Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

rice husk ash Related Abstracts

16 Mechanical Properties and Shrinkage and Expansion Assessment of Rice Husk Ash Concrete and Its Comparison with the Control Concrete

Authors: Hamed Ahmadi Moghadam, Omolbanin Arasteh Khoshbin

Abstract:

The possibility of using of rice husk ash (RHA) of Guilan (a province located in the north of Iran) (RHA) in concrete was studied by performing experiments. Mechanical properties and shrinkage and expansion of concrete containing different percentage of RHA and the control concrete consisting of cement type II were investigated. For studying, a number of cube and prism concrete specimens containing of 5 to 30% of RHA with constant water to binder ratio of 0.4 were casted and the compressive strength, tensile strength, shrinkage and expansion for water curing conditions up to 360 days were measured. The tests results show that the cement replacement of rice husk ash (RHA) caused both the quality and mechanical properties alterations. It is shown that the compressive strength, tensile strength increase also shrinkage and expansion of specimens were increased that should be controlled in mass concrete structures.

Keywords: Mechanical Properties, pozzolan, rice husk ash, shrinkage and expansion

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15 Prospective Use of Rice Husk Ash to Produce Concrete in India

Authors: Kalyan Kumar Moulick

Abstract:

In this paper the author studied the possibilities of using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) available in India; to produce concrete. The effect of RHA on concrete discussed. Traditional uses of Rice Husk in India pointed out and the advantages of using RHA in making concrete highlighted. Suggestion provided regarding prospective application of RHA concrete in India which in turn will definitely reduce the cost of concrete and environmental friendly due to utilization of waste and replacement of Cement.

Keywords: Concrete, rice husk ash, cement replacement, environmental friendly

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14 Heating and Cooling Scenario of Blended Concrete Subjected to 780 Degrees Celsius

Authors: J. E. Oti, J. M. Kinuthia, R. Robinson, P. Davies

Abstract:

In this study, The Compressive strength of concretes made with Ground Granulated Blast furnace Slag (GGBS), pulverised Fuel Ash (PFA), rice Husk Ash (RHA) and Waste Glass Powder (WGP) after they were exposed 7800C (exposure duration of around 60 minutes) and then allowed to cool down gradually in the furnace for about 280 minutes at water binder ratio of 0.50 was investigated. GGBS, PFA, RHA and WGP were used to replace up to 20% Portland cement in the control concrete. Test for the determination of workability, compressive strength and tensile splitting strength of the concretes were carried out and the results were compared with control concrete. The test results showed that the compressive strength decreased by an average of around 30% after the concretes were exposed to the heating and cooling scenario.

Keywords: Concrete, Heating, Cooling, workability, GGBS, rice husk ash, pulverised fuel ash, waste glass powder

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13 Effect of Rice Husk Ash and Metakaolin on the Compressive Strengths of Ternary Cement Mortars

Authors: Olubajo Olumide Olu

Abstract:

This paper studies the effect of Metakaolin (MK) and Rice husk ash (RHA) on the compressive strength of ternary cement mortar at replacement level up to 30%. The compressive strength test of the blended cement mortars were conducted using Tonic Technic compression and machine. Nineteen ternary cement mortars were prepared comprising of ordinary Portland cement (OPC), Rice husk ash (RHA) and Metakaolin (MK) at different proportion. Ternary mortar prisms in which Portland cement was replaced by up to 30% were tested at various age; 2, 7, 28 and 60 days. Result showed that the compressive strength of the cement mortars increased as the curing days were lengthened for both OPC and the blended cement samples. The ternary cement’s compressive strengths showed significant improvement compared with the control especially beyond 28 days. This can be attributed to the slow pozzolanic reaction resulting from the formation of additional CSH from the interaction of the residual CH content and the silica available in the Metakaolin and Rice husk ash, thus providing significant strength gain at later age. Results indicated that the addition of metakaolin with rice husk ash kept constant was found to lead to an increment in the compressive strength. This can either be attributed to the high silica/alumina contribution to the matrix or the C/S ratio in the cement matrix. Whereas, increment in the rice husk ash content while metakaolin was held constant led to an increment in the compressive strength, which could be attributed to the reactivity of the rice husk ash followed by decrement owing to the presence of unburnt carbon in the RHA matrix. The best compressive strength results were obtained at 10% cement replacement (5% RHA, 5% MK); 15% cement replacement (10% MK and 5% RHA); 20% cement replacement (15% MK and 5% RHA); 25% cement replacement (20% MK and 5% RHA); 30% cement replacement (10%/20% MK and 20%/10% RHA). With the optimal combination of either 15% and 20% MK with 5% RHA giving the best compressive strength of 40.5MPa.

