Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

river Related Abstracts

14 Physical Habitat Simulation and Comparison within a Lerma River Reach, with Respect to the Same but Modified Reach, to Create a Linear Park

Authors: Garcia-Rodriguez Ezequiel, Luis A. Ochoa-Franco, Adrian I. Cervantes-Servin


In this work, the Ictalurus punctatus species estimated available physical habitat is compared with the estimated physical habitat for the same but modified river reach, with the aim of creating a linear park, along a length of 5 500 m. To determine the effect of ecological park construction, on physical habitat of the Lerma river stretch of study, first, the available habitat for the Ictalurus punctatus species was estimated through the simulation of the physical habitat, by using surveying, hydraulics, and habitat information gotten at the river reach in its actual situation. Second, it was estimated the available habitat for the above species, upon the simulation of the physical habitat through the proposed modification for the ecological park creation. Third, it is presented a comparison between both scenarios in terms of available habitat estimated for Ictalurus punctatus species, concluding that in cases of adult and spawning life stages, changes in the channel to create an ecological park would produce a considerable loss of potentially usable habitat (PUH), while in the case of the juvenile life stage PUH remains virtually unchanged, and in the case of life stage fry the PUH would increase due to the presence of velocities and depths of lesser magnitude, due to the presence of minor flow rates and lower volume of the wet channel. It is expected that habitat modification for linear park construction may produce the lack of Ictalurus punktatus species conservation at the river reach of the study.

Keywords: Habitat modification, Ictalurus punctatus, Lerma, river, linear park

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13 Outbreak of Cholera, Jalgaon District, Maharastra, 2013

Authors: Yogita Tulsian, A. Yadav


Background: India reports 3,600 cholera cases annually. In August 2013, a cholera outbreak was reported in Jalgaon district, Maharashtra state. We sought to describe the epidemiological characteristics,identify risk factors, and recommend control measures. Methods: We collected existing stool and water testing laboratory results, and conducted a1: 1 matched case-control study. A cholera case was defined as a resident of Vishnapur or Malapur villagewith onset of acute watery diarrhea on/ after 1-July-2013. Controls were matched by age, gender and village and had not experienced any diarrhea for 3 months. We collected socio-demographic characteristics, clinical presentation, and food/travel/water exposure history and conducted conditional logistic regression. Results: Of 50 people who met the cholera case definition, 40 (80%) were from Vishnapur village and 30 (60%) were female. The median age was 8.5 years (range; 0.3-75). Twenty (45%) cases were hospitalized, twelve (60%) with severe dehydration. Three of five stool samples revealed Vibrio cholerae 01 El Tor, Ogawa and samples from 7 of 14 Vishnapur water sources contained fecal coliforms. Cases from Vishnapur were significantly more likely to drink from identified contaminated water sources (matched odds ratio (MOR) 3.5; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1-13), or from a river/canal (MOR=18.4;95%CI: 2-504). Cases from Malapur were more likely to drink from a river/canal (MOR=6.2; 95%CI: 0.6-196). Cases from both villages were significantly more likely to visit the forest (MOR 6.3; 95%CI: 2-30) or another village (MOR 3.5; 95%CI; 0.9-17). Conclusions: This outbreak was caused by Vibrio cholerae, likely through contamination of water in Vishnapur village and/or through drinking river/canal water. We recommended safe drinking water for forest visitors and all residents of these villages and use of regular water testing.

Keywords: Cholera, Contaminated Water, river, case control study

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12 Estimation of Longitudinal Dispersion Coefficient Using Tracer Data

Authors: K. Ebrahimi, Sh. Shahid, M. Mohammadi Ghaleni, M. H. Omid


The longitudinal dispersion coefficient is a crucial parameter for 1-D water quality analysis of riverine flows. So far, different types of empirical equations for estimation of the coefficient have been developed, based on various case studies. The main objective of this paper is to develop an empirical equation for estimation of the coefficient for a riverine flow. For this purpose, a set of tracer experiments was conducted, involving salt tracer, at three sections located in downstream of a lengthy canal. Tracer data were measured in three mixing lengths along the canal including; 45, 75 and 100m. According to the results, the obtained coefficients from new developed empirical equation gave an encouraging level of agreement with the theoretical values.

