Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 20

Robot Related Abstracts

20 Refining Scheme Using Amphibious Epistemologies

Authors: David Blaine, George Raschbaum


The evaluation of DHCP has synthesized SCSI disks, and current trends suggest that the exploration of e-business that would allow for further study into robots will soon emerge. Given the current status of embedded algorithms, hackers worldwide obviously desire the exploration of replication, which embodies the confusing principles of programming languages. In our research we concentrate our efforts on arguing that erasure coding can be made "fuzzy", encrypted, and game-theoretic.

Keywords: Algorithm, Programming Language, Robot, Hacking, SCHI disks

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19 Individual Actuators of a Car-Like Robot with Back Trailer

Authors: Tarek El-Derini, Ahmed El-Shenawy


This paper presents the hardware implemented and validation for a special system to assist the unprofessional users of car with back trailers. The system consists of two platforms; the front car platform (C) and the trailer platform (T). The main objective is to control the Trailer platform using the actuators found in the front platform (c). The mobility of the platform (C) is investigated and inverse and forward kinematics model is obtained for both platforms (C) and (T). The system is simulated using Matlab M-file and the simulation examples results illustrated the system performance. The system is constructed with a hardware setup for the front and trailer platform. The hardware experimental results and the simulated examples outputs showed the validation of the hardware setup.

Keywords: Modeling, Kinematics, Robot, MATLAB

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18 Electroencephalogram Signals Controlling a Parallax Boe-Bot Robot

Authors: Nema M. Salem, Hanan A. Altukhaifi, Amal Mukhtar, Reemaz K. Hetaimish


Recently, BCI field of research has gained a lot of interest. Apart from motor neuroprosthetics, many studies showed the possibility of controlling a virtual environment of a videogame using the acquired electroencephalogram signals (EEG) from the gamer. In addition, another study had successfully moved a farm tractor using the human’s EEG signals. This article utilizes the use of EEG signals, as a source of technology, in controlling a Parallax Boe-Bot robot. The commercial Emotive Epoc headset has been used in acquiring the EEG signals from rested subjects. Because the human's visual cortex can successfully differentiate between different colors, the red and green colors are used as visual stimuli for generating EEG signals using the Epoc. Arduino and Labview are used to translate the virtually pressed keys into instructions controlling the motion and rotation of the robot. Optimistic results have been achieved except for minor delay and accuracy in the robot’s response.

Keywords: Robot, eeg, labview, BCI, Emotiv Epoc headset, Arduino applications

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17 Rehabilitation Robot in Primary Walking Pattern Training for SCI Patient at Home

Authors: Taisuke Sakaki, Toshihiko Shimokawa, Nobuhiro Ushimi, Koji Murakami, Yong-Kwun Lee, Kazuhiro Tsuruta, Kanta Aoki, Kaoru Fujiie, Ryuji Katamoto, Atsushi Sugyo


Recently attention has been focused on incomplete spinal cord injuries (SCI) to the central spine caused by pressure on parts of the white matter conduction pathway, such as the pyramidal tract. In this paper, we focus on a training robot designed to assist with primary walking-pattern training. The target patient for this training robot is relearning the basic functions of the usual walking pattern; it is meant especially for those with incomplete-type SCI to the central spine, who are capable of standing by themselves but not of performing walking motions. From the perspective of human engineering, we monitored the operator’s actions to the robot and investigated the movement of joints of the lower extremities, the circumference of the lower extremities, and exercise intensity with the machine. The concept of the device was to provide mild training without any sudden changes in heart rate or blood pressure, which will be particularly useful for the elderly and disabled. The mechanism of the robot is modified to be simple and lightweight with the expectation that it will be used at home.

Keywords: Rehabilitation, training, Robot, welfare, SCI patient

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16 Implementing Digital Control System in Robotics

Authors: Safiullah Abdullahi


This paper describes the design of a digital control system which controls the speed and direction of a robot. The robot is expected to follow a black thick line with the highest possible speed and lowest error around the line. The control system of the robot will correct for the angle error that is made between the frame axis of the robot and the line. The cause for error is the difference in speed of the two driving wheels of the robot which are driven by two separate DC motors, whereas the speed difference in wheels is due to the un-modeled fraction that is available in the wheels with different magnitudes in each. The control scheme is that a number of photo sensors are mounted in the front of the robot and report their position in reference to the black line to the digital controller. The controller then, evaluates the position error and generates the needed duty cycle for the related wheel motor to drive it faster or slower.

