Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

rice husk Related Abstracts

18 Application of Acinetobacter sp. KKU44 for Cellulase Production from Agricultural Waste

Authors: Surasak Siripornadulsil, Nutt Poomai, Wilailak Siripornadulsil


Due to a high ethanol demand, the approach for effective ethanol production is important and has been developed rapidly worldwide. Several agricultural wastes are highly abundant in celluloses and the effective cellulose enzymes do exist widely among microorganisms. Accordingly, the cellulose degradation using microbial cellulose to produce a low-cost substrate for ethanol production has attracted more attention. In this study, the cellulose producing bacterial strain has been isolated from rich straw and identified by 16S rDNA sequence analysis as Acinetobacter sp. KKU44. This strain is able to grow and exhibit the cellulose activity. The optimal temperature for its growth and cellulose production is 37 °C. The optimal temperature of bacterial cellulose activity is 60 °C. The cellulose enzyme from Acinetobacter sp. KKU44 is heat-tolerant enzyme. The bacterial culture of 36 h. showed highest cellulose activity at 120 U/mL when grown in LB medium containing 2% (w/v). The capability of Acinetobacter sp. KKU44 to grow in cellulosic agricultural wastes as a sole carbon source and exhibiting the high cellulose activity at high temperature suggested that this strain could be potentially developed further as a cellulose degrading strain for a production of low-cost substrate used in ethanol production.

Keywords: bagasse, rice straw, cellulose enzyme, rice husk, acinetobacter sp. KKU44

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17 Production of Nanocrystalline Cellulose (NCC) from Rice Husk Biomass by Chemical Extraction Process

Authors: Md. Sakinul Islam, Nhol Kao, Sati Bhattacharya, Rahul Gupta


The objective of the study is to produce naocrystalline cellulose (NCC) from rice husk by chemical extraction process. The chemical extraction processes of this production are delignification, bleaching and hydrolysis. In order to produce NCC, raw rice husk (RRH) was grinded and converted to powder form. Powder rice husk was obtained by sieving and the particles in the 75-710 μm size range was used for experimental work. The production of NCC was conducted into the jacketed glass reactor at 80 ˚C temperature under predetermined experimental conditions. In this work NaOH (4M) solution was used for delignification process. After certain experimental time delignified powder RH was collected from the reactor then washed, bleached and finally hydrolyzed in order to degrade cellulose to nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC). For bleaching and hydrolysis processes NaOCl (20%) and H2SO4 (4M) solutions were used, respectively. The resultant products from hydrolysis was neutralized by buffer solution and analyzed by FTIR, XRD, SEM, AFM and TEM. From the analysis, NCC has been identified successfully and the particle dimension has been confirmed to be in the range of 20-50 nm. From XRD results, the crystallinity of NCC was found to be approximately 45%.

Keywords: biomass, rice husk, Nanocrystalline cellulose, NCC, chemical extraction

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16 Batch Biodrying of Pulp and Paper Secondary Sludge: Influence of Initial Moisture Content on the Process

Authors: César Huiliñir, Danilo Villanueva, Pedro Iván Alvarez, Francisco Cubillos


Biodrying aims at removing water from biowastes and has been mostly studied for municipal solid wastes (MSW), while few studies have dealt with secondary sludge from the paper and pulp industry. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of initial moisture content (MC) on the batch biodrying of pulp and paper secondary sludge, using rice husks as bulking agents. Three initial MCs were studied (54, 65, and 74% w.b.) in closed batch laboratory-scale reactors under adiabatic conditions and with a constant air-flow rate (0.65 l min-1 kg-1 wet solid). The initial MC of the mixture of secondary sludge and rice husks showed a significant effect on the biodrying process. Using initial moisture content between 54-65% w.b., the solid moisture content was reduce up to 37 % w.b. in ten days, getting calorific values between 8000-9000 kJ kg-1. It was concluded that a decreasing of initial MC improves the drying rate and decreases the solid volatile consumption, therefore, the optimization of biodrying should consider this parameter.

