Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 23

Rheumatoid Arthritis Related Abstracts

23 Determination of Cyclic Citrullinated Peptide Antibodies on Quartz Crystal Microbalance Based Nanosensors

Authors: Y. Saylan, F. Yılmaz, A. Denizli

Abstract:

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) which is the most common autoimmune disorder of the body's own immune system attacking healthy cells. RA has both articular and systemic effects.Until now romatiod factor (RF) assay is used the most commonly diagnosed RA but it is not specific. Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibodies are IgG autoantibodies which recognize citrullinated peptides and offer improved specificity in early diagnosis of RA compared to RF. Anti-CCP antibodies have specificity for the diagnosis of RA from 91 to 98% and the sensitivity rate of 41-68%. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) are materials that are easy to prepare, less expensive, stable have a talent for molecular recognition and also can be manufactured in large quantities with good reproducibility. Molecular recognition-based adsorption techniques have received much attention in several fields because of their high selectivity for target molecules. Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) is an effective, simple, inexpensive approach mass changes that can be converted into an electrical signal. The applications for specific determination of chemical substances or biomolecules, crystal electrodes, cover by the thin films for bind or adsorption of molecules. In this study, we have focused our attention on combining of molecular imprinting into nanofilms and QCM nanosensor approaches and producing QCM nanosensor for anti-CCP, chosen as a model protein, using anti-CCP imprinted nanofilms. For this aim, anti-CCP imprinted QCM nanosensor was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, contact angle measurements and ellipsometry. The non-imprinted nanosensor was also prepared to evaluate the selectivity of the imprinted nanosensor. Anti-CCP imprinted QCM nanosensor was tested for real-time detection of anti-CCP from aqueous solution. The kinetic and affinity studies were determined by using anti-CCP solutions with different concentrations. The responses related with mass shifts (Δm) and frequency shifts (Δf) were used to evaluate adsorption properties and to calculate binding (Ka) and dissociation (Kd) constants. To show the selectivity of the anti-CCP imprinted QCM nanosensor, competitive adsorption of anti-CCP and IgM was investigated.The results indicate that anti-CCP imprinted QCM nanosensor has a higher adsorption capabilities for anti-CCP than for IgM, due to selective cavities in the polymer structure.

Keywords: Rheumatoid Arthritis, molecular imprinting, nanosensor, anti-CCP, QCM

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22 The Role of Neuroserpin in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

Authors: Sevil Arabaci Tamer, Gonul Gurol, Ibrahim Tekeoglu, Halil Harman, Ihsan Hakki Ciftci

Abstract:

Neuroserpin (NSP) is a serine protease inhibitor and member of the serpin family. It is expressed in developing and adult nervous systems, and acts as an inhibitor of protease tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and a regulator of neuronal growth and plasticity. Also NSP displays anti-inflammatory activity. But, its role in rheumatoid arthritis had never been studied before. So, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of neuroserpin in patients with RA. A total of 50 frozen (-20 ºC) serum samples 40 of them belonged to patients with RA, and 10 sample belonged to healthy subjects, were enrolled prospectively. We used DAS-28 to evaluate disease activity. The following clinical data gathered from the original patients' charts. Serum neuroserpin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our preliminary study results demonstrate, for the first time, that NSP levels are significantly different in RA patients relative to healthy subjects (P = 0.014). So, NSP contribute to pathological condition of RA. Thus, we believe that serum NSP levels can be as a marker in patients with RA. However other inflammatory diseases should be further investigated.

Keywords: Rheumatoid Arthritis, neuroserpin, tPA, tPA inhibitor

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21 Intelligent Rheumatoid Arthritis Identification System Based Image Processing and Neural Classifier

Authors: Abdulkader Helwan

Abstract:

Rheumatoid joint inflammation is characterized as a perpetual incendiary issue which influences the joints by hurting body tissues Therefore, there is an urgent need for an effective intelligent identification system of knee Rheumatoid arthritis especially in its early stages. This paper is to develop a new intelligent system for the identification of Rheumatoid arthritis of the knee utilizing image processing techniques and neural classifier. The system involves two principle stages. The first one is the image processing stage in which the images are processed using some techniques such as RGB to gryascale conversion, rescaling, median filtering, background extracting, images subtracting, segmentation using canny edge detection, and features extraction using pattern averaging. The extracted features are used then as inputs for the neural network which classifies the X-ray knee images as normal or abnormal (arthritic) based on a backpropagation learning algorithm which involves training of the network on 400 X-ray normal and abnormal knee images. The system was tested on 400 x-ray images and the network shows good performance during that phase, resulting in a good identification rate 97%.

Keywords: Segmentation, Rheumatoid Arthritis, intelligent identification, neural classifier, backpropoagation

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20 Autonomic Nervous System Changes Associated with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Clinical and Electrophysiological Study

Authors: Emmanuel Kamal Aziz Saba, Hussein Al-Moghazy Sultan

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to evaluate clinically and electro physiologically the autonomic nervous system changes associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The present study included 25 patients with RA [22 women (88%)] and 30 apparently healthy control subjects [27 women (90%)]. A thorough clinical examination was carried out. Disease activity and functional disability were assessed. Tests for assessment of autonomic functions include active and passive orthostatic stress tests, and sympathetic skin response (SSR). The presence of abnormality in 2 tests or more was a clue for the presence of autonomic neuropathy (AN). Sural sensory nerve conduction study and posterior tibial motor nerve conduction study were done. There was a statistically significant decrease in standing systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) components of the active orthostatic stress test and SSR amplitude as well as statistically significant prolongation of SSR latency of RA patients when compared to control. Three patients (12%) had clinical symptoms suggestive of AN; increased to 14 patients (56 %) when orthostatic stress tests and SSR were utilized. There were no statistically significant differences between patients with different disease activity score 28 with 4 variables grades of RA activity and SSR latency and amplitude. There were no statistically significant differences between patients with different Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index grades of RA functional disability and SSR latency and amplitude. In conclusion, autonomic neuropathy is a common extra-articular manifestation of RA affecting sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers.