Keywords: Control System, Digital control, Robot, controller

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15 PID Sliding Mode Control with Sliding Surface Dynamics based Continuous Control Action for Robotic Systems

Authors: Wael M. Elawady, Mohamed F. Asar, Amany M. Sarhan


This paper adopts a continuous sliding mode control scheme for trajectory tracking control of robot manipulators with structured and unstructured uncertain dynamics and external disturbances. In this algorithm, the equivalent control in the conventional sliding mode control is replaced by a PID control action. Moreover, the discontinuous switching control signal is replaced by a continuous proportional-integral (PI) control term such that the implementation of the proposed control algorithm does not require the prior knowledge of the bounds of unknown uncertainties and external disturbances and completely eliminates the chattering phenomenon of the conventional sliding mode control approach. The closed-loop system with the adopted control algorithm has been proved to be globally stable by using Lyapunov stability theory. Numerical simulations using the dynamical model of robot manipulators with modeling uncertainties demonstrate the superiority and effectiveness of the proposed approach in high speed trajectory tracking problems.

Keywords: Robot, Sliding Mode Control, PID, uncertainties

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14 Development of a Robot Assisted Centrifugal Casting Machine for Manufacturing Multi-Layer Journal Bearing and High-Tech Machine Components

Authors: Mohammad Syed Ali Molla, Mohammed Azim, Mohammad Esharuzzaman


Centrifugal-casting machine is used in manufacturing special machine components like multi-layer journal bearing used in all internal combustion engine, steam, gas turbine and air craft turboengine where isotropic properties and high precisions are desired. Moreover, this machine can be used in manufacturing thin wall hightech machine components like cylinder liners and piston rings of IC engine and other machine parts like sleeves, and bushes. Heavy-duty machine component like railway wheel can also be prepared by centrifugal casting. A lot of technological developments are required in casting process for production of good casted machine body and machine parts. Usually defects like blowholes, surface roughness, chilled surface etc. are found in sand casted machine parts. But these can be removed by centrifugal casting machine using rotating metallic die. Moreover, die rotation, its temperature control, and good pouring practice can contribute to the quality of casting because of the fact that the soundness of a casting in large part depends upon how the metal enters into the mold or dies and solidifies. Poor pouring practice leads to variety of casting defects such as temperature loss, low quality casting, excessive turbulence, over pouring etc. Besides these, handling of molten metal is very unsecured and dangerous for the workers. In order to get rid of all these problems, the need of an automatic pouring device arises. In this research work, a robot assisted pouring device and a centrifugal casting machine are designed, developed constructed and tested experimentally which are found to work satisfactorily. The robot assisted pouring device is further modified and developed for using it in actual metal casting process. Lot of settings and tests are required to control the system and ultimately it can be used in automation of centrifugal casting machine to produce high-tech machine parts with desired precision.

Keywords: Robot, bearing, centrifugal casting, cylinder liners

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13 Totally Robotic Gastric Bypass Using Modified Lonroth Technique

Authors: Arun Prasad


Background: Robotic Bariatric Surgery is a good option for the super obese where laparoscopy demands challenging technical skills. Gastric bypass can be difficult due to inability of the robot to work in two quadrants at the same time. Lonroth technique of gastric bypass involves a totally supracolic surgery where all anastomosis are done in one quadrant only. Methods: We have done 78 robotic gastric bypass surgeries using the modified Lonroth technique. The robot is docked above the head of the patient in the midline. Camera port is placed supra umbilically. Two ports are placed on the left side of the patient and one port on the right side of the patient. An assistant port is placed between the camera port and right sided robotic port for use of stapler. Gastric pouch is made first followed by the gastrojejunostomy that is a four layered sutured anastomosis. Jejuno jejunostomy is then performed followed by a leak test and then the jejunum is divided. A 150 cm biliopancreatic limb and a 75 cm alimentary limb are finally obtained. Mesenteric and Petersen’s defects are then closed. Results: All patients had a successful robotic procedure. Mean time taken in the first 5 cases was 130 minutes. This reduced to a mean of 95 minutes in the last five cases. There were no intraoperative or post operative complications. Conclusions: While a hybrid technique of partly laparoscopic and partly robotic gastric bypass has been done at many centres, we feel using the modified Lonroth technique, a totally robotic gastric bypass surgery fully utilizes the potential of robotic bariatric surgery.

