Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Rotation Related Abstracts

10 Bifurcations of the Rotations in the Thermocapillary Flows

Authors: V. Batishchev, V. Getman


We study the self-similar fluid flows in the Marangoni layers with the axial symmetry. Such flows are induced by the radial gradients of the temperatures whose distributions along the free boundary obey some power law. The self-similar solutions describe thermo-capillar flows both in the thin layers and in the case of infinite thickness. We consider both positive and negative temperature gradients. In the former case the cooling of free boundary nearby the axis of symmetry gives rise to the rotation of fluid. The rotating flow concentrates itself inside the Marangoni layer while outside of it the fluid does not revolve. In the latter case we observe no rotating flows at all. In the layers of infinite thickness the separation of the rotating flow creates two zones where the flows are directed oppositely. Both the longitudinal velocity and the temperature have exactly one critical point inside the boundary layer. It is worth to note that the profiles are monotonic in the case of non-swirling flows. We describe the flow outside the boundary layer with the use of self-similar solution of the Euler equations. This flow is slow and non-swirling. The introducing of an outer flow gives rise to the branching of swirling flows from the non-swirling ones. There is such the critical velocity of the outer flow that a non-swirling flow exists for supercritical velocities and cannot be extended to the sub-critical velocities. For the positive temperature gradients there are two non-swirling flows. For the negative temperature gradients the non-swirling flow is unique. We determine the critical velocity of the outer flow for which the branching of the swirling flows happens. In the case of a thin layer confined within free boundaries we show that the cooling of the free boundaries near the axis of symmetry leads to the separating of the layer and creates two sub-layers with opposite rotations inside. This makes sharp contrast with the case of infinite thickness. We show that such rotation arises provided the thickness of the layer exceed some critical value. In the case of a thin layer confined within free and rigid boundaries we construct the branching equation and the asymptotic approximation for the secondary swirling flows near the bifurcation point. It turns out that the bifurcation gives rise to one pair of the secondary swirling flows with different directions of swirl.

Keywords: fluid flow, Rotation, bifurcation, free surface, boundary layer, Marangoni layer

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9 A Robust Digital Image Watermarking Against Geometrical Attack Based on Hybrid Scheme

Authors: M. Samadzadeh Mahabadi, J. Shanbehzadeh


This paper presents a hybrid digital image-watermarking scheme, which is robust against varieties of attacks and geometric distortions. The image content is represented by important feature points obtained by an image-texture-based adaptive Harris corner detector. These feature points are extracted from LL2 of 2-D discrete wavelet transform which are obtained by using the Harris-Laplacian detector. We calculate the Fourier transform of circular regions around these points. The amplitude of this transform is rotation invariant. The experimental results demonstrate the robustness of the proposed method against the geometric distortions and various common image processing operations such as JPEG compression, colour reduction, Gaussian filtering, median filtering, and rotation.

Keywords: Digital Watermarking, Rotation, Geometric distortions, geometrical attack, Harris Laplace, important feature points, scale invariant feature

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8 Analysis of Moment Rotation Curve for Steel Beam Column Joint

Authors: A. J. Shah, G. R. Vesmawala


Connections perform a fundamental role in the steel structures as global behaviour. In order to evaluate the real influence of the physical and geometrical parameters that control their behaviour, many experimental tests and analysis have been developed but a definitive answer to the problem in question still stands. Here, various configurations of bolts were tried and the resulting moment rotation (M-θ) curves were plotted. The connection configuration is such that two bolts are located above each of the flanges and beside each of the webs. The model considers the combined effects of prying action, the formation of yield lines, and failures due to punching shear and beam section failure. For many types of connections, the stiffness at the service load level falls somewhere in between the fully restrained and simple limits and designers need to account for its behaviour. The (M-θ) curves are generally assumed to be the best characterization of connection behaviour. The moment rotation curves are generally derived from experiments on cantilever type specimens. The moments are calculated directly from the statics of the specimen, while the rotations are measured over a distance typically equal to the point of loading. Thus, this paper establishes the relationship between M-θ behaviour of different types of connections tested and presents the relative strength of various possible arrangements of bolts.