Keywords: Rheumatoid Arthritis, autonomic neuropathy, orthostatic stress test, sympathetic skin response

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19 Anti-Arthritic Effect of a Herbal Diet Formula Comprising Fruits of Rosa Multiflora and Flowers of Lonicera Japonica

Authors: Brian Chi Yan Cheng, Hui Guo, Tao Su, Xiu‐qiong Fu, Ting Li, Zhi‐ling Yu

Abstract:

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) affects around 1% of the globe population. Yet, there is still no cure for RA. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signalling has been found to be involved in the pathogenesis of RA, making it a potential therapeutic target for RA treatment. A herbal formula (RL) consisting of fruits of Rosa Multiflora (Eijitsu rose) and flowers of Lonicera Japonica (Japanese honeysuckle) has been used in treating various inflammatory disorders for more than a thousand year. Both of them are rich sources of nutrients and bioactive phytochemicals, which can be used in producing different food products and supplements. In this study, we would evaluate the anti-arthritic effect of RL on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in rats and investigate the involvement of TLR4 signaling in the mode of action of RL. Anti-arthritic efficacy was evaluated using CIA rats induced by bovine type II collagen. The treatment groups were treated with RL (82.5, 165, and 330 mg/kg bw per day, p.o.) or positive control indomethacin (0.25 mg/kg bw per day, p.o.) for 35 days. Clinical signs (hind paw volume and arthritis severity scores), changes in serum inflammatory mediators, pro-/antioxidant status, histological and radiographic changes of joints were investigated. Spleens and peritoneal macrophages were used to determine the effects of RL on innate and adaptive immune responses in CIA rats. The involvement of TLR4 signalling pathways in the anti-arthritic effect of RL was examined in cartilage tissue of CIA rats, murine RAW264.7 macrophages and human THP-1 monocytic cells. The severity of arthritis in the CIA rats was significantly attenuated by RL. Antioxidant status, histological score and radiographic score were efficiently improved by RL. RL could also dose-dependently inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokines in serum of CIA rats. RL significantly inhibited the production of various pro-inflammatory mediators, the expression and/or activity of the components of TLR4 signalling pathways in animal tissue and cell lines. RL possesses anti-arthritic effect on collagen-induced arthritis in rats. The therapeutic effect of RL may be related to its inhibition on pro-inflammatory cytokines in serum. The inhibition of the TAK1/NF-κB and TAK1/MAPK pathways participate in the anti-arthritic effects of RL. This provides a pharmacological justification for the dietary use of RL in the control of various arthritic diseases. Further investigation should be done to develop RL into a anti-arthritic food products and/or supplements.

Keywords: Rheumatoid Arthritis, japanese honeysuckle, rosa multiflora, rosehip

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18 The Effects of Orally Administered Bacillus Coagulans and Inulin on Prevention and Progression of Rheumatoid Arthritis in Rats

Authors: Khadijeh Abhari, Seyed Shahram Shekarforoush, Saeid Hosseinzadeh

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Probiotics have been considered as an approach to treat and prevent a wide range of inflammatory diseases. The spore forming probiotic strain Bacillus coagulans has demonstrated anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating effects in both animals and humans. The prebiotic, inulin, also potentially affects the immune system as a result of the change in the composition or fermentation profile of the gastrointestinal microbiota. An in vivo trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of probiotic B. coagulans, and inulin, either separately or in combination, on down regulate immune responses and progression of rheumatoid arthritis using induced arthritis rat model. Forty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups and fed as follow: 1) control: Normal healthy rats fed by standard diet, 2) Disease control (RA): Arthritic induced (RA) rats fed by standard diet, 3) Prebiotic (PRE): RA+ 5% w/w long chain inulin, 4) Probiotic (PRO): RA+ 109 spores/day B. coagulans by orogastric gavage, 5) Synbiotic (SYN): RA+ 5% w/w long chain inulin and 109 spores/day B. coagulans and 6) Treatment control: (INDO): RA+ 3 mg/kg/day indomethacin by orogastric gavage. Feeding with mentioned diets started on day 0 and continued to the end of study. On day 14, rats were injected with complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) to induce arthritis. Arthritis activity was evaluated by biochemical parameters and paw thickness. Biochemical assay for Fibrinogen (Fn), Serum Amyloid A (SAA), TNF-α and Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (α1AGp) was performed on day 21, 28 and 35 (1, 2 and 3 weeks post RA induction). Pretreatment with PRE, PRO and SYN diets significantly inhibit SAA and Fn production in arthritic rats (P < 0.001). A significant decrease in production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α, was seen in PRE, PRO and SYN groups (P < 0.001) which was similar to the effect of the anti-inflammatory drug Indomethacin. Further, there were no significant anti-inflammatory effects observed following different treatments using α1AGp as a RA indicator. Pretreatment with all supplied diets significantly inhibited the development of paw swelling induced by CFA (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Results of this study support that oral intake of probiotic B. coagulans and inulin are able to improve biochemical and clinical parameters of induced RA in rat.