Keywords: Robot, bariatric, totally robotic, gastric bypass

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12 An Inquiry on 2-Mass and Wheeled Mobile Robot Dynamics

Authors: Boguslaw Schreyer


In this paper, a general dynamical model is derived using the Lagrange formalism. The two masses: sprang and unsprang are included in a six-degree of freedom model for a sprung mass. The unsprung mass is included and shown only in a simplified model, although its equations have also been derived by an author. The simplified equations, more suitable for the computer model of robot’s dynamics are also shown.

Keywords: Mobile, Dynamics, Robot, Wheeled mobile robots

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11 Industrial Practical Training for Mechanical Engineering Students: A Multidisciplinary Approach

Authors: Bashiru Olayinka Adisa, Najeem Lateef


The integrated knowledge in the application of mechanical engineering, microprocessor and electronic sensor technologies is becoming the basic skill of a modern engineer in machinery based processes. To meet this objective, we have developed a cross-disciplinary industrial training to teach essential hard technical and soft project skills to the mechanical engineering students in mid-curriculum. Ten groups of students were selected to participate in a 150 hour program. The students were required to design and build a robot with ability to follow tracks and pick/place target blocks in specific locations. The students were trained to integrate the knowledge of computer aid design, electronics, sensor theories and motor technology to fabricate a workable robot as a major outcome of this course. On completion of the project, students competed for top robot honors by demonstrating their robots' movements and performance in pick/place to a panel of judges.

Keywords: Electronics, Technology, Robot, sensor theories and motor

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10 X-Glove: Case Study of Soft Robotic Hand Exoskeleton

Authors: Pim Terachinda, Witaya Wannasuphoprasit, Wasuwat Kitisomprayoonkul, Anan Srikiatkhachorn


Restoration of hand function and dexterity remain challenges in rehabilitation after stroke. We have developed soft exoskeleton hand robot in which using tendon-driven mechanism. Finger flexion and extension can be triggered by a foot switch and force can be adjusted manually depending on patient’s grip strength. The objective of this study is to investigate feasibility and safety of this device. The study was done in 2 stroke patients with the strength of the finger flexors/extensors grade 1/0 and 3/1 on Medical Research Council scale, respectively. Grasp and release training was performed for 30 minutes. No complication was observed. Results demonstrated that the device is safe, and therapy can be tailored to individual patient’s need. However, further study is required to determine recovery and rehabilitation outcomes after training in patients after nervous system injury.

Keywords: Rehabilitation, Robot, Stroke, hand

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9 Neuron-Based Control Mechanisms for a Robotic Arm and Hand

Authors: Nishant Singh, Christian Huyck, Vaibhav Gandhi, Alexander Jones


A robotic arm and hand controlled by simulated neurons is presented. The robot makes use of a biological neuron simulator using a point neural model. The neurons and synapses are organised to create a finite state automaton including neural inputs from sensors, and outputs to effectors. The robot performs a simple pick-and-place task. This work is a proof of concept study for a longer term approach. It is hoped that further work will lead to more effective and flexible robots. As another benefit, it is hoped that further work will also lead to a better understanding of human and other animal neural processing, particularly for physical motion. This is a multidisciplinary approach combining cognitive neuroscience, robotics, and psychology.

