Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

risk reduction Related Abstracts

5 Measures for Earthquake Risk Reduction in Algeria

Authors: Farah Lazzali, Yamina Ait Meziane

Abstract:

Recent earthquakes in Algeria have demonstrated the need for seismic risk reduction. In fact, the latest major earthquake that affected the Algiers-Boumerdes region in 2003 caused excessive levels of loss of life and property. Economic, social and environmental damage were also experienced. During the three days following the event, a relatively weak coordination of public authority was noted. Many localities did not receive any relief due to lack of information from concerned authorities and delay in connecting damaged roads. Following this event, Algerian government and civil society has recognized the urgent need for an appropriate and immediate seismic risk mitigation strategy. This paper describes procedures for emergency response following past earthquakes in Algeria and provides a brief review of risk mitigation activities since 1980. The paper also aims to provide measures to reduce earthquake risk through general strategy and practical implementation of the mitigation actions.

Keywords: Prevention, Earthquake, Strategy, risk reduction, Hazard

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4 Causes and Effects of the 2012 Flood Disaster on Affected Communities in Nigeria

Authors: Abdulquadri Ade Bilau, Richard Ajayi Jimoh, Adejoh Amodu Adaji

Abstract:

The increasing exposures to natural hazards have continued to severely impair on the built environment causing huge fatalities, mass damage and destruction of housing and civil infrastructure while leaving psychosocial impacts on affected communities. The 2012 flood disaster in Nigeria which affected over 7 million inhabitants in 30 of the 36 states resulted in 363 recorded fatalities with about 600,000 houses and a number of civil infrastructure damaged or destroyed. In Kogi State, over 500 thousand people were displaced in 9 out of the 21 local government affected while Ibaji and Lokoja local governments were worst hit. This study identifies the causes and 2012 flood disasters and its effect on housing and livelihood. Personal observation and questionnaire survey were instruments used in carrying out the study and data collected were analysed using descriptive statistical tool. Findings show that the 2012 flood disaster was aided by the gap in hydrological data, sudden dam failure, and inadequate drainage capacity to reduce flood risk. The study recommends that communities residing along the river banks in Lokoja and Ibaji LGAs must be adequately educated on their exposure to flood hazard and mitigation and risk reduction measures such as construction of adequate drainage channel are constructed in affected communities.

Keywords: Housing, Flood, risk reduction, Vulnerability, Hazards

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3 Build Back Better Propositions for Disaster Risk Reduction in Natural Environment Recovery

Authors: S. Wilkinson, Tinu Rose Francis, Y. Chang-Richards, S. Mannakkara

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to assess the implementation of Build Back Better (BBB) propositions for disaster risk reduction in the natural environment with regard to greater Christchurch, New Zealand, after the 2010–2011 earthquakes in the region. A set of indicators was established to analyse the extent of recovery attained in Christchurch. Disaster recovery in the region is an ongoing process, which gives us the opportunity to rate the progress made so far. Disasters cause significant damage to the built, social and economic environments and also have severe consequences for the natural environment. Findings show that greater Christchurch has made important progress and implemented a comprehensive natural environment recovery plan. The plan addresses the restoration of biodiversity, natural resources, disaster waste management and amenity values in greater Christchurch. This paper also surveys the risk reduction actions being implemented with regard to the natural environment. The findings of this study will help governing bodies to identify and fill the gaps in their natural environment recovery plans.

Keywords: Planning, Resilience, Reconstruction, Recovery, risk reduction, Natural Environment, build back better (BBB)

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2 Public Participation for an Effective Flood Risk Management: Building Social Capacities in Ribera Alta Del Ebro, Spain

Authors: Alba Ballester Ciuró, Marc Pares Franzi

Abstract:

While coming decades are likely to see a higher flood risk in Europe and greater socio-economic damages, traditional flood risk management has become inefficient. In response to that, new approaches such as capacity building and public participation have recently been incorporated in natural hazards mitigation policy (i.e. Sendai Framework for Action, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change reports and EU Floods Directive). By integrating capacity building and public participation, we present a research concerning the promotion of participatory social capacity building actions for flood risk mitigation at the local level. Social capacities have been defined as the resources and abilities available at individual and collective level that can be used to anticipate, respond to, cope with, recover from and adapt to external stressors. Social capacity building is understood as a process of identifying communities’ social capacities and of applying collaborative strategies to improve them. This paper presents a proposal of systematization of participatory social capacity building process for flood risk mitigation, and its implementation in a high risk of flooding area in the Ebro river basin: Ribera Alta del Ebro. To develop this process, we designed and tested a tool that allows measuring and building five types of social capacities: knowledge, motivation, networks, participation and finance. The tool implementation has allowed us to assess social capacities in the area. Upon the results of the assessment we have developed a co-decision process with stakeholders and flood risk management authorities on which participatory activities could be employed to improve social capacities for flood risk mitigation. Based on the results of this process, and focused on the weaker social capacities, we developed a set of participatory actions in the area oriented to general public and stakeholders: informative sessions on flood risk management plan and flood insurances, interpretative river descents on flood risk management (with journalists, teachers, and general public), interpretative visit to the floodplain, workshop on agricultural insurance, deliberative workshop on project funding, deliberative workshops in schools on flood risk management (playing with a flood risk model). The combination of obtaining data through a mixed-methods approach of qualitative inquiry and quantitative surveys, as well as action research through co-decision processes and pilot participatory activities, show us the significant impact of public participation on social capacity building for flood risk mitigation and contributes to the understanding of which main factors intervene in this process.

Keywords: risk reduction, Vulnerability Assessment, Flood Risk Management, Public Participation, social capacities

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1 Investigation of Leptospira Infection in Stray Animals in Thailand: Leptospirosis Risk Reduction in Human

Authors: Ruttayaporn Ngasaman, Saowakon Indouang, Usa Chethanond

Abstract:

Leptospirosis is a public health concern zoonosis in Thailand. Human and animals are often infected by contact with contaminated water. The infected animals play an important role in leptospira infection for both human and other hosts via urine. In humans, it can cause a wide range of symptoms, some of which may present mild flu-like symptoms including fever, vomiting, and jaundice. Without treatment, Leptospirosis can lead to kidney damage, meningitis, liver failure, respiratory distress, and even death. The prevalence of leptospirosis in stray animals in Thailand is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate leptospira infection in stray animals including dogs and cats in Songkhla province, Thailand. Total of 434 blood samples were collected from 370 stray dogs and 64 stray cats during the population control program from 2014 to 2018. Screening test using latex agglutination for the detection of antibodies against Leptospira interrogans in serum samples shows 29.26% (127/434) positive. There were 120 positive samples of stray dogs and 7 positive samples of stray cats. Detection by polymerase chain reaction specific to LipL32 gene of Leptospira interrogans showed 1.61% (7/434) positive. Stray cats (5/64) show higher prevalence than stray dogs (2/370). Although active infection was low detected, but seroprevalence was high. This result indicated that stray animals were not active infection during sample collection but they use to get infected or in a latent period of infection. They may act as a reservoir for domestic animals and human in which stay in the same environment. In order to prevent and reduce the risk of leptospira infection in a human, stray animals should be done health checking, vaccination, and disease treatment.

Keywords: risk reduction, Thailand, leptospirosis, stray animals

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