Keywords: Rheumatoid Arthritis, inulin, animal model, bacillus coagulans

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17 Revision of Arthroplasty in Rheumatoid and Osteoarthritis: Methotrexate and Radiographic Lucency in RA Patients

Authors: Mike T. Wei, Douglas N. Mintz, Lisa A. Mandl, Arielle W. Fein, Jayme C. Burket, Yuo-Yu Lee, Wei-Ti Huang, Vivian P. Bykerk, Mark P. Figgie, Edward F. Di Carlo, Bruce N. Cronstein, Susan M. Goodman

Abstract:

Background/Purpose: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients have excellent total hip arthroplasty (THA) survival, and methotrexate (MTX), an anti-inflammatory disease modifying drug which may affect bone reabsorption, may play a role. The purpose of this study is to determine the diagnosis leading to revision THA (rTHA) in RA patients and to assess the association of radiographic lucency with MTX use. Methods: All patients with validated diagnosis of RA in the institution’s THA registry undergoing rTHA from May 2007 - February 2011 were eligible. Diagnosis leading to rTHA and medication use was determined by chart review. Osteolysis was evaluated on available radiographs by measuring maximum lucency in each Gruen zone. Differences within RA patients with/without MTX in osteolysis, demographics, and medications were assessed with chi-squared, Fisher's exact tests or Mann-Whitney U tests as appropriate. The error rate for multiple comparisons of lucency in the different Gruen zones was corrected via false discovery rate methods. A secondary analysis was performed to determine differences in diagnoses leading to revision between RA and matched OA controls (2:1 match by sex age +/- 5 years). OA exclusion criteria included presence of rheumatic diseases, use of MTX, and lack of records. Results: 51 RA rTHA were identified and compared with 103 OA. Mean age for RA was 57.7 v 59.4 years for OA (p = 0.240). 82.4% RA were female v 83.5% OA (p = 0.859). RA had lower BMI than OA (25.5 v 28.2; p = 0.166). There was no difference in diagnosis leading to rTHA, including infection (RA 3.9 v OA 6.8%; p = 0.719) or dislocation (RA 23.5 v OA 23.3%; p = 0.975). There was no significant difference in the length of time the implant was in before revision: RA 11.0 v OA 8.8 years (p = 0.060). Among RA with/without MTX, there was no difference in use of biologics (30.0 v 43.3%, p = 0.283), steroids (47.6 v 50.0%, p = 0.867) or bisphosphonates (23.8 v 33.3%, p = 0.543). There was no difference in rTHA diagnosis with/without MTX, including loosening (52.4 v 56.7%, p = 0.762). There was no significant difference in lucencies with MTX use in any Gruen zone. Patients with MTX had femoral stem subsidence of 3.7mm v no subsidence without MTX (p = 0.006). Conclusion: There was no difference in the diagnosis leading to rTHR in RA and OA, although RA trended longer prior to rTHA. In this small retrospective study, there were no significant differences associated with MTX exposure or radiographic lucency among RA patients. The significance of subsidence is not clear. Further study of arthroplasty survival in RA patients is warranted.

Keywords: Rheumatoid Arthritis, methotrexate, hip arthroplasty, revision arthroplasty

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16 Ameliorative Effect of Martynia annua Linn. on Collagen-Induced Arthritis via Modulating Cytokines and Oxidative Stress in Mice

Authors: Santram Lodhi, Alok Pal Jain

Abstract:

Martynia annua Linn. (Martyniaccae) is traditionally used in inflammation and applied locally to tuberculosis glands of camel’s neck. The leaves used topically to bites of venomous insects and wounds of domestic animals. Chemical examination of Martynia annua leaves revealed the presence of glycosides, tannins, proteins, phenols and flavonoids. The present study was aimed to evaluate the anti-arthritic activity of methanolic extract of Martynia annua leaves. Methanolic extract of Martynia annua leaves was tested by using in vivo collagen-induced arthritis mouse model to investigate the anti-rheumatoid arthritis activity. In addition, antioxidant effect of methanolic extract was determined by the estimation of antioxidants level in joint tissues. The severity of arthritis was assessed by arthritis score and edema. Levels of cytokines TNF-α and IL-6, in the joint tissue homogenate were measured using ELISA. A high dose (250 mg/kg) of methanolic extract was significantly reduced the degree of inflammation in mice as compared with reference drug. Antioxidants level and malondialdehyde (MDA) in joint tissue homogenate found significantly (p < 0.05) higher. Methanolic extract at dose of 250 mg/kg modulated the cytokines production and suppressed the oxidative stress in the mice with collagen-induced arthritis. This study suggested that Martynia annua might be alternative herbal medicine for the management of rheumatoid arthritis.

Keywords: Antioxidants, Rheumatoid Arthritis, collagen, Martynia annua

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15 Correlative Study of Serum Interleukin-18 and Disease Activity, Functional Disability and Quality of Life in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

Authors: Emmanuel Kamal Aziz Saba, Hamdy Khamis Korayem, Manal Yehia Tayel, Abeer Shawky El Hadedy, Shimaa Badr Abdelnaby Badr

Abstract:

The aim of the current study was to demonstrate whether serum Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is increased in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and its correlation with disease activity, functional disability and quality of life in RA patients. The study included 30 RA patients and 20 healthy normal control subjects. The RA patients were diagnosed according to the 2010 ACR/EULAR classification criteria for RA with the exclusion of those who had diabetes mellitus, endocrine disorders, associated rheumatologic diseases, viral hepatitis B or C and other diseases with increased serum IL-18 level. All patients were subjected to clinical evaluation of the musculoskeletal system. Disease activity was assessed by disease activity score 28 with 4 variables (DAS 28). Functional disability was assessed by health assessment questionnaire disability index (HAQ-DI). The quality of life was assessed by Short form-36 (SF-36) questionnaire. Radiological assessment of both hands and feet by Sharp/van der Heijde (SvH) scoring method. Laboratory parameters including erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody (ACPA) were assessed in patients and serum level of IL-18 in both patients and control subjects. There was no statistically significant difference between patient and control group as regards age and sex. Among patients, 29 % were females and the age range was between 25 to 55 years. Extra-articular manifestations were presented in 56.7% of the patients. The mean of DAS 28 score was 5.73±1.46 and that of HAQ-DI was 1.22±0.72 while that of SF-36 was 40.03±13.96. The level of serum IL-18 was significantly higher in patients than in the control subjects (P= 0.030). Serum IL-18 was correlated with ACPA among the patient group. There were no statistically significant correlations between serum IL-18 and DAS28, HAQ-DI, SF-36, total SvH score and the other laboratory results. In conclusion, IL-18 is significantly higher in RA patient than in healthy control subjects and positively correlated with ACPA level. IL-18 is associated with extra-articular manifestations. However, it is not correlated with other laboratory parameters, disease activity, functional disability, quality of life nor radiological severity.