Keywords: Connections, Rotation, Stiffness, bolt, moment

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7 Influence of Rotation on Rayleigh-Type Wave in Piezoelectric Plate

Authors: Soniya Chaudhary, Sanjeev Sahu


Propagation of Rayleigh-type waves in a rotating piezoelectric plate is investigated. The materials are assumed to be transversely isotropic crystals. The frequency equation have been derived for electrically open and short cases. Effect of rotation and piezoelectricity have been shown. It is also found that piezoelectric material properties have an important effect on Rayleigh wave propagation. The result is relevant to the analysis and design of various acoustic surface wave devices constructed from piezoelectric materials also in SAW devices.

Keywords: Rotation, Piezoelectricity, frequency equation, rayleigh-type wave

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6 Performance and Structural Evaluation of the Torrefaction of Bamboo under a High Gravity (Higee) Environment Using a Rotating Packed Bed

Authors: Mark Daniel De Luna, Ma. Katreena Pillejera, Wei-Hsin Chen


The raw bamboo (Phyllostachys mankinoi), with a moisture content of 13.54 % and a higher heating value (HHV) of 17.657 MJ/kg, was subjected to torrefaction under a high gravity (higee) environment using a rotating packed bed. The performance of the higee torrefaction was explored in two parts: (1) effect of rotation and temperature and (2) effect of duration on the solid yield, HHV and energy yield. By statistical analyses, the results indicated that the rotation, temperature and their interaction has a significant effect on the three responses. Same remarks on the effect of duration where when the duration (temperature and rotation) increases, the HHV increases, while the solid yield and energy yield decreases. Graphical interpretations showed that at 300 °C, the rotating speed has no evident effect on the responses. At 30-min holding time, the highest HHV reached (28.389 MJ/kg) was obtained in the most severe torrefaction condition (the rotating speed at 1800 rpm and temperature at 300 °C) with an enhancement factor of HHV corresponding to 1.61 and an energy yield of 63.51%. Upon inspection, the recommended operating condition under a 30-min holding time is at 255 °C-1800 rpm since the enhancement factor of HHV (1.53), HHV (26.988 MJ/kg), and energy yield (65.21%) values are relatively close to that of the aforementioned torrefaction condition. The Van Krevelen diagram of the torrefied biomass showed that the ratios decrease as the torrefaction intensifies, hence improving the hydrophobicity of the product. The spreads of the results of the solid yield, enhancement factor (EF) of HHV, energy yield, and H/C and O/C ratios were in accordance with the trends of the responses. Overall, from the results presented, it can be concluded that the quality of the product from the process is at par to that of coal (i.e. HHV of coal is 21-35 MJ/kg). The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy results indicated that cellulose and lignin may have been degraded at a lower temperature accompanied with a high rotating speed. The results suggested that torrefaction under higee environment indicates promising process for the utilization of bamboo.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, Rotation, Torrefaction, FTIR, high gravity environment, rotating speed

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5 Heat and Mass Transfer of Triple Diffusive Convection in a Rotating Couple Stress Liquid Using Ginzburg-Landau Model

Authors: Sameena Tarannum, S. Pranesh


A nonlinear study of triple diffusive convection in a rotating couple stress liquid has been analysed. It is performed to study the effect of heat and mass transfer by deriving Ginzburg-Landau equation. Heat and mass transfer are quantified in terms of Nusselt number and Sherwood numbers, which are obtained as a function of thermal and solute Rayleigh numbers. The obtained Ginzburg-Landau equation is Bernoulli equation, and it has been elucidated numerically by using Mathematica. The effects of couple stress parameter, solute Rayleigh numbers, and Taylor number on the onset of convection and heat and mass transfer have been examined. It is found that the effects of couple stress parameter and Taylor number are to stabilize the system and to increase the heat and mass transfer.