Keywords: rice husk, biodrying, secondary sludge, initial moisture content, pulp and paper industry

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15 Fermentable Bio-Ethanol Using Bakers and Palmwine Yeasts: Indices of Bioavailability of Carbohydrate and Sugar from Fungal Treated Rice Husk

Authors: Ezeonu, Chukwuma Stephen, Onwurah, Ikechukwu Noel Emmanuel


Pure strains of Aspergillus fumigatus (AF), aspergillus niger (AN), aspergillus oryzae (AO), trichophyton mentagrophyte (TM), trichophyton rubrum (TR) and Trichophyton soudanense (TS) were isolated from decomposing rice husk. Freshly processed rice husk in Mandle’s medium were heat pre-treated using an autoclave at 121oC for 20 minutes. The isolated fungi as monoculture and di-culture combinations were inoculated into each of the pre-treated rice husk with the exception of two controls. Seven days hydrolysis was followed by estimation of carbohydrate, reducing sugar and non-reducing sugar. Fungal treated rice husks were left to ferment for 7 days with introduction of both baker’s and palm wine yeast. The result obtained in the work gave the highest carbohydrate (20.53 ± 2.73 %) from rice husks treated with TS + TR di-culture. The highest soluble reducing sugar (2.66 ± 0.14 %) was obtained from rice husk treated with TM. The highest soluble nonreducing sugar (18.08 ± 2.61 %) was from AF. The introduction of yeasts from palm wine gave the highest bio-ethanol (12.82 ± 0.39 %) from AO. The highest bio-ethanol (6.60 ± 0.10 %) from baker's yeast fermentation was in AO + TS treated rice husk. There was increased availability of sugar and moderate yield of bio-ethanol, especially from palm wine yeast.

Keywords: Fermentation, Carbohydrate, Fungi, Ethanol, rice husk, reducing sugar, non-reducing sugar

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14 Optimization of Biomass Components from Rice Husk Treated with Trichophyton Soudanense and Trichophyton Mentagrophyte and Effect of Yeast on the Bio-Ethanol Yield

Authors: Chukwuma S. Ezeonu, Ikechukwu N. E. Onwurah, Uchechukwu U. Nwodo, Chibuike S. Ubani, Chigozie M. Ejikeme


Trichophyton soudanense and Trichophyton mentagrophyte were isolated from the rice mill environment, cultured and used singly and as di-culture in the treatment of measure quantities of preheated rice husk. Optimized conditions studied showed that carboxymethylcellulase (CMCellulase) activity of 57.61 µg/ml/min was optimum for Trichophyton mentagrophyte heat pretreated rice husk crude enzymes at 50oC and 80oC respectively. Duration of 120 hours (5 days) gave the highest CMcellulase activity of 75.84 µg/ml/min for crude enzyme of Trichophyton mentagrophyte heat pretreated rice husk. However, 96 hours (4 days) duration gave maximum activity of 58.21 µg/ml/min for crude enzyme of Trichophyton soudanense heat pretreated rice husk. Highest CMCellulase activities of 67.02 µg/ml/min and 69.02 µg/ml/min at pH of 5 were recorded for crude enzymes of monocultures of Trichophyton soudanense (TS) and Trichophyton mentagrophyte (TM) heat pretreated rice husk respectively. Biomass components showed that rice husk cooled after heating followed by treatment with Trichophyton mentagrophyte gave 44.50 ± 10.90 (% ± Standard Error of Mean) cellulose as the highest yield. Maximum total lignin value of 28.90 ± 1.80 (% ± SEM) was obtained from pre-heated rice husk treated with di-culture of Trichophyton soudanense and Trichophyton mentagrophyte (TS+TM). The hemicellulose content of 30.50 ± 2.12 (% ± SEM) from pre-heated rice husk treated with Trichophyton soudanense (TS); lignin value of 28.90 ± 1.80 from pre-heated rice husk treated with di-culture of Trichophyton soudanense and Trichophyton mentagrophyte (TS+TM); also carbohydrate content of 16.79 ± 9.14 (% ± SEM) , reducing and non-reducing sugar values of 2.66 ± 0.45 and 14.13 ± 8.69 (% ± SEM) were all obtained from for pre- heated rice husk treated with Trichophyton mentagrophyte (TM). All the values listed above were the highest values obtained from each rice husk treatment. The pre-heated rice husk treated with Trichophyton mentagrophyte (TM) fermented with palmwine yeast gave bio-ethanol value of 11.11 ± 0.21 (% ± Standard Deviation) as the highest yield.

