Commenced in January 2007
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Paper Count: 3

rock bream Related Abstracts

3 Non-Mammalian Pattern Recognition Receptor from Rock Bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus): Genomic Characterization and Transcriptional Profile upon Bacterial and Viral Inductions

Authors: Thanthrige Thiunuwan Priyathilaka, Don Anushka Sandaruwan Elvitigala, Bong-Soo Lim, Hyung-Bok Jeong, Jehee Lee

Abstract:

Toll like receptors (TLRs) are a phylogeneticaly conserved family of pattern recognition receptors, which participates in the host immune responses against various pathogens and pathogen derived mitogen. TLR21, a non-mammalian type, is almost restricted to the fish species even though those can be identified rarely in avians and amphibians. Herein, this study was carried out to identify and characterize TLR21 from rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) designated as RbTLR21, at transcriptional and genomic level. In this study, the full length cDNA and genomic sequence of RbTLR21 was identified using previously constructed cDNA sequence database and BAC library, respectively. Identified RbTLR21 sequence was characterized using several bioinformatics tools. The quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) experiment was conducted to determine tissue specific expressional distribution of RbTLR21. Further, transcriptional modulation of RbTLR21 upon the stimulation with Streptococcus iniae (S. iniae), rock bream iridovirus (RBIV) and Edwardsiella tarda (E. tarda) was analyzed in spleen tissues. The complete coding sequence of RbTLR21 was 2919 bp in length which can encode a protein consisting of 973 amino acid residues with molecular mass of 112 kDa and theoretical isoelectric point of 8.6. The anticipated protein sequence resembled a typical TLR domain architecture including C-terminal ectodomain with 16 leucine rich repeats, a transmembrane domain, cytoplasmic TIR domain and signal peptide with 23 amino acid residues. Moreover, protein folding pattern prediction of RbTLR21 exhibited well-structured and folded ectodomain, transmembrane domain and cytoplasmc TIR domain. According to the pair wise sequence analysis data, RbTLR21 showed closest homology with orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) TLR21with 76.9% amino acid identity. Furthermore, our phylogenetic analysis revealed that RbTLR21 shows a close evolutionary relationship with its ortholog from Danio rerio. Genomic structure of RbTLR21 consisted of single exon similar to its ortholog of zebra fish. Sevaral putative transcription factor binding sites were also identified in 5ʹ flanking region of RbTLR21. The RBTLR 21 was ubiquitously expressed in all the tissues we tested. Relatively, high expression levels were found in spleen, liver and blood tissues. Upon induction with rock bream iridovirus, RbTLR21 expression was upregulated at the early phase of post induction period even though RbTLR21 expression level was fluctuated at the latter phase of post induction period. Post Edwardsiella tarda injection, RbTLR transcripts were upregulated throughout the experiment. Similarly, Streptococcus iniae induction exhibited significant upregulations of RbTLR21 mRNA expression in the spleen tissues. Collectively, our findings suggest that RbTLR21 is indeed a homolog of TLR21 family members and RbTLR21 may be involved in host immune responses against bacterial and DNA viral infections.

Keywords: rock bream, toll like receptor 21 (TLR21), pattern recognition receptor, genomic characterization

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2 A Kunitz-Type Serine Protease Inhibitor from Rock Bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus Involved in Immune Responses

Authors: S. D. N. K. Bathige, Jehee Lee, G. I. Godahewa, Navaneethaiyer Umasuthan

Abstract:

Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitors (KTIs) are identified in various organisms including animals, plants and microbes. These proteins shared single or multiple Kunitz inhibitory domains link together or associated with other types of domains. Characteristic Kunitz type domain composed of around 60 amino acid residues with six conserved cysteine residues to stabilize by three disulfide bridges. KTIs are involved in various physiological processes, such as ion channel blocking, blood coagulation, fibrinolysis and inflammation. In this study, two Kunitz-type domain containing protein was identified from rock bream database and designated as RbKunitz. The coding sequence of RbKunitz encoded for 507 amino acids with 56.2 kDa theoretical molecular mass and 5.7 isoelectric point (pI). There are several functional domains including MANEC superfamily domain, PKD superfamily domain, and LDLa domain were predicted in addition to the two characteristic Kunitz domain. Moreover, trypsin interaction sites were also identified in Kunitz domain. Homology analysis revealed that RbKunitz shared highest identity (77.6%) with Takifugu rubripes. Completely conserved 28 cysteine residues were recognized, when comparison of RbKunitz with other orthologs from different taxonomical groups. These structural evidences indicate the rigidity of RbKunitz folding structure to achieve the proper function. The phylogenetic tree was constructed using neighbor-joining method and exhibited that the KTIs from fish and non-fish has been evolved in separately. Rock bream was clustered with Takifugu rubripes. The SYBR Green qPCR was performed to quantify the RbKunitz transcripts in different tissues and challenged tissues. The mRNA transcripts of RbKunitz were detected in all tissues (muscle, spleen, head kidney, blood, heart, skin, liver, intestine, kidney and gills) analyzed and highest transcripts level was detected in gill tissues. Temporal transcription profile of RbKunitz in rock bream blood tissues was analyzed upon LPS (lipopolysaccharide), Poly I:C (Polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid) and Edwardsiella tarda challenge to understand the immune responses of this gene. Compare to the unchallenged control RbKunitz exhibited strong up-regulation at 24 h post injection (p.i.) after LPS and E. tarda injection. Comparatively robust expression of RbKunits was observed at 3 h p.i. upon Poly I:C challenge. Taken together all these data indicate that RbKunitz may involve into to immune responses upon pathogenic stress, in order to protect the rock bream.

Keywords: Immune response, rock bream, Kunitz-type, serine protease inhibitor

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1 Dietary Effect of Probiotic Bacteria, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens JFP-2 Isolate from Jeju Island`s Traditional Fermented Food, on Innate Immune Response of Oplegnathus fasciatus Challenged with Vibrio anguillarum

Authors: Dharaneedharan SUBRAMANIAN, So Hyun Park, Dong Hwi Kim, Ha-Ri Choi, Ji-Hyung Kim, Dong-Hoon Lee, Moon Soo Heo

Abstract:

The present study was performed to evaluate the use of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens JFP-2 isolated from a traditional fermented sea food, as probiotic bacteria in the diets for Rock-bream, Oplegnathus faciatus. A total of 180 fish (187.4 ± 2.7 g) were divided into two groups, control (C) and probiotic (P) group (90 fish per group) in triplicate. C group was fed with basal diet without probiotic, while P group was fed with B. amyloliquefaciens spores at concentration of 1.4 x 106 colony forming units per gram (CFU/g) of feed. After two months of feeding experiments, P group fish showed significant improvements in body weight (BW), weight gain (WG), specific growth rate (SGR) and food conversion ratio (FCR) compared with C group. Also, bi-weekly assessment of serum protein, glucose, fatty acid profile showed a significant increase in probiotic fed fish than that of control fish group. Similar increase in serum antioxidant and lysozyme activity was found in probiotic fed fish group. Twenty days challenge experiment shows decrease mortality in probiotic fed fish group when compared with that of control group. Hence, these results indicate that the use of B. amyloliquefaciens JFP-2 as a feed supplement, is beneficial to improve the health status of Oplegnathus fasciatus challenged with Vibrio anguillarum.

Keywords: rock bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, probiotic feed

Procedia PDF Downloads 120