Keywords: compressive strength, metakaolin, rice husk ash, ternary mortar, curing days

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12 Effects of Rice Husk Ash on the Properties of Scrap Tyre Steel Fiber Reinforced High Performance Concrete (RHA-STSFRHAC)

Authors: Isyaka Abdulkadir, Egbe-Ngu Ntui Ogork

Abstract:

This research aims to investigate the effect of Rice Husk Ash (RHA) on Scrap Tyre Steel Fiber Reinforced High Performance Concrete (STSFRHPC). RHA was obtained by control burning of rice husk in a kiln to a temperature of 650-700oC and when cooled sieved through 75µm sieve and characterized. The effect of RHA were investigated on grade 50 STSFRHPC of 1:1.28:1.92 with water cement ratio of 0.39 at additions of Scrap Tyre Steel Fiber (STSF) of 1.5% by volume of concrete and partial replacement of cement with RHA at percentages of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20. The fresh concrete was tested for slump while the hardened concrete was tested for compressive and splitting tensile strengths respectively at curing ages of 3, 7, 28 and 56 days in accordance with standard procedure. Results of RHA-STSFRHPC indicated a reduction in slump and compressive strength with increase in RHA content, while splitting tensile strength increased with RHA replacement up to 10% and reduction in strength above 10% RHA content. The 28 days compressive strength of RHA-STSFRHPC with up to 10% RHA attained the desired characteristic strength of 50N/mm2 and therefore up to 10% RHA is considered as the optimum replacement dosage in STSFRHPC-RHA.

Keywords: High Performance Concrete, compressive strength, rice husk ash, scrap tyre steel fibers

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11 The Use of Rice Husk Ash as a Stabilizing Agent in Lateritic Clay Soil

Authors: J. O. Akinyele, R. W. Salim, K. O. Oikelome, O. T. Olateju

Abstract:

Rice Husk (RH) is the major byproduct in the processing of paddy rice. The management of this waste has become a big challenge to some of the rice producers, some of these wastes are left in open dumps while some are burn in the open space, and these two actions have been contributing to environmental pollution. This study evaluates an alternative waste management of this agricultural product for use as a civil engineering material. The RH was burn in a controlled environment to form Rice Husk Ash (RHA). The RHA was mix with lateritic clay at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10% proportion by weight. Chemical test was conducted on the open burn and controlled burn RHA with the lateritic clay. Physical test such as particle size distribution, Atterberg limits test, and density test were carried out on the mix material. The chemical composition obtained for the RHA showed that the total percentage compositions of Fe2O3, SiO2 and Al2O3 were found to be above 70% (class “F” pozzolan) which qualifies it as a very good pozzolan. The coefficient of uniformity (Cu) was 8 and coefficient of curvature (Cc) was 2 for the soil sample. The Plasticity Index (PI) for the 0, 2, 4, 6, 8. 10% was 21.0, 18.8, 16.7, 14.4, 12.4 and 10.7 respectively. The work concluded that RHA can be effectively used in hydraulic barriers and as a stabilizing agent in soil stabilization.