Keywords: biomass, Bioethanol, rice husk, Trichophyton soudanense, Trichophyton mentagrophyte

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13 Effects of Application of Rice Husk Charcoal-Coated Urea and Rice Straw Compost on Growth, Yield, and Properties of Lowland Rice

Authors: D. A. S. Gamage, B. F. A. Basnayake, W.A.J.M. De Costa


Rice is the staple food of Sri Lankans thus; rice cultivation is the major agricultural activity of the country. The application of inorganic fertilizer has become a burden to the country. The excessive application of organic and inorganic fertilizers can potentially lead to deterioration of the quality of water. In mixing both urea and rice husk charcoal and rice straw compost in soils causes a slow release of nitrogen fertilizer, thus reducing the cost of importations of nitrogen based fertilizers per unit area of cultivation. Objective of this study was to evaluate rice husk charcoal coated urea as a slow releasing fertilizer and compare the total N,P, K, organic matter in soil and yield of rice production. Five treatments were used for twenty pots (pot size 30 cm diameter and 45 cm height) each replicated four times as: inorganic fertilizer only (Urea, TSP and MOP) (Treatment 1); rice husk charcoal coated urea, TSP and MOP (Treatment 2); inorganic fertilizer (Urea, TSP and MOP) with rice straw compost only (Treatment 3); rice husk charcoal urea, TSP and MOP with rice straw compost (Treatment 4); and no fertilizer as the control (Treatment 5). Rice grain yield was significantly higher in treatment 4 where rice husk charcoal coated urea, TSP and MOP with rice straw compost. The lowest yield was observed in control (treatment 5). The lower the value of the nitrogen to phosphorous ratio in soil, it indicates higher uptake of phosphorous. Charcoal can be used as a soil amendment and organic fertilizer, but adjustment of pH was required at high application rates. K content of soil of treatment 3 and 4 were the highest with compared to the treatment 1. Rice husk charcoal coated urea can potentially be used as a slow releasing nitrogen fertilizer.

Keywords: Soil Amendment, rice husk, charcoal, nitrogen to phosphorous ratio

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12 Experimental Investigation on Mechanical Properties of Rice Husk Filled Jute Reinforced Composites

Authors: Priyankar P. Deka, Sutanu Samanta


This paper describes the development of new class of epoxy based hybrid composites reinforced with jute and filled with rice husk flour. Rice husk flour is added in 0%, 1%, 3%, 5% by weight. Epoxy resin and triethylene tetramine (T.E.T.A) is used as matrix and hardener respectively. It investigates the mechanical properties of the composites and a comparison is done for monolithic jute composite and the filled ones. The specimens are prepared according to the ASTM standards and experimentation is carried out using INSTRON 8801. The result shows that with the increase of filler percentage the tensile properties increases but compressive and flexural properties decreases.

Keywords: Natural Fiber, Mechanical Characterization, jute, rice husk

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11 Green Materials for Hot Mixed Asphalt Production

Authors: Salisu Dahiru, Jibrin M. Kaura, Abubakar I. Jumare, Sulaiman M. Mahmood


Reclaimed asphalt, used automobile tires and rice husk, were regarded as waste. These materials could be used in construction of new roads and for roads rehabilitation. Investigation into the production of a Green Hot Mixed Asphalt (GHMA) pavement using Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) as partial replacement for coarse aggregate, Crumb Rubber (CR) from waste automobile tires as modifier for bitumen binder and Rice Husk Ash (RHA) as partial replacement of ordinary portland cement (OPC) filler, for roads construction and rehabilitation was presented. 30% Reclaimed asphalt of total aggregate, 15% Crumb Rubber of total binder content, 5% Rice Husk Ash of total mix, and 5.2% Crumb Rubber Modified Bitumen content were recommended for optimum performance. Loss of marshal stability was investigated on mix with the recommended optimum CRMB. The mix revealed good performance with only about 13% loss of stability after 24 hours of immersion in hot water bath, as against about 24% marshal stability lost reported in previous studies for conventional Hot Mixed Asphalt (HMA).