Keywords: Rheumatoid Arthritis, disease activity score, Interleukin-18, quality of life assessment

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14 The Clinical Effectiveness of Off-The-Shelf Foot Orthoses on the Dynamics of Gait in Patients with Early Rheumatoid Arthritis

Authors: Vicki Cameron

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Background: Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) typically effects the feet and about 20% of patients present initially with foot and ankle symptoms. Custom moulded foot orthoses (FO) in the management of foot and ankle problems in RA is well documented in the literature. Off-the-shelf FO are thought to provide an effective alternative to custom moulded FO in patients with RA, however they are not evidence based. Objectives: To determine the effects of off-the-shelf FO on; 1. quality of life (QOL) 2. walking speed 4. peak plantar pressure in the forefoot (PPPft) Methods: Thirty-five patients (six male and 29 female) participated in the study from 11/2006 to 07/2008. The age of the patients ranged from 26 to 80 years (mean 52.4 years; standard deviation [SD] 13.3 years). A repeated measures design was used, with patients presenting at baseline, three months and six months. Patients were tested walking barefoot, shod and shod with FO. The type of orthoses used was the Slimflex Plastic ® (Algeos). The Leeds Foot Impact Scale (LFIS) was used to investigate QOL. The Vicon 612 motion analysis system was used to determine the effect of FO on walking speed. The F-scan walkway and in-shoe systems provided information of the effect on PPPft. Ethical approval was obtained on 07/2006. Data was analysed using SPSS version 15.0. Results/Discussion: The LFIS data was analysed with a repeated measures ANOVA. There was a significant improvement in the LFIS score with the use of the FO over the six months (p<0.01). A significant increase in walking speed with the orthoses was observed (p<0.01). Peak plantar pressure in the forefoot was reduced with the FO, as shown by a non-parametric Friedman’s test (chi-square = 55.314, df=2, p<0.05). Conclusion: The results show that off-the-shelf FO are effective in managing foot problems in patients with RA. Patients reported an improved QOL with the orthoses, and further objective measurements were quantified to provide a rationale for this change. Patients demonstrated an increased walking speed, which has been shown to be associated with reduced pain. The FO decreased PPPft which have been reported as a site of pain and ulceration in patients with RA. Salient Clinical Points: Off-the-shelf FO offer an effective alternative to custom moulded FO, and can be dispensed at the chair side. This is crucial in the management of foot problems associated with RA as early intervention is advocated due to the chronic and progressive nature of the disease.

Keywords: Podiatry, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Gait Analysis, foot orthoses

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13 Epidemiological Analysis of the Patients Supplied with Foot Orthoses in Ortho-Prosthetic Center of Kosovo

Authors: Ardiana Murtezani, Ilirijana Dallku, Teuta Osmani Vllasolli, Sabit Sllamniku

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Background: The use of foot orthoses are always indicated when there are alterations of the optimal biomechanics' position of the foot. Orthotics are very effective and very suitable for the majority of patients with pain due to overload which can be related to biomechanical disorders. Aim: To assess the frequency of patients requiring foot orthoses, type of orthoses and analysis of their disease leading to the use of foot orthoses. Material and Methods: Our study included 128 patients with various foot pathologies, treated at the outpatient department of the Ortho-Prosthetic Center of Kosovo (OPCK) in Prishtina. Prospective-descriptive clinical method was used during this study. Functional status of patients was examined, and the following parameters are noted: range of motion measurements for the affected joints/lower extremities, manual test for muscular strength below the knee and foot of the affected extremity, perimeter measurements of the lower extremities, measurements of lower extremities, foot length measurement, foot width measurements and size. In order to complete the measurements the following instruments are used: plantogram, pedogram, meter and cork shoe lift appliances. Results: The majority of subjects in this study are male (60.2% vs. 39.8%), and the dominant age group was 0-9 (47.7%), 61 subjects respectively. Most frequent foot disorders were: congenital disease 60.1%, trauma cases 13.3%, consequences from rheumatologic disease 12.5%, neurologic dysfunctions 11.7%, and the less frequented are the infectious cases 1.6%. Congenital anomalies were the most frequent cases, and from this group majority of cases suffered from pes planovalgus (37.5%), eqinovarus (15.6%) and discrepancies between extremities (6.3%). Furthermore, traumatic amputations (2.3%) and arthritis (0.8%). As far as neurologic disease, subjects with cerebral palsy are represented with (3.1%), peroneal nerve palsy (2.3%) and hemiparesis (1.6%). Infectious disease osteomyelitis sequels are represented with (1.6%). Conclusion: Based on our study results, we have concluded that the use of foot orthoses for patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis and nonspecific arthropaty was effective treatment choice, leading to decrease of pain, less deformities and improves the quality of life.