Keywords: Robot, cell assembly, force sensitive resistor, spiking neuron

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8 A Robotic “Puppet Master” Application to ASD Therapeutic Support

Authors: Sophie Sakka, Rénald Gaboriau


This paper describes a preliminary work aimed at setting a therapeutic support for autistic teenagers using three humanoid robots NAO shared by ASD (Autism Spectrum Disorder) subjects. The studied population had attended successfully a first year program, and were observed with a second year program using the robots. This paper focuses on the content and the effects of the second year program. The approach is based on a master puppet concept: the subjects program the robots, and use them as an extension for communication. Twenty sessions were organized, alternating ten preparatory sessions and ten robotics programming sessions. During the preparatory sessions, the subjects write a story to be played by the robots. During the robot programming sessions, the subjects program the motions to be realized to make the robot tell the story. The program was concluded by a public performance. The experiment involves five ASD teenagers aged 12-15, who had all attended the first year robotics training. As a result, a progress in voluntary and organized communication skills of the five subjects was observed, leading to improvements in social organization, focus, voluntary communication, programming, reading and writing abilities. The changes observed in the subjects general behavior took place in a short time, and could be observed from one robotics session to the next one. The approach allowed the subjects to draw the limits of their body with respect to the environment, and therefore helped them confronting the world with less anxiety.

Keywords: Robot, Autism spectrum disorder, therapeutic support, rob'autism

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7 The Use of the Limit Cycles of Dynamic Systems for Formation of Program Trajectories of Points Feet of the Anthropomorphous Robot

Authors: A. S. Gorobtsov, A. S. Polyanina, A. E. Andreev


The movement of points feet of the anthropomorphous robot in space occurs along some stable trajectory of a known form. A large number of modifications to the methods of control of biped robots indicate the fundamental complexity of the problem of stability of the program trajectory and, consequently, the stability of the control for the deviation for this trajectory. Existing gait generators use piecewise interpolation of program trajectories. This leads to jumps in the acceleration at the boundaries of sites. Another interpolation can be realized using differential equations with fractional derivatives. In work, the approach to synthesis of generators of program trajectories is considered. The resulting system of nonlinear differential equations describes a smooth trajectory of movement having rectilinear sites. The method is based on the theory of an asymptotic stability of invariant sets. The stability of such systems in the area of localization of oscillatory processes is investigated. The boundary of the area is a bounded closed surface. In the corresponding subspaces of the oscillatory circuits, the resulting stable limit cycles are curves having rectilinear sites. The solution of the problem is carried out by means of synthesis of a set of the continuous smooth controls with feedback. The necessary geometry of closed trajectories of movement is obtained due to the introduction of high-order nonlinearities in the control of stabilization systems. The offered method was used for the generation of trajectories of movement of point’s feet of the anthropomorphous robot. The synthesis of the robot's program movement was carried out by means of the inverse method.

Keywords: Control, Stability, Robot, limits cycle

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6 An Extra-Curricular Program to Enhance Student Outcome of a Class

Authors: Dong Jin Kang


Application of single board microcontrollers is an important skill even for non-electronic engineering major students. Arduino board is widely utilized in engineering classes of the Yeungnam University of South Korea. In those classes, students are subjected to learn how to use various sensor components related to motion, sound, light, and so on as well as physical quantities. Students are grouped into several teams, and each team consists of 4~5 students. Many students are not motivated enough to learn those skills. An extracurricular program was planned to improve this problem. The extracurricular program was held as an international boot camp where students from three different countries were invited to participate. 10 students groups were formed, and each team was consisted of students having different nationality. The camp was 4 days long and wrapped up with competitions. During the camp, every student was assigned to design and make a two wheel robot. The competition was carried out in two different areas; individual and group performances. As most skills dealt in the class are used to build the robot, students are much motivated to review the whole subjects of the class. All students were surveyed after the program. The survey shows that the skills studied in the class are greatly improved, and practically understood. Staying at the dormitory and teaming with international students are help students improve communication skills. Competition at the camp was found as a key element to inspire and attract students for voluntary participation.