Keywords: rice husk, filler, crumb rubber, reclaimed asphalt, bitumen content green hot mix asphalt

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10 Viability of Rice Husk Ash Concrete Brick/Block from Green Electricity in Bangladesh

Authors: Mohammad A. N. M. Shafiqul Karim


As a developing country, Bangladesh has to face numerous challenges. Self Independence in electricity, contributing to climate change by reducing carbon emission and bringing the backward population of society to the mainstream is more challenging for them. Therefore, it is essential to ensure recycled use of local products to the maximum level in every sector. Some private organizations have already worked alongside government to bring the backward population to the mainstream by developing their financial capacities. As rice husk is the largest single category of the total energy supply in Bangladesh. As part of this strategy, rice husk can play a great as a promising renewable energy source, which is readily available, has considerable environmental benefits and can produce electricity and ensure multiple uses of byproducts in construction technology. For the first time in Bangladesh, an experimental multidimensional project depending on Rice Husk Electricity and Rice Husk Ash (RHA) concrete brick/block under Green Eco-Tech Limited has already been started. Project analysis, opportunity, sustainability, the high monitoring component, limitations and finally evaluated data reflecting the viability of establishing more projects using rice husk are discussed in this paper. The by-product of rice husk from the production of green electricity, RHA, can be used for making, in particular, RHA concrete brick/block in Bangladeshi aspects is also discussed here.

Keywords: rice husk, project analysis, rice husk ash concrete brick/block, compressive strength of rice husk ash concrete brick/block

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9 Effect of Temperature and Time on the Yield of Silica from Rice Husk Ash

Authors: Mohammed Adamu Musa, Shehu Saminu Babba


The technological trend towards waste utilization and cost reduction in industrial processing has attracted use of Rice Husk as a value added material. Both rice husk (RH) and Rice Husk Ash (RHA) has been found suitable for wide range of domestic as well as industrial applications. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to produce high grade sodium silicate from rice husk ash by considering the effect of temperature and time of heating as the process variables. The experiment was performed by heating the rice husk at temperatures 500 °C, 600 °C, 700 °C and 800 °C and time 60min, 90min, 120min and 150min were used to obtain the ash. 1.0M of aqueous sodium hydroxide solution was used to dissolve the silicate from the ash, which contained crude sodium silicate. In addition, the ash was neutralized by adding 5M of HCL until the pH reached 3.5 to give silica gel. At 6000C and 120mins, 94.23% silica was obtained from the RHA. At higher temperatures (700 °C and 800 °C) the percentage yield of silica reduced due to surface melting and carbon fixation in the lattice caused by presence of potassium. For this research, 600 °C is considered to be the optimum temperature for silica production from RHA. Silica produced from RHA can generate aggregate value and can be used in areas such as pulp and paper, plastic and rubber reinforcement industries.

Keywords: temperature, rice husk, silica, rice husk ash, silica gel, burning

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8 Synergistic Studies of Multi-Flame Retarders Using Silica Nanoparticles, and Nitrogen and Phosphorus-Based Compounds for Polystyrene Using Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Florencio D. De Los Reyes, Magdaleno R. Vasquez Jr., Mark Daniel G. De Luna, Peerasak Paoprasert


The effect of adding silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) obtained from rice husk, and phosphorus and nitrogen based compounds namely 9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenantrene-10-oxide (DOPO) and melamine, respectively, on the flammability of polystyrene (PS) was studied using response surface methodology (RSM). The flammability of PS was reduced as the limiting oxygen index (LOI) values increased when the flame retardant additives were added. DOPO exhibited the best retarding property increasing the LOI value of PS by 42.4%. A quadratic model for LOI was obtained from the RSM results, with percent loading of SiNPs, DOPO, and melamine, as independent variables. The observed increase in the LOI value as the percent loading of the flame retardant additives is increased, was attributed both to the main effects and synergistic effects of the parameters, as the LOI response of SiNPs is greatly enhanced by the addition of DOPO and melamine, as shown by the response surface plots. This indicates the potential of producing a cheaper, effective, and non-toxic multi-flame retardant system for the polymeric system via different flame retarding mechanisms.

