Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

rhodamine B Related Abstracts

4 Semiconductor Supported Gold Nanoparticles for Photodegradation of Rhodamine B

Authors: Ahmad Alshammari, Abdulaziz Bagabas, Muhamad Assulami


Rhodamine B (RB) is a toxic dye used extensively in textile industry, which must be remediated before its drainage to the environment. In the present study, supported gold nanoparticles on commercially available titania and zincite were successfully prepared and then their activity on the photodegradation of RB under UV-A light irradiation were evaluated. The synthesized photocatalysts were characterized by ICP, BET, XRD, and TEM. Kinetic results showed that Au/TiO2 was an inferior photocatalyst to Au/ZnO. This observation could be attributed to the strong reflection of UV irradiation by gold nanoparticles over TiO2 support.

Keywords: Photodegradation, supported AuNPs, semiconductor photocatalyst, rhodamine B

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3 Removal of Rhodamine B from Aqueous Solution Using Natural Clay by Fixed Bed Column Method

Authors: A. Ghribi, M. Bagane


The discharge of dye in industrial effluents is of great concern because their presence and accumulation have a toxic or carcinogenic effect on living species. The removal of such compounds at such low levels is a difficult problem. The adsorption process is an effective and attractive proposition for the treatment of dye contaminated wastewater. Activated carbon adsorption in fixed beds is a very common technology in the treatment of water and especially in processes of decolouration. However, it is expensive and the powdered one is difficult to be separated from aquatic system when it becomes exhausted or the effluent reaches the maximum allowable discharge level. The regeneration of exhausted activated carbon by chemical and thermal procedure is also expensive and results in loss of the sorbent. The focus of this research was to evaluate the adsorption potential of the raw clay in removing rhodamine B from aqueous solutions using a laboratory fixed-bed column. The continuous sorption process was conducted in this study in order to simulate industrial conditions. The effect of process parameters, such as inlet flow rate, adsorbent bed height, and initial adsorbate concentration on the shape of breakthrough curves was investigated. A glass column with an internal diameter of 1.5 cm and height of 30 cm was used as a fixed-bed column. The pH of feed solution was set at 8.5. Experiments were carried out at different bed heights (5 - 20 cm), influent flow rates (1.6- 8 mL/min) and influent rhodamine B concentrations (20 - 80 mg/L). The obtained results showed that the adsorption capacity increases with the bed depth and the initial concentration and it decreases at higher flow rate. The column regeneration was possible for four adsorption–desorption cycles. The clay column study states the value of the excellent adsorption capacity for the removal of rhodamine B from aqueous solution. Uptake of rhodamine B through a fixed-bed column was dependent on the bed depth, influent rhodamine B concentration, and flow rate.

Keywords: Adsorption, Regeneration, Clay, fixed bed column, rhodamine B, breakthrough curve

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2 Azadrachea indica Leaves Extract Assisted Green Synthesis of Ag-TiO₂ for Degradation of Dyes in Aqueous Medium

Authors: Muhammad Saeed, Sheeba Khalid


Aqueous pollution due to the textile industry is an important issue. Photocatalysis using metal oxides as catalysts is one of the methods used for eradication of dyes from textile industrial effluents. In this study, the synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of photocatalytic activity of Ag-TiO₂ are reported. TiO₂ catalysts with 2, 4, 6 and 8% loading of Ag were prepared by green methods using Azadrachea indica leaves' extract as reducing agent and titanium dioxide and silver nitrate as precursor materials. The 4% Ag-TiO₂ exhibited the best catalytic activity for degradation of dyes. Prepared catalyst was characterized by advanced techniques. Catalytic degradation of methylene blue and rhodamine B were carried out in Pyrex glass batch reactor. Deposition of Ag greatly enhanced the catalytic efficiency of TiO₂ towards degradation of dyes. Irradiation of catalyst excites electrons from conduction band of catalyst to valence band yielding an electron-hole pair. These photoexcited electrons and positive hole undergo secondary reaction and produce OH radicals. These active radicals take part in the degradation of dyes. More than 90% of dyes were degraded in 120 minutes. It was found that there was no loss catalytic efficiency of prepared Ag-TiO₂ after recycling it for two times. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue and rhodamine B followed Eley-Rideal mechanism which states that dye reacts in fluid phase with adsorbed oxygen. 27 kJ/mol and 20 kJ/mol were found as activation energy for photodegradation of methylene blue and rhodamine B dye respectively.

Keywords: TiO2, methylene blue, rhodamine B, Ag-TiO2, photo degradation

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1 Application of Synthetic Monomers Grafted Xanthan Gum for Rhodamine B Removal in Aqueous Solution

Authors: A. Bandyopadhyay, T. Moremedi, L. Katata-Seru, S. Sardar, E. Makhado, M. Joseph Hato


The rapid industrialisation and population growth have led to a steady fall in freshwater supplies worldwide. As a result, water systems are affected by modern methods upon use due to secondary contamination. The application of novel adsorbents derived from natural polymer holds a great promise in addressing challenges in water treatment. In this study, the UV irradiation technique was used to prepare acrylamide (AAm) monomer, and acrylic acid (AA) monomer grafted xanthan gum (XG) copolymer. Furthermore, the factors affecting rhodamine B (RhB) adsorption from aqueous media, such as pH, dosage, concentration, and time were also investigated. The FTIR results confirmed the formation of graft copolymer by the strong vibrational bands at 1709 cm-1 and 1612 cm-1 for AA and AAm, respectively. Additionally, more irregular, porous and wrinkled surface observed from SEM of XG-g-AAm/AA indicated copolymerization interaction of monomers. The optimum conditions for removing RhB dye with a maximum adsorption capacity of 313 mg/g at 25 0C from aqueous solution were pH approximately 5, initial dye concentration = 200 ppm, adsorbent dose = 30 mg. Also, the detailed investigation of the isothermal and adsorption kinetics of RhB from aqueous solution showed that the adsorption of the dye followed a Freundlich model (R2 = 0.96333) and pseudo-second-order kinetics. The results further indicated that this absorbent based on XG had the universality to remove dye through the mechanism of chemical adsorption. The outstanding adsorption potential of the grafted copolymer could be used to remove cationic dyes from aqueous solution as a low-cost product.

Keywords: adsorbents, rhodamine B, freundlich, xanthan gum

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