Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 20

risks Related Abstracts

20 Risk Assessment Results in Biogas Production from Agriculture Biomass

Authors: Sandija Zeverte-Rivza, Irina Pilvere, Baiba Rivza

Abstract:

The use of renewable energy sources incl. biogas has become topical in accordance with the increasing demand for energy, decrease of fossil energy resources and the efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions as well as to increase energy independence from the territories where fossil energy resources are available. As the technologies of biogas production from agricultural biomass develop, risk assessment and risk management become necessary for farms producing such a renewable energy. The need for risk assessments has become particularly topical when discussions on changing the biogas policy in the EU take place, which may influence the development of the sector in the future, as well as the operation of existing biogas facilities and their income level. The current article describes results of the risk assessment for farms producing biomass from agriculture biomass in Latvia, the risk assessment system included 24 risks, that affect the whole biogas production process and the obtained results showed the high significance of political and production risks.

Keywords: Biosystems Engineering, Risk Assessment, biogas production, risks

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19 An Investigation of Food Quality and Risks in Thailand: A Case of Inbound Senior Tourists

Authors: Kevin Wongleedee

Abstract:

Food quality and risks are major concerns for inbound senior tourists when visiting tourist destinations in Thailand. The purposes of this study were to investigate food quality and risks perceived by inbound senior tourists. This paper drew upon data collection from an inbound senior tourist survey conducted in Thailand during summer 2013. Summer time in Thailand is a high season for inbound tourists. It is also a high risk period in which a variety food safety issues and incidents have often occurred. The survey was structured primarily to obtain inbound senior tourists’ concerns toward a variety of food quality and risks they encountered during their trip in Thailand. A total of 400 inbound senior tourists were elicited as data input for mean and standard deviation. The findings revealed that inbound tourists rated the overall food quality at a high level and the three most important perceived food risks were 1) unclean physical cooking facility, 2) toxic chemical handling, and 3) unclean water.

Keywords: Food Quality, Thailand, risks, inbound senior tourists

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18 Social Media and Counseling: Opportunities, Risks and Ethical Considerations

Authors: Kyriaki G. Giota, George Kleftaras

Abstract:

The purpose of this article is to briefly review the opportunities that social media presents to counselors and psychologists. Particular attention was given to understanding some of the more important common risks inherent in social media and the potential ethical dilemmas which may arise for counselors and psychologists who embrace them in their practice. Key considerations of issues pertinent to an online presence such as multiple relationships, visibility and privacy, maintaining ethical principles and professional boundaries are being discussed.

Keywords: Social Media, Counseling, Ethics, risks

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17 Finding the Right Regulatory Path for Islamic Banking

Authors: Meysam Saidi

Abstract:

While the specific externalities and required regulatory measures in relation to Islamic banking are fairly uncertain, the business is growing across the world. Unofficial data indicate that the Islamic Finance market is growing with annual rate of 15% and it has reached 1.3 $ trillion size. This trend is associated with inherent systematic connection of Islamic financial institutions to other entities and different sectors of economies. Islamic banking has been subject of market development policies in major economies, most notably the UK. This trend highlights the need for identification of distinct risk features of Islamic banking and crafting customized regulatory measures. So far there has not been a significant systemic crisis in this market which can be attributed to its distinct nature. However, the significant growth and spread of its products worldwide necessitate an in depth study of its nature for customized congruent regulatory measures. In the post financial crisis era some market analysis and reports suggested that the Islamic banks fairly weathered the crisis. As far as heavily blamed conventional financial products such as subprime mortgage backed securities and speculative credit default swaps were concerned the immunity claim can be considered true, as Islamic financial institutions were not directly exposed to such products. Nevertheless, similar to the experience of the conventional banking industry, it can be only a matter of time for Islamic banks to face failures that can be specific to the nature of their business. Using the experience of conventional banking regulations and identifying those peculiarities of Islamic banking that need customized regulatory approach can aid to prevent major failures. Frank Knight has stated that “We perceive the world before we react to it, and we react not to what we perceive, but always to what we infer”. The debate over congruent Islamic banking regulations might not be an exception to Frank Knight’s statement but I will try to base my discussion on concrete evidences. This paper first analyzes both theoretical and actual features of Islamic banking in order to ascertain to its peculiarities in terms of market stability and other externalities. Next, the paper discusses distinct features of Islamic financial transactions and banking which might require customized regulatory measures. Finally, the paper explores how a more transparent path for the Islamic banking regulations can be drawn.