Keywords: Flame retardancy, polystyrene, response surface methodology, rice husk, silica nanoparticle

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7 Analysis of the Potential of Biomass Residues for Energy Production and Applications in New Materials

Authors: Sibele A. F. Leite, Bernno S. Leite, José Vicente H. D´Angelo, Ana Teresa P. Dell’Isola, Julio CéSar Souza


The generation of bioenergy is one of the oldest and simplest biomass applications and is one of the safest options for minimizing emissions of greenhouse gasses and replace the use of fossil fuels. In addition, the increasing development of technologies for energy biomass conversion parallel to the advancement of research in biotechnology and engineering has enabled new opportunities for exploitation of biomass. Agricultural residues offer great potential for energy use, and Brazil is in a prominent position in the production and export of agricultural products such as banana and rice. Despite the economic importance of the growth prospects of these activities and the increasing of the agricultural waste, they are rarely explored for energy and production of new materials. Brazil products almost 10.5 million tons/year of rice husk and 26.8 million tons/year of banana stem. Thereby, the aim of this study was to analysis the potential of biomass residues for energy production and applications in new materials. Rice husk (specify the type) and banana stem (specify the type) were characterized by physicochemical analyses using the following parameters: organic carbon, nitrogen (NTK), proximate analyses, FT-IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analyses (TG), calorific values and silica content. Rice husk and banana stem presented attractive superior calorific (from 11.5 to 13.7MJ/kg), and they may be compared to vegetal coal (21.25 MJ/kg). These results are due to the high organic matter content. According to the proximate analysis, biomass has high carbon content (fixed and volatile) and low moisture and ash content. In addition, data obtained by Walkley–Black method point out that most of the carbon present in the rice husk (50.5 wt%) and in banana stalk (35.5 wt%) should be understood as organic carbon (readily oxidizable). Organic matter was also detected by Kjeldahl method which gives the values of nitrogen (especially on the organic form) for both residues: 3.8 and 4.7 g/kg of rice husk and banana stem respectively. TG and DSC analyses support the previous results, as they can provide information about the thermal stability of the samples allowing a correlation between thermal behavior and chemical composition. According to the thermogravimetric curves, there were two main stages of mass-losses. The first and smaller one occurred below 100 °C, which was suitable for water losses and the second event occurred between 200 and 500 °C which indicates decomposition of the organic matter. At this broad peak, the main loss was between 250-350 °C, and it is because of sugar decomposition (components readily oxidizable). Above 350 °C, mass loss of the biomass may be associated with lignin decomposition. Spectroscopic characterization just provided qualitative information about the organic matter, but spectra have shown absorption bands around 1030 cm-1 which may be identified as species containing silicon. This result is expected for the rice husk and deserves further investigation to the stalk of banana, as it can bring a different perspective for this biomass residue.

Keywords: Bioenergy, rice husk, banana stem, renewable feedstock

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6 Effect of Different Factors on Temperature Profile and Performance of an Air Bubbling Fluidized Bed Gasifier for Rice Husk Gasification

Authors: Dharminder Singh, Sanjeev Yadav, Pravakar Mohanty


In this work, study of temperature profile in a pilot scale air bubbling fluidized bed (ABFB) gasifier for rice husk gasification was carried out. Effects of different factors such as multiple cyclones, gas cooling system, ventilate gas pipe length, and catalyst on temperature profile was examined. ABFB gasifier used in this study had two sections, one is bed section and the other is freeboard section. River sand was used as bed material with air as gasification agent, and conventional charcoal as start-up heating medium in this gasifier. Temperature of different point in both sections of ABFB gasifier was recorded at different ER value and ER value was changed by changing the feed rate of biomass (rice husk) and by keeping the air flow rate constant for long durational of gasifier operation. ABFB with double cyclone with gas coolant system and with short length ventilate gas pipe was found out to be optimal gasifier design to give temperature profile required for high gasification performance in long duration operation. This optimal design was tested with different ER values and it was found that ER of 0.33 was most favourable for long duration operation (8 hr continuous operation), giving highest carbon conversion efficiency. At optimal ER of 0.33, bed temperature was found to be stable at 700 °C, above bed temperature was found to be at 628.63 °C, bottom of freeboard temperature was found to be at 600 °C, top of freeboard temperature was found to be at 517.5 °C, gas temperature was found to be at 195 °C, and flame temperature was found to be 676 °C. Temperature at all the points showed fluctuations of 10 – 20 °C. Effect of catalyst i.e. dolomite (20% with sand bed) was also examined on temperature profile, and it was found that at optimal ER of 0.33, the bed temperature got increased to 795 °C, above bed temperature got decreased to 523 °C, bottom of freeboard temperature got decreased to 548 °C, top of freeboard got decreased to 475 °C, gas temperature got decreased to 220 °C, and flame temperature got increased to 703 °C. Increase in bed temperature leads to higher flame temperature due to presence of more hydrocarbons generated from more tar cracking at higher temperature. It was also found that the use of dolomite with sand bed eliminated the agglomeration in the reactor at such high bed temperature (795 °C).