Keywords: rice husk ash, pozzolans, paddy rice, lateritic clay

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10 Effect of Temperature and Time on the Yield of Silica from Rice Husk Ash

Authors: Mohammed Adamu Musa, Shehu Saminu Babba

Abstract:

The technological trend towards waste utilization and cost reduction in industrial processing has attracted use of Rice Husk as a value added material. Both rice husk (RH) and Rice Husk Ash (RHA) has been found suitable for wide range of domestic as well as industrial applications. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to produce high grade sodium silicate from rice husk ash by considering the effect of temperature and time of heating as the process variables. The experiment was performed by heating the rice husk at temperatures 500 °C, 600 °C, 700 °C and 800 °C and time 60min, 90min, 120min and 150min were used to obtain the ash. 1.0M of aqueous sodium hydroxide solution was used to dissolve the silicate from the ash, which contained crude sodium silicate. In addition, the ash was neutralized by adding 5M of HCL until the pH reached 3.5 to give silica gel. At 6000C and 120mins, 94.23% silica was obtained from the RHA. At higher temperatures (700 °C and 800 °C) the percentage yield of silica reduced due to surface melting and carbon fixation in the lattice caused by presence of potassium. For this research, 600 °C is considered to be the optimum temperature for silica production from RHA. Silica produced from RHA can generate aggregate value and can be used in areas such as pulp and paper, plastic and rubber reinforcement industries.

Keywords: temperature, rice husk, silica, rice husk ash, silica gel, burning

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9 Effect of Rice Husk Ash on Strength and Durability of High Strength High Performance Concrete

Authors: H. B. Mahmud, Syamsul Bahri, Y. W. Yee, Y. T. Yeap

Abstract:

This paper reports the strength and durability properties of high strength high performance concrete incorporating rice husk ash (RHA) having high silica, low carbon content and appropriate fineness. In this study concrete containing 10%, 15% and 20% RHA as cement replacement and water to binder ratio of 0.25 were investigated. The results show that increasing amount of RHA increases the dosage of superplasticizer to maintain similar workability. Partial replacement of cement with RHA did not increase the early age compressive strength of concrete. However, concrete containing RHA showed higher compressive strength at later ages. The results showed that compressive strength of concrete in the 90-115 MPa range can be obtained at 28 curing days and the durability properties of RHA concrete performed better than that of control concrete. The water absorption of concrete incorporating 15% RHA exhibited the lowest value. The porosity of concrete is consistent with water absorption whereby higher replacement of RHA decreased the porosity of concrete. There is a positive correlation between reducing porosity and increasing compressive strength of high strength high performance concrete. The results also indicate that up to 20% of RHA incorporation could be advantageously blended with cement without adversely affecting the strength and durability properties of concrete.

Keywords: Durability, High Performance Concrete, compressive strength, rice husk ash

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8 Studies on Partial Replacement of Cement by Rice Husk Ash under Sodium Phosphate Medium

Authors: Dharmana Pradeep, Chandan Kumar Patnaikuni, N. V. S. Venugopal

Abstract:

Rice Husk Ash (RHA) is a green product contains carbon and also loaded with silica. For the development of durability and strength of any concrete, curing phenomenon shall be very important. In this communication, we reported the exposure of partial replacement of cement with RHA at different percentages of 0%, 5%, 7.5%, 10%, 12.5% and 15% by weight under sodium phosphate curing atmosphere. The mix is designed for M40 grade concrete with the proportions of 1:2.2:3.72. The tests conducted on concrete was a compressive strength, and the specimens were cured in normal water & exposed to the chemical solution for 7, 28 & 56 days. For chemical curing 0.5% & 1% concentrated sodium phosphates were used and were compared with normal concrete strength results. The strength of specimens of 1% sodium phosphate exposure showed that the compressive strength decreased with increase in RHA percentages.