Keywords: Rehabilitation, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Orthoses, epidemiological analysis

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12 Level of Reactive Oxygen Species and Inflammatory Cytokines in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients: Correlation with Disease Severity

Authors: Atif Zafar, Somaiya Mateen, Shagufta Moin, Mohammad Owais, Abdul Khan

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In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), impaired oxidative metabolism and imbalance between pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines are responsible for causing inflammation and the degradation of cartilage and bone. The present study was done to evaluate the level and hence the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory cytokines in the pathogenesis of RA. The present study was performed in the blood of 80 RA patients and 55 age and sex-matched healthy controls. The level of ROS (in 5% hematocrit) and the plasma level of pro-inflammatory cytokines [TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-22] and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4 and IL-5) were monitored in healthy subjects and RA patients. For evaluating the role of rheumatoid factor (RF) in the pathogenesis of RA, patients were sub-divided on the basis of presence or absence of RF. Reactive species and inflammatory cytokines were correlated with disease activity measure-Disease Activity Score for 28 joints (DAS28). The level of ROS, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-22 were found to be significantly higher in RA patients as compared to the healthy controls, with the increase being more significant in patients positive for rheumatoid factor and those having high disease severity. On the other hand, a significant decrease in the level of IL-4 and IL-10 were observed in RA patients compared with healthy controls, with the decrease being more prominent in severe cases of RA. Higher ROS (indicative of impaired anti-oxidant defence system) and pro-inflammatory cytokines level in RA patients may lead to the damage of biomolecules which in turn contributes to tissue damage and hence to the development of more severe RA. The imbalance between pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines may lead to the development of multi-system immune complications. ROS and inflammatory cytokines may also serve as a potential biomarker for assessing the disease severity.

Keywords: Rheumatoid Arthritis, reactive oxygen species, pro-inflammatory cytokines, anti-inflammatory cytokines

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11 Role of Moderate Intensity Exercises in the Amelioration of Oxidant-Antioxidant Status and the Levels of Inflammatory Cytokines in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

Authors: Atif Zafar, Abdul Qayyum, Somaiya Mateen, Shagufta Moin

Abstract:

Cytokines and reactive species play an important role in the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study was done to determine the levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS), inflammatory cytokines and the markers of protein, DNA and lipid oxidation in the blood of RA patients, with the aim to study the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory role of moderate intensity exercises in the management of RA. RA patients were subdivided into two groups- first group (n=30) received treatment with conventional RA drugs while the second group (n=30) received moderate exercise therapy along with the conventional drugs for a period of 12 weeks. The levels of ROS, RNS, inflammatory cytokines and markers of biomolecule oxidation were monitored before and after 12 weeks of treatment. RA patients showed a marked increase in the levels of ROS, RNS, inflammatory cytokines, lipid, protein and DNA oxidation as compared to the healthy controls. These parameters were ameliorated after treatment with drugs alone and exercise combined with drugs, with the amelioration being more significant in patients given drugs along with the moderate intensity exercise treatment. In conclusion, the role of ROS, RNS and inflammatory cytokines in the pathogenesis of RA has been confirmed by this study. These may also serve as potential biomarker for assessing the disease severity. Finally, the addition of moderate intensity exercises in the management of RA may be of great value.

Keywords: Rheumatoid Arthritis, reactive oxygen species, inflammatory cytokines, moderate intensity exercises

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10 Quantitative Elemental Analysis of Cyperus rotundus Medicinal Plant by Particle Induced X-Ray Emission and ICP-MS Techniques

Authors: J. Chandrasekhar Rao, B. G. Naidu, G. J. Naga Raju, P. Sarita

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Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) techniques have been employed in this work to determine the elements present in the root of Cyperus rotundus medicinal plant used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The elements V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, and Sr were commonly identified and quantified by both PIXE and ICP-MS whereas the elements Li, Be, Al, As, Se, Ag, Cd, Ba, Tl, Pb and U were determined by ICP-MS and Cl, K, Ca, Ti and Br were determined by PIXE. The regional variation of elemental content has also been studied by analyzing the same plant collected from different geographical locations. Information on the elemental content of the medicinal plant would be helpful in correlating its ability in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and also in deciding the dosage of this herbal medicine from the metal toxicity point of view. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis were also applied to the data matrix to understand the correlation among the elements.

Keywords: Rheumatoid Arthritis, elements, cyperus rotundus, PIXE, CP-MS

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9 Comparative Evaluation of Seropositivity and Patterns Distribution Rates of the Anti-Nuclear Antibodies in the Diagnosis of Four Different Autoimmune Collagen Tissue Diseases

Authors: Recep Kesli, Cengiz Demir, Onur Turkyilmaz

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Objective: Autoimmune collagen diseases occur with the immune reactions against the body’s own cell or tissues which cause inflammation and damage the tissues and organs. In this study, it was aimed to compare seropositivity rates and patterns of the anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) in the diagnosis of four different autoimmune collagen tissue diseases (Rheumatoid Arthritis-RA, Systemic Lupus Erythematous-SLE, Scleroderma-SSc and Sjogren Syndrome-SS) with each other. Methods: One hundred eighty-eight patients applied to different clinics in Afyon Kocatepe University ANS Practice and Research Hospital between 11.07.2014 and 14.07.2015 that thought the different collagen disease such as RA, SLE, SSc and SS have participated in the study retrospectively. All the data obtained from the patients participated in the study were evaluated according to the included criteria. The historical archives belonging to the patients have been screened, assessed in terms of ANA positivity. The obtained data was analysed by using the descriptive statistics; chi-squared, Fischer's exact test. The evaluations were performed by SPSS 20.0 version and p < 0.05 level was considered as significant. Results: Distribution rates of the totally one hundred eighty-eight patients according to the diagnosis were found as follows: 82 (43.6%) were RA, 38 (20.2%) were SLE, 22 (11.7%) were SSc, and 46 (24.5%) were SS. Distribution of ANA positivity rates according to the collagen tissue diseases were found as follows; for RA were 54 (65,9 %), for SLE were 36 (94,7 %), for SSc were 18 (81,8 %), and for SS were 43 (93,5 %). Rheumatoid arthritis should be evaluated and classified as a different class among all the other investigated three autoimmune illnesses. ANA positivity rates were found as differently higher (91.5 %) in the SLE, SSc, and SS, from the RA (65.9 %). Differences at ANA positivity rates for RA and the other three diseases were found as statistically significant (p=0.015). Conclusions: Systemic autoimmune illnesses show broad spectrum. ANA positivity was found as an important predictor marker in the diagnosis of the rheumatologic illnesses. ANA positivity should be evaluated as more valuable and sensitive a predictor diagnostic marker in the laboratory findings of the SLE, SSc, and SS according to RA.