Keywords: Islamic Banking, Regulation, Financial Stability, risks, capital requirements, customer protection

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16 Waad Bil Mourabaha Pricing

Authors: Dchieche Amina, Aboulaich Rajae

Abstract:

In this work, we will modelize Waad Bil Mourabaha contract. This islamic contract provides the right to buy goods at a future date with a Mourabaha. Waad is a promise of sale or purchase of goods, declared in a unilateral way. In spite of the divergence between some schools of Islamic law about the Waad, this contract will allow us to study sophisticated and interesting contract: Waad Bil Mourabaha that can be used for hedging. In order to price Waad Bil Mourabaha contract, we will use an adapted Black and Scholes model using the Shariah compliant assumptions.

Keywords: Islamic Finance, hedging, risks, Black-Scholes model, call option

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15 Saudi Arabian Aviation Construction Projects: Risks and Their Assessments

Authors: Ahmad Baghdadi, Mohammed Kishk

Abstract:

Construction projects are unique and involve different level of complexity. Airports projects, among other construction projects, are considered to be very complex as they face a number of challenges which make them inevitably exposed to risks. However, in Saudi Arabia, the sector of aviation is considered an important sector owing to the fact that it is the first destination for Muslims on an annual basis. As a result the Saudi government has allocated a huge amount of their general budget to this sector through the General Authority of Civil Aviation (GACA). However, it has been found that the projects are still delivered with a significant number of time and cost overruns. These consequences are typically generated from the risks involved in the projects. Thus, there is a need to identify the number of risks thought to cause such overruns in project times and costs, as well as to assess their significances in terms of their likelihoods of occurrence and their impacts. Accordingly, this paper aims to identify risks associated with aviation construction projects in Saudi Arabia, as well as to assess their likelihoods of occurrence and impacts on such projects. In total, forty four risks have been identified through a critical literature review of common risks in similar projects, as well as thirteen semi-structured interviews with expert project managers involved in GACA’s projects. However, the assessment of the identified risks in term of their likelihoods of occurrence and impacts was obtained through the analysis of forty five questionnaires. Respondents of questionnaires include clients, contractors and consultants. The results show the risks of design changes by the client, labour issue, and setting a tight schedule by the client have the highest likelihoods of occurrence in GACA projects, while the risks of earthquakes, design constructability, and corruption have the greatest impacts.

Keywords: Risk Assessment, Saudi Arabia, risks, aviation construction projects, GACA

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14 Social Media as a Means of Participation in Democracies

Authors: C. Arslan, K. Yakar

Abstract:

Social media is one of the most important and effective means of social interaction among people in which they create, share and exchange their ideas via photos, videos or voice messages. Although there are lots of communication tools. Social media sites are the most prominent ones that allows the users articulate themselves in a matter of seconds all around the world with almost any expenses and thus, they became very popular and widespread after its emergence. As the usage of social media increases, it becomes an effective instrument in social matters. While it is possible to use social media to emphasize basic human rights and protest some failures of any government as in “Arab Spring”, it is also possible to spread propaganda and misinformation just to cause long lasting insurgency, upheaval, turmoil or disorder as an instrument of intervention to internal affairs and state sovereignty by some hostile groups or countries. It is certain that social media has positive effects on participation in democracies allowing people express themselves freely and limitlessly, but obviously, the misuse of it is very common and it is quite possible that even a five-minute-long video record can topple down a government or give a solid reason to a government to review its policies on some certain areas. As one of the most important and effective means of participation, social media presents some opportunities as well as risks. In this study, the place of social media for participation in democracies will be demonstrated under the light of opportunities and risks.

Keywords: Democracy, Social Media, Participation, Opportunities, risks

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13 Risks of Investment in the Development of Its Personnel