Keywords: Water Quality, Dispersion, river, coefficients, tracer

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11 Assessment of Chemical and Physical Properties of Surface Water Resources in Flood Affected Area

Authors: Siti Hajar Ya’acob, Nor Sayzwani Sukri, Farah Khaliz Kedri, Rozidaini Mohd Ghazi, Nik Raihan Nik Yusoff, Aweng A/L Eh Rak


Flood event that occurred in mid-December 2014 in East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia has driven attention from the public nationwide. Apart from loss and damage of properties and belongings, the massive flood event has introduced environmental disturbances on surface water resources in such flood affected area. A study has been conducted to measure the physical and chemical composition of Galas River and Pergau River prior to identification the flood impact towards environmental deterioration in surrounding area. Samples that have been collected were analyzed in-situ using YSI portable instrument and also in the laboratory for acid digestion and heavy metals analysis using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). Results showed that range of temperature (0C), DO (mg/L), Ec (µs/cm), TDS (mg/L), turbidity (NTU), pH, and salinity were 25.05-26.65, 1.51-5.85, 0.032-0.054, 0.022-0.035, 23.2-76.4, 3.46-7.31, and 0.01-0.02 respectively. The results from this study could be used as a primary database to evaluate the status of water quality of the respective river after the massive flood.

Keywords: Flood, Heavy Metals, AAS, river

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10 Investigation of Pollution and the Physical and Chemical Condition of Polour River, East of Tehran, Iran

Authors: Azita Behbahaninia


This research has been carried out to determine the water quality and physico-chemical properties Polour River, one of the most branch of Haraz River. Polour River was studied for a period of one year Samples were taken from different stations along the main branch of River polour. In water samples determined pH, DO, SO4, Cl, PO4, NO3, EC, BOD, COD, Temprature, color and number of Caliform per liter. ArcGIS was used for the zoning of phosphate concentration in the polour River basin. The results indicated that the river is polluted in polour village station, because of discharge domestic wastewater and also river is polluted in Ziar village station, because of agricultural wastewater and water is contaminated in aquaculture station, because of fish ponds wastewater. Statistical analysis shows that between independent traits and coliform regression relationship is significant at the 1% level. Coefficient explanation index indicated independent traits control 80% coliform and 20 % is for unknown parameters. The causality analysis showed Temperature (0.6) has the most positive and direct effect on coliform and sulfate has direct and negative effect on coliform. The results of causality analysis and the results of the regression analysis are matched and other forms direct and indirect effects were negligible and ignorable. Kruskal-Wallis test showed, there is different between sampling stations and studied characters. Between stations for temperature, DO, COD, EC, sulfate and coliform is at 1 % and for phosphate 5 % level of significance.

Keywords: Pollution, GIS, phosphate, river, coliform

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9 The Impact of Urbanisation on Sediment Concentration of Ginzo River in Katsina City, Katsina State, Nigeria