Keywords: rice husk, flame temperature, dolomite, air bubbling fluidized bed gasifier, bed temperature, charcoal heating

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5 Experimental Study on Effects of Addition of Rice Husk on Coal Gasification

Authors: M. Bharath, Vasudevan Raghavan, B. V. S. S. S. Prasad, S. R. Chakravarthy


In this experimental study, effects of addition of rice husk on coal gasification in a bubbling fluidized bed gasifier, operating at atmospheric pressure with air as gasifying agent, are reported. Rice husks comprising of 6.5% and 13% by mass are added to coal. Results show that, when rice husk is added the methane yield increases from volumetric percentage of 0.56% (with no rice husk) to 2.77% (with 13% rice husk). CO and H2 remain almost unchanged and CO2 decreases with addition of rice husk. The calorific value of the synthetic gas is around 2.73 MJ/Nm3. All performance indices, such as cold gas efficiency and carbon conversion, increase with addition of rice husk.

Keywords: Coal Gasification, calorific value, rice husk, bubbling fluidized bed reactor

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4 Influence of Applied Inorganic and Organic Nitrogen Fertilizers on Nitrogen Forms in Biochar-Treated Soil

Authors: Eman H. El-Gamal, Maher E. Saleh, Mohamed Rashad, Ibrahim Elsokkary, Mona M. Abd El-Latif


Biochar application to calcareous soils could potentially influence the nitrogen dynamics that affect the bioavailability of plants. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of incubation periods on the changes of nitrogen levels (total nitrogen TN and exchangeable ammonium NH₄⁺ and nitrate NO₃⁻) in biochar-treated calcareous soil. The incubation course was extended to 144 days at 30 ± 3 ℃ and at 50% of soil water holding capacity (WHC). Two types of biochars were obtained by pyrolysis at 500 ℃ from rice husk (RHB) and sugarcane bagasse (SCBB). The experiment was planned in a factorial experimental design with three factors (6 periods '24 days for each period' × 3 biochar types 'un-amended, RHB and SCBB' × 3 nitrogen fertilizers 'control, ammonium nitrate; AN and animal manure; AM') in a completely randomized design. The results obtained showed that the highest level of TN was found in the first 24 days of the incubation period in all treatments. However, the amount of TN was decreased with proceeding incubation period up to 144 days and reached to the lowest level at the end of incubation with values of change rate was 17.5, 16.6, and 14.6 g kg⁻¹ day⁻¹ for the un-amended, RHB and SCBB treated soil, respectively. The values of change rate in biochar-soils treated with nitrogen fertilizers were decreased gradually through the whole incubation time from 127.22 to 12.45 g kg⁻¹ day⁻¹ and from 65.00 to 13.43 g kg⁻¹ day⁻¹ for AN and AM respectively, in the case of RHB-soil. While in SCBB-soil, these values were decreased from 70.83 to 12.13 g kg⁻¹ day⁻¹ and from 59.17 to 11.48 g kg⁻¹ day⁻¹ for AN and AM treatments, respectively. The lowest concentration of exchangeable NH₄⁺ was generally found through the period from 24-48 days of incubation. However, the addition of nitrogen fertilizers, enhanced NH₄⁺ production through incubation periods. In the case of RHB-soil, the value of change rate in NH₄⁺ level in the first 24 days of incubation was 0.43 mg kg⁻¹ day⁻¹ and with the addition of AN and AM this value increased to 1.54 and 4.38 mg kg⁻¹ day⁻¹, respectively. In the case of SCBB-soil, the value of change rate in NH₄⁺ level was 0.29 mg kg⁻¹ day⁻¹ which increased to 1.04 mg kg⁻¹ day⁻¹ at the end of incubation, and due to the addition of AN and AM this value increased to 2.78 and 1.90 mg kg⁻¹ day⁻¹ in the first 24 days of incubation period, respectively. However, as compared to the control treatment, the lowest rate of change in NH₄⁺ level was found at the end of incubation. On the other hand, incubation of all biochars-amended soil and treated with AN and AM decreased the concentration levels of NO₃⁻, especially through the first 24-72 days of incubation period. As a result, the values of change rate in NO₃⁻ concentrations in all treatments were almost negative.

