus. Further molecular surveillance could provide a sound basis for improving the response to epidemic gastroenteritis and could provide data needed for the introduction of vaccination programmes in the country. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of viral etiology of the gastroenteritis in children aged 0-6 years with acute gastroenteritis and to determine predominant genotypes of rotaviruses in the province of Afyonkarahisar, Turkey. Methods: An epidemiological study on rotavirus was carried out during 2016. Fecal samples obtained from the 144 rotavirus positive children with 0-6 years of ages and applied to the Pediatric Diseases Outpatient of ANS Research and Practice Hospital, Afyon Kocatepe University with the complaint of diarrhea. Bacterial agents causing gastroenteritis were excluded by using bacteriological culture methods and finally, no growth observed. Rotavirus antigen was examined by both the immunochromatographic (One Step Rotavirus and Adenovirus Combo Test, China) and ELISA (Premier Rotaclone, USA) methods in stool samples. Rotavirus RNA was detected by using one step real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). G and P genotypes were determined using RT-PCR with consensus primers of VP7 and VP4 genes, followed by semi nested type-specific multiplex PCR. Results: Of the total 144 rotavirus antigen-positive samples with RT-PCR, 4 (2,8%) were rejected, 95 (66%) were examined, and 45 (31,2%) have not been examined for PCR yet. Ninety-one (95,8%) of the 95 examined samples were found to be rotavirus positive with RT-PCR. Rotavirus subgenotyping distributions in G, P and G/P genotype groups were determined as; G1:45%, G2:27%, G3:13%, G9:13%, G4:1% and G12:1% for G genotype, and P[4]:33%, P[8]:66%, P[10]:1% for P genotype, and G1P[8]:%37, G2P[4]:%21, G3P[8]:%10, G4P[8]:%1, G9P[8]:%8, G2P[8]:%3 for G/P genotype . Not common genotype combination were %20 in G/P genotype. Conclusions: This study subscribes to the global agreement of the molecular epidemiology of rotavirus which will be useful in guiding the alternative and application of rotavirus vaccines or effective control and interception. Determining the diversity and rates of rotavirus genotypes will definitely provide guidelines for developing the most suitable vaccine.

Keywords: Gastroenteritis, RT-PCR, rotavirus, Genotyping

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2 The Pathology of Bovine Rotavirus Infection in Calves That Confirmed by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction and Real-Time RT-PCR

Authors: Shama Ranjan Barua, Tofazzal M. Rakib, Mohammad Alamgir Hossain, Tania Ferdushy, Sharmin Chowdhury

Abstract:

Rotavirus is one of the main etiologies of neonatal diarrhea in bovine calves that causes significant economic loss in Bangladesh. The present study was carried out to investigate the pathology of neonatal enteritis in calves due to bovine rotavirus infection in south-eastern part of Bangladesh. Rotavirus was identified by using ELISA, RT-PCR (Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction), real-time RT-PCR. We examined 12 dead calves with history of diarrhea during necropsy. Among 12 dead calves, in gross examination, 6 were found with pathological changes in intestine, 5 calves had congestion of small intestine and rest one had no distinct pathological changes. Intestinal contents and/or faecal samples of all dead calves were collected and examined to confirm the presence of bovine rotavirus A using Enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA), RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR. Out 12 samples, 5 (42%) samples revealed presence of bovine rotavirus A in three diagnostic tests. The histopathological changes were found almost exclusively limited in the small intestine. The lesions of rotaviral enteritis ranged from slight to moderate shortening (atrophy) of villi in the jejunum and ileum with necrotic crypts. The villi were blunt and covered by immature epithelial cells. Infected cells, stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin staining method, showed characteristic syncytia and eosinophilc intracytoplasmic inclusion body. The presence of intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in enterocytes is the indication of viral etiology. The presence of rotavirus in the affected tissues and/or lesions was confirmed by three different immunological and molecular tests. The findings of histopathological changes will be helpful in future diagnosis of rotaviral infection in dead calves.

Keywords: Pathology, Diarrhea, calves, rotavirus

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1 Molecular Detection of Acute Virus Infection in Children Hospitalized with Diarrhea in North India during 2014-2016

Authors: Ali Ilter Akdag, Pratima Ray

Abstract:

Background:This acute gastroenteritis viruses such as rotavirus, astrovirus, and adenovirus are mainly responsible for diarrhea in children below < 5 years old. Molecular detection of these viruses is crucially important to the understand development of the effective cure. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of common these viruses in children < 5 years old presented with diarrhea from Lala Lajpat Rai Memorial Medical College (LLRM) centre (Meerut) North India, India Methods: Total 312 fecal samples were collected from diarrheal children duration 3 years: in year 2014 (n = 118), 2015 (n = 128) and 2016 (n = 66) ,< 5 years of age who presented with acute diarrhea at the Lala Lajpat Rai Memorial Medical College (LLRM) centre(Meerut) North India, India. All samples were the first detection by EIA/RT-PCR for rotaviruses, adenovirus and astrovirus. Results: In 312 samples from children with acute diarrhea in sample viral agent was found, rotavirus A was the most frequent virus identified (57 cases; 18.2%), followed by Astrovirus in 28 cases (8.9%), adenovirus in 21 cases (6.7%). Mixed infections were found in 14 cases, all of which presented with acute diarrhea (14/312; 4.48%). Conclusions: These viruses are a major cause of diarrhea in children <5 years old in North India. Rotavirus A is the most common etiological agent, follow by astrovirus. This surveillance is important to vaccine development of the entire population. There is variation detection of virus year wise due to differences in the season of sampling, method of sampling, hygiene condition, socioeconomic level of the entire people, enrolment criteria, and virus detection methods. It was found Astrovirus higher then Rotavirus in 2015, but overall three years study Rotavirus A is mainly responsible for causing severe diarrhea in children <5 years old in North India. It emphasizes the required for cost-effective diagnostic assays for Rotaviruses which would help to determine the disease burden.

Keywords: rotavirus, adenovirus, Astrovirus, hospitalized children

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