Authors: Ahmed A. Lugard, Mohammed A. Aliyu


This paper studied the influence of urban development and its accompanied land surface transformation on sediment concentration of a natural flowing Ginzo river across the city of Katsina. An opposite twin river known as Tille river, which is less urbanized, was used to compare the result of the sediment concentration of the Ginzo River in order to ascertain the consequences of the urban area on impacting the sediment concentration. An instrument called USP 61 point integrating cable way sampler described by Gregory and walling (1973), was used to collect the suspended sediment samples in the wet season months of June, July, August and September. The result obtained in the study shows that only the sample collected at the peripheral site of the city, which is mostly farmland areas resembles the results in the four sites of Tille river, which is the reference stream in the study. It was found to be only + 10% different from one another, while at the other three sites of the Ginzo which are highly urbanized the disparity ranges from 35-45% less than what are obtained at the four sites of Tille River. In the generalized assessment, the t-distribution result applied to the two set of data shows that there is a significant difference between the sediment concentration of urbanized River Ginzo and that of less urbanized River Tille. The study further discovered that the less sediment concentration found in urbanized River Ginzo is attributed to concretization of surfaced, tarred roads, concretized channeling of segments of the river including the river bed and reserved open grassland areas, all within the catchments. The study therefore concludes that urbanization affect not only the hydrology of an urbanized river basin, but also the sediment concentration which is a significant aspect of its geomorphology. This world certainly affects the flood plain of the basin at a certain point which might be a suitable land for cultivation. It is recommended here that further studies on the impact of urbanization on River Basins should focus on all elements of geomorphology as it has been on hydrology. This would make the work rather complete as the two disciplines are inseparable from each other. The authorities concern should also trigger a more proper environmental and land use management policies to arrest the menace of land degradation and related episodic events.

Keywords: Environment, Urbanization, infiltration, river

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8 Hydrographic Mapping Based on the Concept of Fluvial-Geomorphological Auto-Classification

Authors: Jesús Horacio, Alfredo Ollero, Víctor Bouzas-Blanco, Augusto Pérez-Alberti


Rivers have traditionally been classified, assessed and managed in terms of hydrological, chemical and / or biological criteria. Geomorphological classifications had in the past a secondary role, although proposals like River Styles Framework, Catchment Baseline Survey or Stroud Rural Sustainable Drainage Project did incorporate geomorphology for management decision-making. In recent years many studies have been attracted to the geomorphological component. The geomorphological processes and their associated forms determine the structure of a river system. Understanding these processes and forms is a critical component of the sustainable rehabilitation of aquatic ecosystems. The fluvial auto-classification approach suggests that a river is a self-built natural system, with processes and forms designed to effectively preserve their ecological function (hydrologic, sedimentological and biological regime). Fluvial systems are formed by a wide range of elements with multiple non-linear interactions on different spatial and temporal scales. Besides, the fluvial auto-classification concept is built using data from the river itself, so that each classification developed is peculiar to the river studied. The variables used in the classification are specific stream power and mean grain size. A discriminant analysis showed that these variables are the best characterized processes and forms. The statistical technique applied allows to get an individual discriminant equation for each geomorphological type. The geomorphological classification was developed using sites with high naturalness. Each site is a control point of high ecological and geomorphological quality. The changes in the conditions of the control points will be quickly recognizable, and easy to apply a right management measures to recover the geomorphological type. The study focused on Galicia (NW Spain) and the mapping was made analyzing 122 control points (sites) distributed over eight river basins. In sum, this study provides a method for fluvial geomorphological classification that works as an open and flexible tool underlying the fluvial auto-classification concept. The hydrographic mapping is the visual expression of the results, such that each river has a particular map according to its geomorphological characteristics. Each geomorphological type is represented by a particular type of hydraulic geometry (channel width, width-depth ratio, hydraulic radius, etc.). An alteration of this geometry is indicative of a geomorphological disturbance (whether natural or anthropogenic). Hydrographic mapping is also dynamic because its meaning changes if there is a modification in the specific stream power and/or the mean grain size, that is, in the value of their equations. The researcher has to check annually some of the control points. This procedure allows to monitor the geomorphology quality of the rivers and to see if there are any alterations. The maps are useful to researchers and managers, especially for conservation work and river restoration.