Keywords: Biochar, rice husk, sugarcane bagasse, ammonium nitrate, animal manure

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3 Effect of Supplemental Phytase on the Digestibility of Crude Protein and Phosphorus of Rice Husk in Broiler Chicken

Authors: Ibinabo I. Ilaboya, Eustace A. Iyayi


Phosphorus (P) is an indispensable mineral in broiler diets. Rice husk contains phytate-P and other nutrients like protein, carbohydrates, which are poorly digested in broiler chickens. Broiler chickens (BC) lacks sufficient phytase to help hydrolyse phytate-bound P. Hence excess of P is excreted by these chickens into the environment causing environmental pollution. Supplementation of such diets with microbial phytase helps to improve the digestibility of these nutrients. The study was conducted to determine the effect of phytase supplementation on the digestibility of crude protein (CP) and P of rice husk in BC. Six semi-purified diets of three levels of total P (3.46, 4.91 and 6.37g/kg) without and with 1,000 units of phytase per kg were formulated. Titanium dioxide was added to the diets at the rate of 5g/kg as an indigestible marker. At 20dposthatch, 288 broilers (Abor Acre) were weighed and allotted to the diets with 6 replicates of 8 birds each in a randomized complete block design. The birds had free access to the experimental diets until day 26 post-hatch. Phytase supplementation increased (p < 0.05) digestibility of P from 75-93%. Rice husk and its interaction with phytase had no significant (p > 0.05) effect on P digestibility, whereas there was significant (p < 0.01) effect on the interaction of rice husk with phytase on CP digestibility. There were linear increases (p < 0.01) in digested P and CP with phytase supplementation. The P and CP losses from the BC was reduced with the addition of phytase. Results suggest that supplementation of rice husk-based diets with microbial phytase improved pre-caecal digestibility of P and CP in broilers.

Keywords: Phosphorus, phytase, rice husk, crude protein

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2 In-Vitro and Antibacterial Studies for Silicate-Phosphate Glasses Formed with Biosynthesized Silica

Authors: Damandeep Kaur, O.P. Pandey, M.S. Reddy


In the present research, bio-synthesisation of silica particles has been carried out successfully. For this purpose, agriculture waste rice husk (RH) has been utilized. Among several types of agriculture waste, RH is considered to be cost-effective and easily accessible. In the present investigation, a chemical approach has been followed to extract silica nanoparticles. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) patterns indicated the amorphous nature of silica at lower temperature range. Silica and other mineral contents have been found using energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Morphological and structural studies have been carried out with the use of Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Transmission (FTIR) spectroscopy. Further, extracted silica from RH has been used for preparation of the glasses. The appearance of broad humps in XRD patterns confirmed the amorphous nature of prepared glasses. These glasses exhibited enhanced antibacterial effect against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The as-synthesized glass samples can be further used for physical and structural studies for drug loading applications.

Keywords: Bioactive Glasses, rice husk, antibacterial studies, biosynthesized silica

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1 Effect of Incineration Temperatures to Time on the Rice Husk Ash Silica Structure: A Comparative Study to the Literature with Experimental Work

Authors: Binyamien Rasoul, Friederike Gunzel, Imran Rafiq


Controlled burning of rice husk can produce amorphous rice husk ash (RHA) with high silica content which can significantly enhance the properties of concrete. This study has been undertaken to investigate the relationship between the incineration temperatures and time to produce RHA with ultimate reactivity. The rice husk samples were incinerated in an electrical muffle furnace at 350°C, 400°C, 425°C 450°C, 475°C, and 500°C for 60 and 90 minutes, respectively. The silica structure in the Rice Husk Ash (RHA) was determined using X-Ray diffraction analysis, while chemical properties obtained using X-Ray Fluorescence. The results show that RHA appeared to be totally amorphous when the husk incineration goes up to 425°C for 60 and even 90 minutes. However, with increased temperature to 450°C, 475°C and 500°C, traces of crystalline silica (quartz) were detected. However, cannot be taken into account as it does not effect on the ash structure. In conclusion, the result gives an idea of the temperature and the time required to produce ash from rice husk with totally amorphous form.

Keywords: X-Ray Diffraction, X-Ray fluorescence, rice husk, rice husk ash, pozzolanic reactivity, burning temperature, electric muffle furnace, crystalline silica

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