Keywords: scleroderma, Rheumatoid Arthritis, antinuclear antibody (ANA), Sjogren syndrome, systemic lupus Erythemotosus

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8 Polymer Nanocarrier for Rheumatoid Arthritis Therapy

Authors: Vijayakameswara Rao Neralla, Jueun Jeon, Jae Hyung Park

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To develop a potential nanocarrier for diagnosis and treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), we prepared a hyaluronic acid (HA)-5β-cholanic acid (CA) conjugate with an acid-labile ketal linker. This conjugate could self-assemble in aqueous conditions to produce pH-responsive HA-CA nanoparticles as potential carriers of the anti-inflammatory drug methotrexate (MTX). MTX was rapidly released from nanoparticles under inflamed synovial tissue in RA. In vitro cytotoxicity data showed that pH-responsive HA-CA nanoparticles were non-toxic to RAW 264.7 cells. In vivo biodistribution results confirmed that, after their systemic administration, pH-responsive HA-CA nanoparticles selectively accumulated in the inflamed joints of collagen-induced arthritis mice. These results indicate that pH-responsive HA-CA nanoparticles represent a promising candidate as a drug carrier for RA therapy.

Keywords: Self-Assembly, Rheumatoid Arthritis, hyaluronic acid, nanocarrier, MTX

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7 Laser Therapy in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Clinical Trial

Authors: Joao Paulo Matheus, Renan Fangel

Abstract:

Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic, inflammatory, systemic and progressive disease that affects the synovial joints bilaterally, causing definitive orthopedic damage. It has a higher prevalence in postmenopausal female patients. It is a disabling disease that causes joint deformities that may compromise the functionality of the affected segment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of low-intensity therapeutic laser on the perception of pain and quality of life in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. This is a randomized clinical study involving 6 women with a mean age of 56.8+6.3 years. Exclusion criteria: patients with acute pain, chronic infectious disease, underlying acute or chronic underlying disease. An AsGaAl laser with 808nm wavelength, 100mW power, beam output area of 0.028cm2, power density of 3.57W/cm2 was used. The laser was applied at pre-defined points in the interphalangeal and metacarpophalangeal joints, totaling 24 points, 2 times a week, for 4 weeks, totaling 8 sessions. The Pain Inventory (IBD) and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) were used for the analysis of pain and for the WHOQOL-bref quality of life assessment. There was no statistical difference between the onset (5.67±2.66) and the final (4.67±3.78) of treatments (p=0.70). There was also no statistical difference between the beginning (5.67±2.66) and the final (4.67±3.78) of the treatments in the VAS analysis (p=0.68). The overall mean quality of life obtained by the questionnaire at the start of treatment was 42.3±7.6, while at the end of treatment it was 58.5±7.6 (p=0.01) and the domains of the questionnaire with significant differences were: psychological domain 42.9±6.8 and 66.7±12.9 (p=0.004), social domain 39.9±5.7 and 68.1±6.3 (p=0,0005) and environmental domain 36.3±7.3 and 56.3±12.5 (p=0.003). It can be concluded that the low-intensity therapeutic laser did not produce significant changes in the painful period of rheumatoid arthritis patients. However, there was an improvement in patients' quality of life in the psychological, social and environmental aspects.

Keywords: Pain, Quality of Life, Laser therapy, Rheumatoid Arthritis

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6 Efficacy of Yoga and Meditation Based Lifestyle Intervention on Inflammatory Markers in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

Authors: Surabhi Gautam, Uma Kumar, Rima Dada

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A sustained acute-phase response in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is associated with increased joint damage and inflammation leading to progressive disability. It is induced continuously by consecutive stimuli of proinflammatory cytokines, following a wide range of pathophysiological reactions, leading to increased synthesis of acute phase proteins like C - reactive protein (CRP) and dysregulation in levels of immunomodulatory soluble Human Leukocyte Antigen-G (HLA-G) molecule. This study was designed to explore the effect of yoga and meditation based lifestyle intervention (YMLI) on inflammatory markers in RA patients. Blood samples of 50 patients were collected at baseline (day 0) and after 30 days of YMLI. Patients underwent a pretested YMLI under the supervision of a certified yoga instructor for 30 days including different Asanas (physical postures), Pranayama (breathing exercises), and Dhayna (meditation). Levels of CRP, IL-6, IL-17A, soluble HLA-G and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were measured at day 0 and 30 interval. Parameters of disease activity, disability quotient, pain acuity and quality of life were also assessed by disease activity score (DAS28), health assessment questionnaire (HAQ), visual analogue scale (VAS), and World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) respectively. There was reduction in mean levels of CRP (p < 0.05), IL-6 (interleukin-6) (p < 0.05), IL-17A (interleukin-17A) (p < 0.05) and ESR (p < 0.05) and elevation in soluble HLA-G (p < 0.05) at 30 days compared to baseline level (day 0). There was reduction seen in DAS28-ESR (p < 0.05), VAS (p < 0.05) and HAQ (p < 0.05) after 30 days with respect to the base line levels (day 0) and significant increase in WHOQOL-BREF scale (p < 0.05) in all 4 domains of physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and environmental health. The present study has demonstrated that yoga practices are associated with regression of inflammatory processes by reducing inflammatory parameters and regulating the levels of soluble HLA-G significantly in active RA patients. Short term YMLI has significantly improved pain perception, disability quotient, disease activity and quality of life. Thus this simple life style intervention can reduce disease severity and dose of drugs used in the treatment of RA.