Keywords: Geomorphology, Mapping, river, fluvial auto-classification concept

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7 Combined Effect of Global Warming and Water Structures on Rivers’ Water Quality and Aquatic Life: Case Study of Esna Barrage on the Nile River in Egypt

Authors: Sherine A. El Baradei


Global warming and climatic change are very important topics that are being studied and investigated nowadays as they have lots of diverse impacts on mankind, water quality, aquatic life, wildlife,…etc. Also, many water and hydraulics structures like dams and barrages are being built every day to satisfy water consumption needs, irrigation purposes and power generating purposes. Each of global warming and water structures alone has diversity of impacts on water quality and aquatic life in rivers. This research is investigating the dual combined effect of both water structures and global warming on the water quality and aquatic life through mathematical modeling. A case study of the Esna Barrage on the Nile River in Egypt is being studied. This research study is taking into account the effects of both seasons; namely, winter and summer and their effects on air and hence water temperature of the Nile reach under study. To do so, the study is conducted on the last 23 years to investigate the effect of global warming and climatic change on the studied river water. The mathematical model is then combining the dual effect of the Esna barrage and the global warming on the water quality; as well as, on aquatic life of the Nile reach under study. From the results of the mathematical model, it could be concluded that the dual effect of water structures and global warming is very negative on the water quality and the aquatic life in rivers upstream those structures.

Keywords: Global Warming, Water Quality, Climatic Change, dissolved oxygen, river, aquatic life, barrages, water structures

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6 Influence of Physicochemical Water Quality Parameters on Abundance of Aquatic Insects in Rivers of Perak, Malaysia

Authors: Nur Atirah Hasmi, Nadia Nisha Musa, Hasnun Nita Ismail, Zulfadli Mahfodz


The effect of water quality parameters on the abundance of aquatic insects has been studied in Batu Berangkai, Dipang, Kuala Woh and Lata Kinjang Rivers, Perak, northern peninsular Malaysia. The focuses are to compare the abundance of aquatic insects in each sampling areas and to investigate the physical and chemical factors (water temperature, depth of water, canopy, water velocity, pH value, and dissolved oxygen) on the abundance of aquatic insects. The samples and data were collected by using aquatic net and multi-probe parameter. Physical parameters; water velocity, water temperature, depth, canopy cover, and two chemical parameters; pH value and dissolved oxygen have been measured in situ and recorded. A total of 631 individuals classified into 6 orders and 18 families of aquatic insects were identified from four sampling sites. The largest percentage of samples collected is from order Plecoptera 35.8%, followed by Ephemeroptera 32.6%, Trichoptera 17.0%, Hemiptera 8.1%, Coleoptera 4.8%, and the least is Odonata 1.7%. The aquatic insects collected from Dipang River have the highest abundance of 273 individuals from 6 orders and 13 families and the least insects trapped at Lata Kinjang which only have 64 individuals from 5 orders and 6 families. There is significant association between different sampling areas and abundance of aquatic insects (p<0.05). High abundance of aquatic insects was found in higher water temperature, low water velocity, deeper water, low pH, high amount of dissolved oxygen, and the area that is not covered by canopy.

Keywords: Water Quality, river, aquatic insect, physicochemical parameter

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5 A Simple and Empirical Refraction Correction Method for UAV-Based Shallow-Water Photogrammetry

Authors: I GD Yudha Partama, A. Kanno, Y. Akamatsu, R. Inui, M. Goto, M. Sekine


The aerial photogrammetry of shallow water bottoms has the potential to be an efficient high-resolution survey technique for shallow water topography, thanks to the advent of convenient UAV and automatic image processing techniques Structure-from-Motion (SfM) and Multi-View Stereo (MVS)). However, it suffers from the systematic overestimation of the bottom elevation, due to the light refraction at the air-water interface. In this study, we present an empirical method to correct for the effect of refraction after the usual SfM-MVS processing, using common software. The presented method utilizes the empirical relation between the measured true depth and the estimated apparent depth to generate an empirical correction factor. Furthermore, this correction factor was utilized to convert the apparent water depth into a refraction-corrected (real-scale) water depth. To examine its effectiveness, we applied the method to two river sites, and compared the RMS errors in the corrected bottom elevations with those obtained by three existing methods. The result shows that the presented method is more effective than the two existing methods: The method without applying correction factor and the method utilizes the refractive index of water (1.34) as correction factor. In comparison with the remaining existing method, which used the additive terms (offset) after calculating correction factor, the presented method performs well in Site 2 and worse in Site 1. However, we found this linear regression method to be unstable when the training data used for calibration are limited. It also suffers from a large negative bias in the correction factor when the apparent water depth estimated is affected by noise, according to our numerical experiment. Overall, the good accuracy of refraction correction method depends on various factors such as the locations, image acquisition, and GPS measurement conditions. The most effective method can be selected by using statistical selection (e.g. leave-one-out cross validation).