Keywords: Robot, Competition, extracurricular program, Arduino board, international camp

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5 Finite Element Analysis and Multibody Dynamics of 6-DOF Industrial Robot

Authors: Rahul Arora, S. S. Dhami


This paper implements the design structure of industrial robot along with the different transmission components like gear assembly and analysis of complete industrial robot. In this paper, it gives the overview on the most efficient types of modeling and different analysis results that can be obtained for an industrial robot. The investigation is executed in regards to two classifications i.e. the deformation and the stress tests. SolidWorks is utilized to design and review the 3D drawing plan while ANSYS Workbench is utilized to execute the FEA on an industrial robot and the designed component. The CAD evaluation was conducted on a disentangled model of an industrial robot. The study includes design and drafting its transmission system. In CAE study static, modal and dynamic analysis are presented. Every one of the outcomes is divided in regard with the impact of the static and dynamic analysis on the situating exactness of the robot. It gives critical data with respect to parts of the industrial robot that are inclined to harm under higher high force applications. Therefore, the mechanical structure under different operating conditions can help in optimizing the manipulator geometry and in selecting the right material for the same. The FEA analysis is conducted for four different materials on the same industrial robot and gear assembly.

Keywords: Dynamic, Robot, CAD, cae, FEA, Static, modal, gear assembly

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4 Estimation of the External Force for a Co-Manipulation Task Using the Drive Chain Robot

Authors: Sylvain Devie, Pierre-Philippe Robet, Yannick Aoustin, Maxime Gautier


The aim of this paper is to show that the observation of the external effort and the sensor-less control of a system is limited by the mechanical system. First, the model of a one-joint robot with a prismatic joint is presented. Based on this model, two different procedures were performed in order to identify the mechanical parameters of the system and observe the external effort applied on it. Experiments have proven that the accuracy of the force observer, based on the DC motor current, is limited by the mechanics of the robot. The sensor-less control will be limited by the accuracy in estimation of the mechanical parameters and by the maximum static friction force, that is the minimum force which can be observed in this case. The consequence of this limitation is that industrial robots without specific design are not well adapted to perform sensor-less precision tasks. Finally, an efficient control law is presented for high effort applications.

Keywords: Identification, Control, Robot, co-manipulation, sensor-less

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3 A Furniture Industry Concept for a Sustainable Generative Design Platform Employing Robot Based Additive Manufacturing

Authors: Andrew Fox, Tao Zhang, Yuanhong Zhao, Qingping Yang


The furniture manufacturing industry has been slow in general to adopt the latest manufacturing technologies, historically relying heavily upon specialised conventional machinery. This approach not only requires high levels of specialist process knowledge, training, and capital investment but also suffers from significant subtractive manufacturing waste and high logistics costs due to the requirement for centralised manufacturing, with high levels of furniture product not re-cycled or re-used. This paper aims to address the problems by introducing suitable digital manufacturing technologies to create step changes in furniture manufacturing design, as the traditional design practices have been reported as building in 80% of environmental impact. In this paper, a 3D printing robot for furniture manufacturing is reported. The 3D printing robot mainly comprises a KUKA industrial robot, an Arduino microprocessor, and a self-assembled screw fed extruder. Compared to traditional 3D printer, the 3D printing robot has larger motion range and can be easily upgraded to enlarge the maximum size of the printed object. Generative design is also investigated in this paper, aiming to establish a combined design methodology that allows assessment of goals, constraints, materials, and manufacturing processes simultaneously. ‘Matrixing’ for part amalgamation and product performance optimisation is enabled. The generative design goals of integrated waste reduction increased manufacturing efficiency, optimised product performance, and reduced environmental impact institute a truly lean and innovative future design methodology. In addition, there is massive future potential to leverage Single Minute Exchange of Die (SMED) theory through generative design post-processing of geometry for robot manufacture, resulting in ‘mass customised’ furniture with virtually no setup requirements. These generatively designed products can be manufactured using the robot based additive manufacturing. Essentially, the 3D printing robot is already functional; some initial goals have been achieved and are also presented in this paper.

Keywords: Sustainability, Robot, Additive manufacturing, Generative Design

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2 Legal Personality and Responsibility of Robots