Keywords: Quality of Life, Inflammation, Rheumatoid Arthritis, yoga and meditation

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5 Factors Associated with Hand Functional Disability in People with Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Systematic Review and Best-Evidence Synthesis

Authors: J. Adams, Hisham Arab Alkabeya, A. M. Hughes

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Background: People with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) continue to experience problems with hand function despite new drug advances and targeted medical treatment. Consequently, it is important to identify the factors that influence the impact of RA disease on hand function. This systematic review identified observational studies that reported factors that influenced the impact of RA on hand function. Methods: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAL, AMED, PsychINFO, and Web of Science database were searched from January 1990 up to March 2017. Full-text articles published in English that described factors related to hand functional disability in people with RA were selected following predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Pertinent data were thoroughly extracted and documented using a pre-designed data extraction form by the lead author, and cross-checked by the review team for completion and accuracy. Factors related to hand function were classified under the domains of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) framework and health-related factors. Three reviewers independently assessed the methodological quality of the included articles using the quality of cross-sectional studies (AXIS) tool. Factors related to hand function that was investigated in two or more studies were explored using a best-evidence synthesis. Results: Twenty articles form 19 studies met the inclusion criteria from 1,271 citations; all presented cross-sectional data (five high quality and 15 low quality studies), resulting in at best limited evidence in the best-evidence synthesis. For the factors classified under the ICF domains, the best-evidence synthesis indicates that there was a range of body structure and function factors that were related with hand functional disability. However, key factors were hand strength, disease activity, and pain intensity. Low functional status (physical, emotional and social) level was found to be related with limited hand function. For personal factors, there is limited evidence that gender is not related with hand function; whereas, conflicting evidence was found regarding the relationship between age and hand function. In the domain of environmental factors, there was limited evidence that work activity was not related with hand function. Regarding health-related factors, there was limited evidence that the level of the rheumatoid factor (RF) was not related to hand function. Finally, conflicting evidence was found regarding the relationship between hand function and disease duration and general health status. Conclusion: Studies focused on body structure and function factors, highlighting a lack of investigation into personal and environmental factors when considering the impact of RA on hand function. The level of evidence which exists was limited, but identified that modifiable factors such as grip or pinch strength, disease activity and pain are the most influential factors on hand function in people with RA. The review findings suggest that important personal and environmental factors that impact on hand function in people with RA are not yet considered or reported in clinical research. Well-designed longitudinal, preferably cohort, studies are now needed to better understand the causality between personal and environmental factors and hand functional disability in people with RA.

Keywords: Rheumatoid Arthritis, factors, systematic review, hand function

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4 Characterization of the Blood Microbiome in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Compared to Healthy Control Subjects Using V4 Region 16S rRNA Sequencing

Authors: D. Hammad, D. P. Tonge

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Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a disabling and common autoimmune disease during which the body's immune system attacks healthy tissues. This results in complicated and long-lasting actions being carried out by the immune system, which typically only occurs when the immune system encounters a foreign object. In the case of RA, the disease affects millions of people and causes joint inflammation, ultimately leading to the destruction of cartilage and bone. Interestingly, the disease mechanism still remains unclear. It is likely that RA occurs as a result of a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors including an imbalance in the microorganism population inside our body. The human microbiome or microbiota is an extensive community of microorganisms in and on the bodies of animals, which comprises bacteria, fungi, viruses, and protozoa. Recently, the development of molecular techniques to characterize entire bacterial communities has renewed interest in the involvement of the microbiome in the development and progression of RA. We believe that an imbalance in some of the specific bacterial species in the gut, mouth and other sites may lead to atopobiosis; the translocation of these organisms into the blood, and that this may lead to changes in immune system status. The aim of this study was, therefore, to characterize the microbiome of RA serum samples in comparison to healthy control subjects using 16S rRNA gene amplification and sequencing. Serum samples were obtained from healthy control volunteers and from patients with RA both prior to, and following treatment. The bacterial community present in each sample was identified utilizing V4 region 16S rRNA amplification and sequencing. Bacterial identification, to the lowest taxonomic rank, was performed using a range of bioinformatics tools. Significantly, the proportions of the Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Halmonadaceae families were significantly increased in the serum of RA patients compared with healthy control serum. Furthermore, the abundance of Bacteroides and Lachnospiraceae nk4a136_group, Lachnospiraceae_UGC-001, RuminococcaceaeUCG-014, Rumnococcus-1, and Shewanella was also raised in the serum of RA patients relative to healthy control serum. These data support the notion of a blood microbiome and reveal RA-associated changes that may have significant implications for biomarker development and may present much-needed opportunities for novel therapeutic development.