Authors: Oksana Domkina

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According to the modern economic theory, human capital became one of the main production factors and the most promising direction of investment, as such investment provides opportunity of obtaining high and long-term economic and social effects. Informational technology (IT) sector is the representative of this new economy which is most dependent on human capital as the main competitive factor. So the question for this sector is not whether investment in development of personal should be made, but what are the most effective ways of executing it and who has to pay for the education: Worker, company or government. In this paper we examine the IT sector, describe the labor market of IT workers and its development, and analyze the risks that IT companies may face if they invest in the development of their workers and what factors influence it. The main problem and difficulty of quantitative estimation of risk of investment in human capital of a company and its forecasting is human factor. Human behavior is often unpredictable and complex, so it requires specific approaches and methods of assessment. To build a comprehensive method of estimation of the risk of investment in human capital of a company considering human factor, we decided to use the method of analytic hierarchy process (AHP), that initially was created and developed. We separated three main group of factors: Risks related to the worker, related to the company, and external factors. To receive data for our research, we conducted a survey among the HR departments of Ukrainian IT companies used them as experts for the AHP method. Received results showed that IT companies mostly invest in the development of their workers, although several hire only already qualified personnel. According to the results, the most significant risks are the risk of ineffective training and the risk of non-investment that are both related to the firm. The analysis of risk factors related to the employee showed that, the factors of personal reasons, motivation, and work performance have almost the same weights of importance. Regarding internal factors of the company, there is a high role of the factor of compensation and benefits, factors of interesting projects, team, and career opportunities. As for the external environment, one of the most dangerous factor of risk is competitor activities, meanwhile the political and economical situation factor also has a relatively high weight, which is easy to explain by the influence of severe crisis in Ukraine during 2014-2015. The presented method allows to take into consideration all main factors that affect the risk of investment in human capital of a company. This gives a base for further research in this field and allows for a creation of a practical framework for making decisions regarding the personnel development strategy and specific employees' development plans for the HR departments.

Keywords: risks, AHP, analytic hierarchy process, personnel development, investment in development, factors of risk, risk of investment in development

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12 Public Private Partnership for Infrastructure Projects: Mapping the Key Risks

Authors: Julinda Keci

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In many countries, governments have been promoting the involvement of private sector entities to enter into long-term agreements for the development and delivery of large infrastructure projects, with a focus on overcoming the limitations upon public fund of the traditional approach. The involvement of private sector through public-private partnerships (PPP) brings in new capital investments, value for money and additional risks to handle. Worldwide research studies have shown that an objective, systematic, reliable and user-oriented risk assessment process and an optimal allocation mechanism among different stakeholders is crucial to the successful completion. In this framework this paper, which is the first stage of a research study, aims to identify the main risks for the delivery of PPP projects. A review of cross-countries research projects and case studies was performed to map the key risks affecting PPP infrastructure delivery. The matrix of mapping offers a summary of the frequency of factors, clustered in eleven categories: Construction, Design, Economic, Legal, Market, Natural, Operation, Political, Project finance, Project selection and Relationship. Results will highlight the most critical risk factors, and will hopefully assist the project managers in directing the managerial attention in the further stages of risk allocation.

Keywords: Construction, Infrastructure, Public private partnerships, risks

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11 Measuring the Resilience of e-Governments Using an Ontology

Authors: Iain Phillips, Onyekachi Onwudike, Russell Lock

Abstract:

The variability that exists across governments, her departments and the provisioning of services has been areas of concern in the E-Government domain. There is a need for reuse and integration across government departments which are accompanied by varying degrees of risks and threats. There is also the need for assessment, prevention, preparation, response and recovery when dealing with these risks or threats. The ability of a government to cope with the emerging changes that occur within it is known as resilience. In order to forge ahead with concerted efforts to manage reuse and integration induced risks or threats to governments, the ambiguities contained within resilience must be addressed. Enhancing resilience in the E-Government domain is synonymous with reducing risks governments face with provisioning of services as well as reuse of components across departments. Therefore, it can be said that resilience is responsible for the reduction in government’s vulnerability to changes. In this paper, we present the use of the ontology to measure the resilience of governments. This ontology is made up of a well-defined construct for the taxonomy of resilience. A specific class known as ‘Resilience Requirements’ is added to the ontology. This class embraces the concept of resilience into the E-Government domain ontology. Considering that the E-Government domain is a highly complex one made up of different departments offering different services, the reliability and resilience of the E-Government domain have become more complex and critical to understand. We present questions that can help a government access how prepared they are in the face of risks and what steps can be taken to recover from them. These questions can be asked with the use of queries. The ontology focuses on developing a case study section that is used to explore ways in which government departments can become resilient to the different kinds of risks and threats they may face. A collection of resilience tools and resources have been developed in our ontology to encourage governments to take steps to prepare for emergencies and risks that a government may face with the integration of departments and reuse of components across government departments. To achieve this, the ontology has been extended by rules. We present two tools for understanding resilience in the E-Government domain as a risk analysis target and the output of these tools when applied to resilience in the E-Government domain. We introduce the classification of resilience using the defined taxonomy and modelling of existent relationships based on the defined taxonomy. The ontology is constructed on formal theory and it provides a semantic reference framework for the concept of resilience. Key terms which fall under the purview of resilience with respect to E-Governments are defined. Terms are made explicit and the relationships that exist between risks and resilience are made explicit. The overall aim of the ontology is to use it within standards that would be followed by all governments for government-based resilience measures.