Keywords: Rotation, Ginzburg-Landau model, couple stress liquid, triple diffusive convection

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4 Rayleigh-Bénard-Taylor Convection of Newtonian Nanoliquid

Authors: P. G. Siddheshwar, T. N. Sakshath


In the paper we make linear and non-linear stability analyses of Rayleigh-Bénard convection of a Newtonian nanoliquid in a rotating medium (called as Rayleigh-Bénard-Taylor convection). Rigid-rigid isothermal boundaries are considered for investigation. Khanafer-Vafai-Lightstone single phase model is used for studying instabilities in nanoliquids. Various thermophysical properties of nanoliquid are obtained using phenomenological laws and mixture theory. The eigen boundary value problem is solved for the Rayleigh number using an analytical method by considering trigonometric eigen functions. We observe that the critical nanoliquid Rayleigh number is less than that of the base liquid. Thus the onset of convection is advanced due to the addition of nanoparticles. So, increase in volume fraction leads to advanced onset and thereby increase in heat transport. The amplitudes of convective modes required for estimating the heat transport are determined analytically. The tri-modal standard Lorenz model is derived for the steady state assuming small scale convective motions. The effect of rotation on the onset of convection and on heat transport is investigated and depicted graphically. It is observed that the onset of convection is delayed due to rotation and hence leads to decrease in heat transport. Hence, rotation has a stabilizing effect on the system. This is due to the fact that the energy of the system is used to create the component V. We observe that the amount of heat transport is less in the case of rigid-rigid isothermal boundaries compared to free-free isothermal boundaries.

Keywords: Rotation, single phase, nanoliquid, rigid-rigid

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3 Assessment and Control for Oil Aerosol

Authors: Chane-Yu Lai, Xiang-Yu Huang


This study conducted an assessment of sampling result by using the new development rotation filtration device (RFD) filled with porous media filters integrating the method of cyclone centrifugal spins. The testing system established for the experiment used corn oil and potassium sodium tartrate tetrahydrate (PST) as challenge aerosols and were produced by using an Ultrasonic Atomizing Nozzle, a Syringe Pump, and a Collison nebulizer. The collection efficiency of RFD for oil aerosol was assessed by using an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS) and a Fidas® Frog. The results of RFD for the liquid particles condition indicated the cutoff size was 1.65 µm and 1.02 µm for rotation of 0 rpm and 9000 rpm, respectively, under an 80 PPI (pores per inch)foam with a thickness of 80 mm, and sampling velocity of 13.5 cm/s. As the experiment increased the foam thickness of RFD, the cutoff size reduced from 1.62 µm to 1.02 µm. However, when increased the foam porosity of RFD, the cutoff size reduced from 1.26 µm to 0.96 µm. Moreover, as increased the sampling velocity of RFD, the cutoff size reduced from 1.02 µm to 0.76 µm. These discrepancies of above cutoff sizes of RFD all had statistical significance (P < 0.05). The cutoff size of RFD for three experimental conditions of generated liquid oil particles, solid PST particles or both liquid oil and solid PST particles was 1.03 µm, 1.02 µm, or 0.99 µm, respectively, under a 80 PPI foam with thickness of 80 mm, rotation of 9000 rpm, and sampling velocity of 13.5 cm/s. In addition, under the best condition of the experiment, two hours of sampling loading, the RFD had better collection efficiency for particle diameter greater than 0.45 µm, under a 94 PPI nickel mesh with a thickness of 68 mm, rotation of 9000 rpm, and sampling velocity of 108.3 cm/s. The experiment concluded that increased the thickness of porous media, face velocity, and porosity of porous media of RFD could increase the collection efficiency of porous media for sampling oil particles. Moreover, increased the rotation speed of RFD also increased the collection efficiency for sampling oil particles. Further investigation is required for those above operation parameters for RFD in this study in the future.