Keywords: Rheumatoid Arthritis, blood microbiome, gut and oral bacteria

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3 Association between G2677T/A MDR1 Polymorphism with the Clinical Response to Disease Modifying Anti-Rheumatic Drugs in Rheumatoid Arthritis

Authors: Alan Ruiz-Padilla, Brando Villalobos-Villalobos, Yeniley Ruiz-Noa, Claudia Mendoza-Macías, Claudia Palafox-Sánchez, Miguel Marín-Rosales, Álvaro Cruz, Rubén Rangel-Salazar

Abstract:

Introduction: In patients with rheumatoid arthritis, resistance or poor response to disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD) may be a reflection of the increase in g-P. The expression of g-P may be important in mediating the effluence of DMARD from the cell. In addition, P-glycoprotein is involved in the transport of cytokines, IL-1, IL-2 and IL-4, from normal lymphocytes activated to the surrounding extracellular matrix, thus influencing the activity of RA. The involvement of P-glycoprotein in the transmembrane transport of cytokines can serve as a modulator of the efficacy of DMARD. It was shown that a number of lymphocytes with glycoprotein P activity is increased in patients with RA; therefore, P-glycoprotein expression could be related to the activity of RA and could be a predictor of poor response to therapy. Objective: To evaluate in RA patients, if the G2677T/A MDR1 polymorphisms is associated with differences in the rate of therapeutic response to disease-modifying antirheumatic agents in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Material and Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted. Fifty seven patients with RA were included. They had an active disease according to DAS-28 (score >3.2). We excluded patients receiving biological agents. All the patients were followed during 6 months in order to identify the rate of therapeutic response according to the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria. At the baseline peripheral blood samples were taken in order to identify the G2677T/A MDR1 polymorphisms using PCR- Specific allele. The fragment was identified by electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels stained with ethidium bromide. For statistical analysis, the genotypic and allelic frequencies of MDR1 gene polymorphism between responders and non-responders were determined. Chi-square tests as well as, relative risks with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were computed to identify differences in the risk for achieving therapeutic response. Results: RA patients had a mean age of 47.33 ± 12.52 years, 87.7% were women with a mean for DAS-28 score of 6.45 ± 1.12. At the 6 months, the rate of therapeutic response was 68.7 %. The observed genotype frequencies were: for G/G 40%, T/T 32%, A/A 19%, G/T 7% and for A/A genotype 2%. Patients with G allele developed at 6 months of treatment, higher rate for therapeutic response assessed by ACR20 compared to patients with others alleles (p=0.039). Conclusions: Patients with G allele of the - G2677T/A MDR1 polymorphisms had a higher rate of therapeutic response at 6 months with DMARD. These preliminary data support the requirement for a deep evaluation of these and other genotypes as factors that may influence the therapeutic response in RA.

Keywords: Pharmacogenetics, Rheumatoid Arthritis, p-glycoprotein, MDR1, therapeutic response

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2 Fabrication of Ligand Coated Lipid-Based Nanoparticles for Synergistic Treatment of Autoimmune Disease

Authors: Sushama Talegaonkar, Asiya Mahtab

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The research is aimed at developing targeted lipid-based nanocarrier systems of chondroitin sulfate (CS) to deliver an antirheumatic drug to the inflammatory site in arthritic paw. Lipid-based nanoparticle (TEF-lipo) was prepared by using a thin-film hydration method. The coating of prepared drug-loaded nanoparticles was done by the ionic interaction mechanism. TEF-lipo and CS-coated lipid nanoparticle (CS-lipo) were characterized for mean droplet size, zeta potential, and surface morphology. TEF-lipo and CS-lipo were further subjected to in vitro cell line studies on RAW 264.7 murine macrophage, U937, and MG 63 cell lines. The pharmacodynamic study was performed to establish the effectiveness of the prepared lipid-based conventional and targeted nanoparticles in comparison to pure drugs. Droplet size and zeta potential of TEF-lipo were found to be 128. 92 ± 5.42 nm and +12.6 ± 1.2 mV. It was observed that after the coating of TEF-lipo with CS, particle size increased to 155.6± 2.12 nm and zeta potential changed to -10.2± 1.4mV. Transmission electron microscopic analysis revealed that the nanovesicles were uniformly dispersed and detached from each other. Formulations followed sustained release pattern up to 24 h. Results of cell line studies ind icated that CS-lipo formulation showed the highest cytotoxic potential, thereby proving its enhanced ability to kill the RAW 264.7 murine macrophage and U937 cells when compared with other formulations. It is clear from our in vivo pharmacodynamic results that targeted nanocarriers had a higher inhibitory effect on arthritis progression than nontargeted nanocarriers or free drugs. Results demonstrate that this approach will provide effective treatment for rheumatoid arthritis, and CS served as a potential prophylactic against the advancement of cartilage degeneration.

Keywords: Rheumatoid Arthritis, adjuvant induced arthritis, chondroitin sulfate, teriflunomide

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1 Peptide Aptasensor for Electrochemical Detection of Rheumatoid Arthritis

Authors: Shah Abbas

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Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic, inflammatory autoimmune disease, affecting an overall 1% of the global population. Despite being tremendous efforts by scientists, early diagnosis of RA still has not been achieved. In the current study, a Graphene oxide (GO) based electrochemical sensor has been developed for early diagnosis of RA through Cyclic voltammetry. Chitosan (CHI), a CPnatural polymer has also been incorporated along with GO in order to enhance the biocompatibility and functionalization potential of the biosensor. CCPs are known antigens for Anti Citrullinated Peptide Antibodies (ACPAs) which can be detected in serum even 14 years before the appearance of symptoms, thus they are believed to be an ideal target for the early diagnosis of RA. This study has yielded some promising results regarding the binding and detection of ACPAs through changes in the electrochemical properties of biosensing material. The cyclic voltammogram of this biosensor reflects the binding of ACPAs to the biosensor surface, due to its shifts observed in the current flow (cathodic current) as compared to the when no ACPAs bind as it is absent in RA negative patients.

Keywords: Rheumatoid Arthritis, Cyclic Voltammetry, Graphene Oxide, peptide sensor, anti citrullinated peptide antibodies

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