Keywords: e-Government, Ontology, Resilience, Threats, Relationships, risks

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10 Industrial-Waste Management in Developing Countries: The Case of Algeria

Authors: L. Sefouhi, M. Djebabra

Abstract:

Industrial operations have been accompanied by a problem: industrial waste which may be toxic, ignitable, corrosive or reactive. If improperly managed, this waste can pose dangerous health and environmental consequences. The industrial waste management becomes a real problem for them. The oil industry is an important sector in Algeria, from exploration to development and marketing of hydrocarbons. For this sector, industrial wastes pose a big problem. The aim of the present study is to present in a systematic way the subject of industrial waste from the point-of-view of definitions in engineering and legislation. This analysis is necessary, as many different approaches and we will attempt to diagnose the current management of industrial waste, namely an inventory of deposits and methods of sorting, packing, storage, and a description of the different disposal routes. Thus, a proposal for a reasoned and responsible management of waste by avoiding a shift towards future expenses related to the disposal of such waste, and prevents pollution they cause to the environment.

Keywords: Management, Environment, Pollution, Industrial Waste, risks

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9 Investigation of Occupational Health and Safety of Bakeries in Izmir, Turkey

Authors: Pinar Ercan, Bulut Mert

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The baking industry is prone to occupational health challenges like other industries. Workers in bakeries face many hazards in their work environment; hazards have the potential for causing injury, illness or work accidents. Most of these hazards are preventable and arise from the neglect of occupational safety measures. Some bakeries in Izmır Turkey was evaluated according to occupational health and safety. First of all, the production process was evaluated. The survey was administered to a total of 50 employees. The survey consisted of two sections. The first one comprised only demographic questions and items related to job characteristics. The remaining section was assessing the satisfaction and confidence about occupational health and safety in terms of employees consist of a 10-item questionnaire by using HSE (2010) survey with some modifications. Also, hazards, risks and control measures in the bakeries were determined. Risk assessment has been done by the use of '5x5 Risk Assessment Table' for this purpose.

Keywords: Risk Assessment, Occupational Health and Safety, Hazards, risks, bakeries

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8 Modeling Salam Contract for Profit and Loss Sharing

Authors: Dchieche Amina, Aboulaich Rajae

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Profit and loss sharing suggests an equitable sharing of risks and profits between the parts involved in a financial transaction. Salam is a contract in which advance payment is made for goods to be delivered at a future date. The purpose of this work is to price a new contract for profit and loss sharing based on Salam contract, using Khiyar Al Ghabn which is an agreement of choice in case of misrepresent facts.

Keywords: Islamic Finance, Shariah Compliance, Derivatives, hedging, risks, profi t and loss sharing, salam contract

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7 Risk Management through Controlling in Industrial Enterprises Operating in Slovakia

Authors: Maria Hudakova, Maria Luskova

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This report is focused on widening the theoretical knowledge as well as controlling practical application from the risk management point of view, regarding to dynamic business changes that have occurred in Slovakia which recently has been considered to be an environment full of risk and uncertainty. The idea of the report is the proposal of the controlling operation model in the course of risk management process in an enterprise operating in Slovakia, by which the controller is able to identify early risk factors in suggested major areas of the business management upon appropriate business information integration, consecutive control and prognoses and to prepare in time full-value documents in order to suggest measures for reduction thereof. Dealing with risk factors, that can quickly limit the growth potential of the enterprise, is an essential part of managerial activities on each level. This is the reason why mutual unofficial, ergo collegial cooperation of individual departments is necessary for controlling application from the business risk management point of view. An important part of the report is elaborated survey of the most important risk factors existing in major management areas of enterprises operating in Slovakia. The outcome of the performed survey is a catalogue of the most important enterprise risk factors. The catalogue serves for better understanding risk factors affecting the Slovak enterprises, their importance and evaluation.