Keywords: river, bottom elevation, MVS, SfM

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4 Environmental Liability of Architects: Architects Destroying the City in Designed and Creative Way, Dhaka City

Authors: Md. Ratin


This paper aims to show how Dhaka city is getting destroyed and the creator and guide of the city – the architects destroying the city in more designed and creative way. The liability of architects should be first and foremost to make the would, country, city a better living environment. As without it where the architects will do their design? To make a better living environment architects should conserve the tress, river and other related ingredient related to the environment. This paper attempts to show how cutting down trees and filling rivers causing more problem than having a great architecture in those places. For increasing people in a city like Dhaka, we need more shelter. But for providing those architects building more living spaces. But as a liability of an architect, one should give something back to the environment too. With time the city’s greenery and water body are getting vanished like magic. And for this, the architects should be blamed for giving us a disastrous future. The analysis is based on literature survey and survey by questionnaire, interviews of users.

Keywords: Environment, Liability, architect, river

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3 Cadmium Accumulation and Depuration Characteristics through Food Source of Cage-Cultivated Fish after Accidental Pollution in Longjiang River

Authors: Qianli Ma, Xuemin Zhao, Lingai Yao, Zhencheng Xu, Li Wang


Heavy metal pollution accidents, frequently happened in this decade in China, severely threaten aquatic ecosystem and economy. In January 2012, a basin-scale accidental Cd pollution happened in Longjiang River in southwest China. Although water quality was recovered in short period by emergency treatment with flocculants, a large amount of contaminated cage-cultivated fish were left with the task of preventing or mitigating Cd contamination of fish. In this study, unpolluted Ctenopharyngodon idellus were fed by Cd-contaminated macrophytes for assessing the effect of Cd accumulation through food exposure, and the contaminated C. idellus were fed with Cd-free macrophytes for assessing the ability of Cd depuration. The on-site cultivation experiments were done in two sites of Lalang (S1, accidental Cd pollution originated) and Sancha (S2, a large amount of flocculants were added to accelerate Cd precipitation) in Longjiang river. Results showed that Cd content in fish muscle presented an increasing trend in the accumulation experiment. In S1, Cd content of fish muscle rose sharply from day 8 to day 18 with higher average Cd content in macrophytes and sediment, and kept in the range of 0.208-0.308 mg/kg afterward. In S2, Cd content of fish muscle rose gradually throughout the experiment and reached the maximum level of 0.285 mg/kg on day 76. The results of the depuration experiment showed that Cd content in fish muscle decreased and significant changes were observed in the first half time of the experiment. Meanwhile, fish with lower initial Cd content presented higher elimination constant. In S1, Cd content of fish significantly decreased from 0.713 to 0.304 mg/kg in 18 days and kept decreasing to 0.110 mg/kg in the end, and 84.6% of Cd content was eliminated. While in S2, there was a sharp decrease of Cd content of fish in 0-8 days from 0.355 mg/kg to 0.069 mg/kg. The total elimination percentage was 93.8% and 80.6% of which appeared in day 0-8. The elimination constant of fish in S2 was 0.03 which was higher than 0.02 in S1. Collectively, our results showed Cd could be absorbed through food exposure and accumulate in fish muscle, and the accumulated Cd in fish muscle can be excreted after isolated from the polluted food sources. This knowledge allows managers to assess health risk of Cd contaminated fish and minimize aquaculture loss when considering fish cultivation after accidental pollution.