Keywords: Rotation, Filtration, oil aerosol, porous media filter

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2 A Q-Methodology Approach for the Evaluation of Land Administration Mergers

Authors: Tsitsi Nyukurayi Muparari, Walter Timo De Vries, Jaap Zevenbergen


The nature of Land administration accommodates diversity in terms of both spatial data handling activities and the expertise involved, which supposedly aims to satisfy the unpredictable demands of land data and the diverse demands of the customers arising from the land. However, it is known that strategic decisions of restructuring are in most cases repelled in favour of complex structures that strive to accommodate professional diversity and diverse roles in the field of Land administration. Yet despite of this widely accepted knowledge, there is scanty theoretical knowledge concerning the psychological methodologies that can extract the deeper perceptions from the diverse spatial expertise in order to explain the invisible control arm of the polarised reception of the ideas of change. This paper evaluates Q methodology in the context of a cadastre and land registry merger (under one agency) using the Swedish cadastral system as a case study. Precisely, the aim of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of Q methodology towards modelling the diverse psychological perceptions of spatial professionals who are in a widely contested decision of merging the cadastre and land registry components of Land administration using the Swedish cadastral system as a case study. An empirical approach that is prescribed by Q methodology starts with the concourse development, followed by the design of statements and q sort instrument, selection of the participants, the q-sorting exercise, factor extraction by PQMethod and finally narrative development by logic of abduction. The paper uses 36 statements developed from a dominant competing value theory that stands out on its reliability and validity, purposively selects 19 participants to do the Qsorting exercise, proceeds with factor extraction from the diversity using varimax rotation and judgemental rotation provided by PQMethod and effect the narrative construction using the logic abduction. The findings from the diverse perceptions from cadastral professionals in the merger decision of land registry and cadastre components in Sweden’s mapping agency (Lantmäteriet) shows that focus is rather inclined on the perfection of the relationship between the legal expertise and technical spatial expertise. There is much emphasis on tradition, loyalty and communication attributes which concern the organisation’s internal environment rather than innovation and market attributes that reveals customer behavior and needs arising from the changing humankind-land needs. It can be concluded that Q methodology offers effective tools that pursues a psychological approach for the evaluation and gradations of the decisions of strategic change through extracting the local perceptions of spatial expertise.

Keywords: Cadastre, Rotation, land registry, factor extraction, land administration merger, q-methodology

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1 Virtual Test Model for Qualification of Knee Prosthesis

Authors: K. Zehouani, I. Oldal


Purpose: In the human knee joint, degenerative joint disease may happen with time. The standard treatment of this disease is the total knee replacement through prosthesis implanting. The reason lies in the fact that this phenomenon causes different material abrasion as compare to pure sliding or rolling alone. This study focuses on developing a knee prosthesis geometry, which fulfills the mechanical and kinematical requirements. Method: The MSC ADAMS program is used to describe the rotation of the human knee joint as a function of flexion, and to investigate how the flexion and rotation movement changes between the condyles of a multi-body model of the knee prosthesis as a function of flexion angle (in the functional arc of the knee (20-120º)). Moreover, the multi-body model with identical boundary conditions is constituted, and the numerical simulations are carried out using the MSC ADAMS program system. Results: It is concluded that the use of the multi-body model reduces time and cost since it does not need to manufacture the tibia and the femur as it requires for the knee prosthesis of the test machine. Moreover, without measuring or by dispensing with a test machine for the knee prosthesis geometry, approximation of the results of our model to a human knee is carried out directly. Conclusion: The pattern obtained by the multi-body model provides an insight for future experimental tests related to the rotation and flexion of the knee joint concerning the actual average and friction load.

Keywords: Biomechanics, Kinematics, Rotation, knee joint, flexion, MSC Adams

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