Authors: Mehrnoosh Abouzari, Shahrokh Sahraei


Arrival of artificial intelligence or smart robots in the modern world put them in charge on pericise and at risk. So acting human activities with robots makes criminal or civil responsibilities for their acts or behavior. The practical usage of smart robots has entered them in to a unique situation when naturalization happens and smart robots are identifies as members of society. There would be some legal situation by adopting these new smart citizens. The first situation is about legal responsibility of robots. Recognizing the naturalization of robot involves some basic right , so humans have the rights of employment, property, housing, using energy and other human rights may be employed for robots. So how would be the practice of these rights in the society and if some problems happens with these rights, how would the civil responsibility and punishment? May we consider them as population and count on the social programs? The second episode is about the criminal responsibility of robots in important activity instead of human that is the aim of inventing robots with handling works in AI technology , but the problem arises when some accidents are happened by robots who are in charge of important activities like army, surgery, transporting, judgement and so on. Moreover, recognizing independent identification for robots in the legal world by register ID cards, naturalization and civilian rights makes and prepare the same rights and obligations of human. So, the civil responsibility is not avoidable and if the robot commit a crime it would have criminal responsibility and have to be punished. The basic component of criminal responsibility may changes in so situation. For example, if designation for criminal responsibility bounds to human by sane, maturity, voluntariness, it would be for robots by being intelligent, good programming, not being hacked and so on. So it is irrational to punish robots by prisoning , execution and other human punishments for body. We may determine to make digital punishments like changing or repairing programs, exchanging some parts of its body or wreck it down completely. Finally the responsibility of the smart robot creators, programmers, the boss in chief, the organization who employed robot, the government which permitted to use robot in important bases and activities , will be analyzing and investigating in their article.

Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, Robot, Personality, Responsibility

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1 Application of the Self-Evaluation Maintenance Model in Human-Robot Interaction: A Conceptual Replication

Authors: Mira E. Gruber, Peter A. Hancock


Understanding human-robot social comparison is critical for creating psychologically safe robots (i.e., robots that do not cause mental discomfort or stress). Social psychology literature describes how and under what conditions people compare themselves to other people; however, there has been limited research examining these comparison processes in human-robot interaction (HRI). Social comparison with others may increase self-worth, but it may also lead to self-destructive or antisocial behaviors. Thus, it is crucial to understand the human-robot social comparison. The present study aims to conceptually replicate prior research suggesting that the self-evaluation maintenance (SEM) model of social comparison applies to HRI. The SEM model describes the mechanisms in which others can impact one’s self-evaluation. The present study applied the model to an online presentation and evaluation of a humanoid robot, RUDY. Based on past research, it was predicted that task relevance would moderate the relationship between performance level and robot evaluation. When RUDY engaged in a low-relevance task (e.g., accurately guessing someone’s age), participants would evaluate RUDY accurately (i.e., they would rate RUDY positively if it performed well and less positively if it performed poorly). However, when RUDY engaged in a high-relevance task (e.g., understanding the feelings of others), it was predicted that participants would rate RUDY negatively regardless of its actual performance (i.e., they would be unable to accurately assess RUDY’s performance). To manipulate task relevance, participants completed a mock 'social sensitivity test' (high relevance) or 'age estimation test' (low relevance) and were informed that RUDY took the same test. To manipulate performance level, participants were told that RUDY did better (good performance) or worse (poor performance) than them on the test. Participants rated RUDY on five dimensions: anthropomorphism, animacy, likeability, perceived intelligence, and perceived safety. Overall and dimensional scores were calculated. Negative attitudes towards robots were also measured to control for participants’ pre-existing attitudes toward robots. As predicted, participants in the low-relevance condition rated RUDY more positively when it performed well compared to when it performed poorly; however, participants were still able to accurately evaluate RUDY in the high-relevance condition. For both relevancy groups, overall evaluation scores were higher in the good performance condition compared to the poor performance condition. However, there were only significant differences for the intelligence and animacy dimensions. Past research indicates that people feel threatened by robots performing highly self-relevant tasks, and thus, they cannot objectively evaluate the robot. Though this study failed to replicate these previous findings, it has important implications. First, the SEM effects may not generalize to all task-types and robots. Second, differences in interaction modality (i.e., in-person or online) may influence the presence of SEM effects. Finally, there may be differences in what a 'highly-relevant' task is for human-human and human-robot relationships. In practice, robots perform many self-relevant tasks (e.g., caregiving), and they ideally perform these tasks well. Given the inconsistency between these findings and past research, discerning the boundary conditions for SEM effects may be critical for developing psychologically safe robots.

Keywords: Robot, Human-Robot Interaction, Social Comparison, self-evaluation maintenance model

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