Keywords: Environmental Management, river, accidental pollution, cadmium accumulation and depuration, cage-cultivated fish

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2 Ganga Rejuvenation through Forestation and Conservation Measures in Riverscape

Authors: Ombir Singh


In spite of the religious and cultural pre-dominance of the river Ganga in the Indian ethos, fragmentation and degradation of the river continued down the ages. Recognizing the national concern on environmental degradation of the river and its basin, Ministry of Water Resources, River Development & Ganga Rejuvenation (MoWR,RD&GR), Government of India has initiated a number of pilot schemes for the rejuvenation of river Ganga under the ‘Namami Gange’ Programme. Considering the diversity, complexity, and intricacies of forest ecosystems and pivotal multiple functions performed by them and their inter-connectedness with highly dynamic river ecosystems, forestry interventions all along the river Ganga from its origin at Gaumukh, Uttarakhand to its mouth at Ganga Sagar, West Bengal has been planned by the ministry. For that Forest Research Institute (FRI) in collaboration with National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG) has prepared a Detailed Project Report (DPR) on Forestry Interventions for Ganga. The Institute has adopted an extensive consultative process at the national and state levels involving various stakeholders relevant in the context of river Ganga and employed a science-based methodology including use of remote sensing and GIS technologies for geo-spatial analysis, modeling and prioritization of sites for proposed forestation and conservation interventions. Four sets of field data formats were designed to obtain the field based information for forestry interventions, mainly plantations and conservation measures along the river course. In response, five stakeholder State Forest Departments had submitted more than 8,000 data sheets to the Institute. In order to analyze a voluminous field data received from five participating states, the Institute also developed a software to collate, analyze and generation of reports on proposed sites in Ganga basin. FRI has developed potential plantation and treatment models for the proposed forestry and other conservation measures in major three types of landscape components visualized in the Ganga riverscape. These are: (i) Natural, (ii) Agriculture, and (iii) Urban Landscapes. Suggested plantation models broadly varied for the Uttarakhand Himalayas and the Ganga Plains in five participating states. Besides extensive plantations in three type of landscapes within the riverscape, various conservation measures such as soil and water conservation, riparian wildlife management, wetland management, bioremediation and bio-filtration and supporting activities such as policy and law intervention, concurrent research, monitoring and evaluation, and mass awareness campaigns have been envisioned in the DPR. The DPR also incorporates the details of the implementation mechanism, budget provisioned for different components of the project besides allocation of budget state-wise to five implementing agencies, national partner organizations and the Nodal Ministry.

Keywords: Water, Conservation, river, Ganga, forestry interventions

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1 Application of Entropy Concept for Discharge Estimation: An Experimental Investigation in a Laboratory Flume

Authors: Gurpinder Singh, Manoj K. Jain


River flow measurement is an essential practice in hydraulic engineering for water resources planning and management, water availability analysis, flood forecasting. However, conventional methods (Prandtl-Von Karman law and power-law) of discharge measurement are costly, time-consuming, cumbersome, dangerous during high floods and rough weather. These laws are valid for wide-open channels only. Considering the limitations of traditional methods, Chiu (1987) presented the probability approach for finding velocity distribution at a river section with the help of the principle of maximum entropy, which provides better results in numerous situations like sediment-laden flows. The entropy theory relies on an entropy parameter which remains constant in different conditions of flow. Hence, it can be surmised as an intrinsic parameter. Experimental investigations on laboratory flume under controlled conditions were conducted to collect precise data at different discharge rates to record corresponding velocity distribution data, which was used to apply the concept of entropy theory for estimating the entropy parameter and discharge. Analysis of the collected data depicts that the entropy parameter remains constant with varying discharge rates. Results obtained based on analysis of collected data revealed that the two-dimensional entropy model was a quick and accurate technique for estimation of mean cross-sectional velocity and discharge.

Keywords: Information Theory, Shannon Entropy, POME, river

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