Keywords: compressive strength, rice husk ash, curing, sodium phosphate

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7 Properties of Triadic Concrete Containing Rice Husk Ash and Wood Waste Ash as Partial Cement Replacement

Authors: Abdul Rahman Mohd. Sam, Olukotun Nathaniel, Dunu Williams

Abstract:

Concrete is one of the most popular materials used in construction industry. However, one of the setbacks is that concrete can degrade with time upon exposure to an aggressive environment that leads to decrease in strength. Thus, research works and innovative ways are needed to enhance the strength and durability of concrete. This work tries to look into the potential use of rice husk ash (RHA) and wood waste ash (WWA) as cement replacement material. These are waste materials that may not only enhance the properties of concrete but also can serves as a viable method of disposal of waste for sustainability. In addition, a substantial replacement of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) with these pozzolans will mean reduction in CO₂ emissions and high energy requirement associated with the production of OPC. This study is aimed at assessing the properties of triadic concrete produced using RHA and WWA as a partial replacement of cement. The effects of partial replacement of OPC with 10% RHA and 5% WWA on compressive and tensile strength of concrete among other properties were investigated. Concrete was produced with nominal mix of 1:2:4 and 0.55 water-cement ratio, prepared, cured and subjected to compressive and tensile strength test at 3, 7, 14, 28 and 90days. The experimental data demonstrate that concrete containing RHA and WWA produced lighter weight in comparison with OPC sample. Results also show that combination of RHA and WWA help to prolong the initial and final setting time by about 10-30% compared to the control sample. Furthermore, compressive strength was increased by 15-30% with 10% RHA and 5% WWA replacement, respectively above the control, RHA and WWA samples. Tensile strength test at the ages of 3, 7, 14, 28 and 90 days reveals that a replacement of 15% RHA and 5% WWA produced samples with the highest tensile capacity compared to the control samples. Thus, it can be concluded that RHA and WWA can be used as partial cement replacement materials in concrete.

Keywords: Concrete, Tensile Strength, compressive strength, rice husk ash, ordinary Portland cement, wood waste ash

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6 Effect of Rice Husk Ash on Properties of Cold Bituminous Emulsion Mix

Authors: Sampada Katekar, Namdeo Hedaoo

Abstract:

Cold Bituminous Emulsion Mixtures (CBEMs) are generally produced by mixing unheated aggregate, binder and filler at ambient temperature. Cold bituminous emulsion mixtures have several environmental and cost-effective benefits. But CBEMs offer poor early life properties too and they require long curing time to achieve maximum strength. The main focus of this study is to overcome inferiority of CBEMs by incorporating Rice Husk Ash (RHA) and Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). In this study, RHA and OPC are substituted for conventional mineral filler in an increased percentage from 0 to 3% with an increment of 1%. Marshall stability, retained stability and tensile strength tests were conducted to evaluate the enhancement in performance of CBEMs. The experimental results have shown that Marshall stability and tensile strength of CBEMs increased significantly by replacing the conventional mineral filler with RHA and OPC. The addition of RHA and OPC in CBEMs result in a reduction in moisture induced damages. However, stability and tensile strength values of RHA modified CBEMs are higher than that of OPC modified CBEMs.

Keywords: rice husk ash, cold bituminous emulsion mixtures, ordinary Portland cement, Marshall stability test

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5 Potential of Rice Husk Ash as a Partial Cement Replacement in Concrete for Highways Application

Authors: Ash Ahmed, Fraser Hyndman, Heni Fitriani, John Kamau

Abstract:

The highway pavement is the biggest structural asset a government can construct and maintain. Concrete rigid pavements are used to carry traffic in large volumes across countries safely and efficiently. Pavement quality concrete mixes have high levels of cement which contribute to up to 10% of global CO₂ emissions. Currently the UK specifies (ground granulated blastfurnace slag) GGBS and (pulverised fuel ash) PFA to reduce the quantity of cement used in pavement construction. GGBS and PFA come from heavy industry that should not be relied upon to improve the sustainability of construction materials. This report shows that cement in pavement quality concrete can be replaced with rice husk ash (RHA) without causing adverse effects to the mechanical properties required for highways. RHA comes from the food production industry and is vital for the growing global population. It is thus a socially responsible objective to use a pozzolan in highway pavement construction that is sourced from an environmentally friendly industry. The report investigates the properties of RHA mixes and compares them to existing pavement quality mixes already used and specified. The report found that sieving RHA and not grinding it gives the best performance. Due to the low density of RHA the investigation found that replacing cement by volume rather than weight provided the best results. Findings showed that CEM II mixed with 20% RHA meets the required specification for pavement quality concrete and mitigates using the comparative CEM I. The investigation also notes that RHA is observed to be more reactive with CEM II rather than CEM I and suits early strength gains required for pavement construction. The report concludes that RHA is a sustainable material that reduces the embodied CO₂ of pavement quality concrete, which is well suited for UK highway specifications and has the potential to improve the lives of people living in the developing countries.