Keywords: Information, Crisis, risks, controlling, risk factor

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6 Contracting Strategies to Foster Industrial Symbiosis Implementation

Authors: Robin Molinier

Abstract:

Industrial symbiosis (I.S) deals with the exchange of waste materials, fatal energy and utilities as resources for production. While it brings environmental benefits from resource conservation its economic profitability is one of the main barriers to its implementation. I.S involves several actors with their own objectives and resources so that each actor must be satisfied by ex-ante arrangements to commit toward investments and transactions. Regarding I.S Transaction cost economics helps to identify hybrid forms of governance for transactions governance due to I.S projects specificities induced by the need for customization (asset specificity, non-homogeneity). Thus we propose a framework to analyze the best contractual practices tailored to address I.S specific risks that we identified as threefold (load profiles and quality mismatch, value fluctuations). Schemes from cooperative game theory and contracting management are integrated to analyze value flows between actors. Contractual guidelines are then proposed to address the identified risks and to split the value for a set of I.S archetypes drawn from actual experiences.

Keywords: Economics, Contracts, Industrial Symbiosis, risks

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5 Potential Risks of Using Disconnected Composite Foundation Systems in Active Seismic Zones

Authors: Mohamed ElMasry, Ahmad Ragheb, Tareq AbdelAziz, Mohamed Ghazy

Abstract:

Choosing the suitable infrastructure system is becoming more challenging with the increase in demand for heavier structures contemporarily. This is the case where piled raft foundations have been widely used around the world to support heavy structures without extensive settlement. In the latter system, piles are rigidly connected to the raft, and most of the load goes to the soil layer on which the piles are bearing. In spite of that, when soil profiles contain thicker soft clay layers near the surface, or at relatively shallow depths, it is unfavorable to use the rigid piled raft foundation system. Consequently, the disconnected piled raft system was introduced as an alternative approach for the rigidly connected system. In this system, piles are disconnected from the raft using a cushion of soil, mostly of a granular interlayer. The cushion is used to redistribute the stresses among the piles and the subsoil. Piles are also used to stiffen the subsoil, and by this way reduce the settlement without being rigidly connected to the raft. However, the seismic loading effect on such disconnected foundation systems remains a problem, since the soil profiles may include thick clay layers which raise risks of amplification of the dynamic earthquake loads. In this paper, the effects of seismic behavior on the connected and disconnected piled raft systems are studied through a numerical model using Midas GTS NX Software. The study concerns the soil-structure interaction and the expected behavior of the systems. Advantages and disadvantages of each foundation approach are studied, and a comparison between the results are presented to show the effects of using disconnected piled raft systems in highly seismic zones. This was done by showing the excitation amplification in each of the foundation systems.

Keywords: Soil-Structure Interaction, risks, disconnected piled-raft, seismic zones

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4 Integrating Cost-Benefit Assessment and Contract Design to Support Industrial Symbiosis Deployment

Authors: Robin Molinier

Abstract:

Industrial symbiosis (I.S) is the realization of Industrial Ecology (I.E) principles in production systems in function. I.S consists in the use of waste materials, fatal energy, recirculated utilities and infrastructure/service sharing as resources for production. Environmental benefits can be achieved from resource conservation but economic profitability is required by the participating actors. I.S indeed involves several actors with their own objectives and resources so that each one must be satisfied by ex-ante arrangements to commit toward I.S execution (investments and transactions). Following the Resource-Based View of transactions we build a modular framework to assess global I.S profitability and to specify each actor’s contributions to costs and benefits in line with their resource endowments and performance requirements formulations. I.S projects specificities implied by the need for customization (asset specificity, non-homogeneity) induce the use of long-term contracts for transactions following Transaction costs economics arguments. Thus we propose first a taxonomy of costs and value drivers for I.S and an assignment to each actor of I.S specific risks that we identified as load profiles mismatch, quality problems and value fluctuations. Then appropriate contractual guidelines (pricing, cost sharing and warranties) that support mutual profitability are derived from the detailed identification of contributions by the cost-benefits model. This analytical framework helps identifying what points to focus on when bargaining over contracting for transactions and investments. Our methodology is applied to I.S archetypes raised from a literature survey on eco-industrial parks initiatives and practitioners interviews.