Keywords: Sustainable Concrete, Pavement, pozzolan, rice husk ash

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4 The Effect of Curing Temperature and Rice Husk Ash Addition on the Behaviour of Sulfate-Rich Clay after Lime Stabilization

Authors: E. Bittar, A. Quiñonez, F. Mencia, E. Aguero, M. Delgado, V. Arriola, R. López

Abstract:

In the western region of Paraguay, the poor condition of the roads has negatively affected the development of this zone, where the absence of petrous material has led engineers to opt for the stabilization of soils with lime or cement as the main structure for bases and subbases of these roads. In several areas of this region, high sulfate contents have been found both in groundwater and in soils, which, when reacted with lime or cement, generate a new problem instead of solving it. On the other hand, the use of industrial waste as granulated slag and fly ash proved to be a sustainable practice widely used in the manufacture of cement, and now also, in the stabilization of soils worldwide. Works related to soils containing sulfates stabilized either with granulated slag or fly ash and lime shown a good performance in their mechanical behaviour. This research seeks to evaluate the mechanical behaviour of soils with high contents of sulfates stabilized with lime by curing them both, at the normalized temperature (23 ± 2 °C) and at 40 ± 2 °C. Moreover, it attempts to asses if the addition of rice husk ash has a positive influence on the new geomaterial. The 40 ± 2 °C curing temperature was selected trying to simulate the average local temperature in summer and part of spring session whereas rice husk ash is an affordable waste produced in the region. An extensive experimental work, which includes unconfined compression, durability and free swell tests were carried out considering different dry unit weights, lime content and the addition of 20% of rice husk ash. The results showed that the addition of rice husk ash increases the resistance and durability of the material and decreases the expansion of this, moreover, the specimens cured at a temperature of 40 ± 2 °C showed higher resistance, better durability and lower expansion compared to those cured at the normalized temperature of 23 ± 2 °C.

Keywords: Durability, expansion, rice husk ash, sulfate, lime stabilization

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3 Experimental Investigation on Utilization of Waste Materials in Fly Ash Brick

Authors: S. Southamirajan, D. Dhavashankaran

Abstract:

Fly ash is one of the major residues generated during combustion of coal in thermal power plants. Fly ash brick technology is the process of converting industrial waste materials into quality building material. Another issue in earth is dumping of the Bagasse ash, rice husk ash and copper slag waste. In a growing country like India a huge amount of fly ash waste materials are polluting the environment. The necessity of recycling the materials play a big role in the development of the safe and non- polluted earth. Fly ash, lime, gypsum and quarry dust are used as a replacement material for fly ash. The fly ash was replaced by the Bagasse ash and rice husk ash in the proportion of 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, 10%, 12.5%, 15%, 17.5%, 20%, 22.5%, 25%27.5% and 30%. Two types of fly ash bricks were casted. One type is Bagasse ash replaced fly ash and another type is rice husk ash replaced fly ash bricks then copper slag are partially replaced in quarry dust. The prepared bricks are cured for 7 days and 28 days and dried in regular temperature. The mechanical and durability properties of optimum percentages of Bagasse ash and rice husk ash replaced fly ash bricks. The use of Bagasse ash and rice husk ash provides for considerable value – added utilization of Bagasse and rice husk in bricks and significant reductions in the production of greenhouse gases by the cement industry.