Keywords: Contracts, Cost-benefit analysis, Industrial Symbiosis, risks

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3 Economic Evaluation Offshore Wind Project under Uncertainly and Risk Circumstances

Authors: Sayed Amir Hamzeh Mirkheshti

Abstract:

Offshore wind energy as a strategic renewable energy, has been growing rapidly due to availability, abundance and clean nature of it. On the other hand, budget of this project is incredibly higher in comparison with other renewable energies and it takes more duration. Accordingly, precise estimation of time and cost is needed in order to promote awareness in the developers and society and to convince them to develop this kind of energy despite its difficulties. Occurrence risks during on project would cause its duration and cost constantly changed. Therefore, to develop offshore wind power, it is critical to consider all potential risks which impacted project and to simulate their impact. Hence, knowing about these risks could be useful for the selection of most influencing strategies such as avoidance, transition, and act in order to decrease their probability and impact. This paper presents an evaluation of the feasibility of 500 MV offshore wind project in the Persian Gulf and compares its situation with uncertainty resources and risk. The purpose of this study is to evaluate time and cost of offshore wind project under risk circumstances and uncertain resources by using Monte Carlo simulation. We analyzed each risk and activity along with their distribution function and their effect on the project.

Keywords: Monte Carlo Simulation, risks, wind energy project, uncertain resources

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2 A LED Warning Vest as Safety Smart Textile and Active Cooperation in a Working Group for Building a Normative Standard

Authors: Werner Grommes

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The institute of occupational safety and health works in a working group for building a normative standard for illuminated warning vests and did a lot of experiments and measurements as basic work (cooperation). Intelligent car headlamps are able to suppress conventional warning vests with retro-reflective stripes as a disturbing light. Illuminated warning vests are therefore required for occupational safety. However, they must not pose any danger to the wearer or other persons. Here, the risks of the batteries (lithium types), the maximum brightness (glare) and possible interference radiation from the electronics on the implant carrier must be taken into account. The all-around visibility, as well as the required range, play an important role here. For the study, many luminance measurements of already commercially available LEDs and electroluminescent warning vests, as well as their electromagnetic interference fields and aspects of electrical safety, were measured. The results of this study showed that LED lighting is all far too bright and causes strong glare. The integrated controls with pulse modulation and switching regulators cause electromagnetic interference fields. Rechargeable lithium batteries can explode depending on the temperature range. Electroluminescence brings even more hazards. A test method was developed for the evaluation of visibility at distances of 50, 100, and 150 m, including the interview of test persons. A measuring method was developed for the detection of glare effects at close range with the assignment of the maximum permissible luminance. The electromagnetic interference fields were tested in the time and frequency ranges. A risk and hazard analysis were prepared for the use of lithium batteries. The range of values for luminance and risk analysis for lithium batteries were discussed in the standards working group. These will be integrated into the standard. This paper gives a brief overview of the topics of illuminated warning vests, which takes into account the risks and hazards for the vest wearer or others

Keywords: Hazards, LED, risks, illuminated warning vest, optical tests and measurements, optical glare effects, E-light, electric luminescent

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1 Analysis of Risks in Financing Agriculture a Case of Agricultural Cooperatives in Benue State, Nigeria

Authors: Odey Moses Ogah, Felix Terhemba Ikyereve

Abstract:

The study was carried out to analyzed risks in financing agriculture by agricultural cooperatives in Benue State, Nigeria. The study made use of research questionnaires for data collection. A multistage sampling technique was used to select a sample of 210 respondents from 21 agricultural cooperatives. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were employed in data analysis. Loan defaulting (66.7%) and reduction in savings by members (51.4%) were the major causes of risks faced by agricultural cooperatives in financing agriculture in the study area. Other causes include adverse changes in commodity prices (48.6%), disaster (45.7%), among others. It was found that risks adversely influence the profitability and competition of agricultural cooperatives (82.9%). Multiple regression analysis results showed that the coefficient of multiple determinations was 0.67, implying that the explanatory variables included in the model accounted for 67% of the variation in the level of profitability of agricultural cooperatives. The number of loans, average amount of loan and the interest rate were significant and important determinants of profitability of the cooperatives. The majority of the respondents (88.6%) made use of loan guarantors as a strategy of managing loan default/no repayment. It was found that the majority (70%) of the respondents were faced with the challenge of lack of insurance cover. The study recommends that agricultural cooperative officials should be encouraged to undergo formal training and education to easily acquire administrative skills in the management of agricultural loans; Farmer's loan size should be increased and released on time to enable them to use it effectively. Policies that enhance insuring farm activities should be put in place to discourage farmers from risk aversion.

Keywords: Finance, Analysis, Agriculture, Cooperative, risks

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