Keywords: fly ash, bricks, rice husk ash, bagasse ash, mechanical & durability properties

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2 Effect of Incineration Temperatures to Time on the Rice Husk Ash Silica Structure: A Comparative Study to the Literature with Experimental Work

Authors: Binyamien Rasoul, Friederike Gunzel, Imran Rafiq

Abstract:

Controlled burning of rice husk can produce amorphous rice husk ash (RHA) with high silica content which can significantly enhance the properties of concrete. This study has been undertaken to investigate the relationship between the incineration temperatures and time to produce RHA with ultimate reactivity. The rice husk samples were incinerated in an electrical muffle furnace at 350°C, 400°C, 425°C 450°C, 475°C, and 500°C for 60 and 90 minutes, respectively. The silica structure in the Rice Husk Ash (RHA) was determined using X-Ray diffraction analysis, while chemical properties obtained using X-Ray Fluorescence. The results show that RHA appeared to be totally amorphous when the husk incineration goes up to 425°C for 60 and even 90 minutes. However, with increased temperature to 450°C, 475°C and 500°C, traces of crystalline silica (quartz) were detected. However, cannot be taken into account as it does not effect on the ash structure. In conclusion, the result gives an idea of the temperature and the time required to produce ash from rice husk with totally amorphous form.

Keywords: X-Ray Diffraction, X-Ray fluorescence, rice husk, rice husk ash, pozzolanic reactivity, burning temperature, electric muffle furnace, crystalline silica

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1 Utilization of Rice Husk Ash with Clay to Produce Lightweight Coarse Aggregates for Concrete

Authors: Shegufta Zahan, Muhammad A. Zahin, Muhammad M. Hossain, Raquib Ahsan

Abstract:

Rice Husk Ash (RHA) is one of the agricultural waste byproducts available widely in the world and contains a large amount of silica. In Bangladesh, stones cannot be used as coarse aggregate in infrastructure works as they are not available and need to be imported from abroad. As a result, bricks are mostly used as coarse aggregates in concrete as they are cheaper and easily produced here. Clay is the raw material for producing brick. Due to rapid urban growth and the industrial revolution, demand for brick is increasing, which led to a decrease in the topsoil. This study aims to produce lightweight block aggregates with sufficient strength utilizing RHA at low cost and use them as an ingredient of concrete. RHA, because of its pozzolanic behavior, can be utilized to produce better quality block aggregates at lower cost, replacing clay content in the bricks. The whole study can be divided into three parts. In the first part, characterization tests on RHA and clay were performed to determine their properties. Six different types of RHA from different mills were characterized by XRD and SEM analysis. Their fineness was determined by conducting a fineness test. The result of XRD confirmed the amorphous state of RHA. The characterization test for clay identifies the sample as “silty clay” with a specific gravity of 2.59 and 14% optimum moisture content. In the second part, blocks were produced with six different types of RHA with different combinations by volume with clay. Then mixtures were manually compacted in molds before subjecting them to oven drying at 120 °C for 7 days. After that, dried blocks were placed in a furnace at 1200 °C to produce ultimate blocks. Loss on ignition test, apparent density test, crushing strength test, efflorescence test, and absorption test were conducted on the blocks to compare their performance with the bricks. For 40% of RHA, the crushing strength result was found 60 MPa, where crushing strength for brick was observed 48.1 MPa. In the third part, the crushed blocks were used as coarse aggregate in concrete cylinders and compared them with brick concrete cylinders. Specimens were cured for 7 days and 28 days. The highest compressive strength of block cylinders for 7 days curing was calculated as 26.1 MPa, whereas, for 28 days curing, it was found 34 MPa. On the other hand, for brick cylinders, the value of compressing strength of 7 days and 28 days curing was observed as 20 MPa and 30 MPa, respectively. These research findings can help with the increasing demand for topsoil of the earth, and also turn a waste product into a valuable one.

Keywords: Characterization, Furnace, rice husk ash, pozzolanic behavior

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