Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

review Related Abstracts

13 Maternal Death Review and Contextualization of Maternal Death in West Bengal

Authors: M. Illias Kanchan

Abstract:

The death of a woman during pregnancy and childbirth is not only a health issue, but also a matter of social injustice. This study makes an attempt to explore the association between maternal death and associated factors in West Bengal using the approaches of facility-based and community-based maternal death review. Bivariate and binary logistic regression analysis have been performed to understand the causes and circumstances of maternal deaths in West Bengal. Delay in seeking care was the major contributor in maternal deaths, near about one-third women died due to this factor. The most common cause of maternal death is found to be hypertensive disorders of pregnancy or eclampsia. We believe that these deaths can be averted by reducing hypertensive disorders of pregnancy or eclampsia.

Keywords: maternal death, facility-based, community-based, review, west Bengal, eclampsia

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
12 The End Is Just the Beginning: The Importance of Project Post-Implementation Reviews

Authors: Catalin-Teodor Dogaru, Ana-Maria Dogaru

Abstract:

Success means different things to different people. For us, project managers, it becomes even harder to find a definition. Many factors have to be included in the evaluation. Moreover, literature is not very helpful, lacking consensus and neutrality. Post-implementation reviews (PIR) can be an efficient tool in evaluating how things worked on a certain project. Despite the visible progress, PIR is not a very detailed subject yet and there is not a common understanding in this matter. This may be the reason that some organizations include it in the projects’ lifecycle and some do not. Through this paper, we point out the reasons why all project managers should pay proper attention to this important step and to the elements, which can be assessed, beside the already famous triple constraints: cost, budget, and time. It is essential to take notice that PIR is not a checklist. It brings the edge in eliminating subjectivity and judging projects based on actual proof. Based on our experience, our success indicator model, presented in this paper, contributes to the success of the project! In the same time, it increases trust among customers who will perceive success more objectively.

Keywords: Project, indicators, success, review, post implementation

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
11 Review of Concepts and Tools Applied to Assess Risks Associated with Food Imports

Authors: A. Falenski, A. Kaesbohrer, M. Filter

Abstract:

Introduction: Risk assessments can be performed in various ways and in different degrees of complexity. In order to assess risks associated with imported foods additional information needs to be taken into account compared to a risk assessment on regional products. The present review is an overview on currently available best practise approaches and data sources used for food import risk assessments (IRAs). Methods: A literature review has been performed. PubMed was searched for articles about food IRAs published in the years 2004 to 2014 (English and German texts only, search string “(English [la] OR German [la]) (2004:2014 [dp]) import [ti] risk”). Titles and abstracts were screened for import risks in the context of IRAs. The finally selected publications were analysed according to a predefined questionnaire extracting the following information: risk assessment guidelines followed, modelling methods used, data and software applied, existence of an analysis of uncertainty and variability. IRAs cited in these publications were also included in the analysis. Results: The PubMed search resulted in 49 publications, 17 of which contained information about import risks and risk assessments. Within these 19 cross references were identified to be of interest for the present study. These included original articles, reviews and guidelines. At least one of the guidelines of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the Codex Alimentarius Commission were referenced in any of the IRAs, either for import of animals or for imports concerning foods, respectively. Interestingly, also a combination of both was used to assess the risk associated with the import of live animals serving as the source of food. Methods ranged from full quantitative IRAs using probabilistic models and dose-response models to qualitative IRA in which decision trees or severity tables were set up using parameter estimations based on expert opinions. Calculations were done using @Risk, R or Excel. Most heterogeneous was the type of data used, ranging from general information on imported goods (food, live animals) to pathogen prevalence in the country of origin. These data were either publicly available in databases or lists (e.g., OIE WAHID and Handystatus II, FAOSTAT, Eurostat, TRACES), accessible on a national level (e.g., herd information) or only open to a small group of people (flight passenger import data at national airport customs office). In the IRAs, an uncertainty analysis has been mentioned in some cases, but calculations have been performed only in a few cases. Conclusion: The current state-of-the-art in the assessment of risks of imported foods is characterized by a great heterogeneity in relation to general methodology and data used. Often information is gathered on a case-by-case basis and reformatted by hand in order to perform the IRA. This analysis therefore illustrates the need for a flexible, modular framework supporting the connection of existing data sources with data analysis and modelling tools. Such an infrastructure could pave the way to IRA workflows applicable ad-hoc, e.g. in case of a crisis situation.

Keywords: Tools, review, import risk assessment, food import

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
10 A Review of Antimicrobial Strategy for Cotton Textile

Authors: C. W. Kan, Y. L. Lam

Abstract:

Cotton textile has large specific surfaces with good adhesion and water-storage properties which provide conditions for the growth and settlement of biological organisms. In addition, the soil, dust and solutes from sweat can also be the sources of nutrients for microorganisms [236]. Generally speaking, algae can grow on textiles under very moist conditions, providing nutrients for fungi and bacteria growth. Fungi cause multiple problems to textiles including discolouration, coloured stains and fibre damage. Bacteria can damage fibre and cause unpleasant odours with a slick and slimy feel. In addition, microbes can disrupt the manufacturing processes such as textile dyeing, printing and finishing operations through the reduction of viscosity, fermentation and mold formation. Therefore, a large demand exists for the anti-microbially finished textiles capable of avoiding or limiting microbial fibre degradation or bio fouling, bacterial incidence, odour generation and spreading or transfer of pathogens. In this review, the main strategy for cotton textile will be reviewed. In the beginning, the classification of bacteria and germs which are commonly found with cotton textiles will be introduced. The chemistry of antimicrobial finishing will be discussed. In addition, the types of antimicrobial treatment will be summarized. Finally, the application and evaluation of antimicrobial treatment on cotton textile will be discussed.

Keywords: Textile, Antimicrobial, Cotton, review

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
9 A Review of Soil Stabilization Techniques

Authors: Amin Chegenizadeh, Mahdi Keramatikerman

Abstract:

Soil stabilization is a crucial issue that helps to remove of risks associated with the soil failure. As soil has applications in different industries such as construction, pavement and railways, the means of stabilizing soil are varied. This paper will focus on the techniques of stabilizing soils. It will do so by gathering useful information on the state of the art in the field of soil stabilization, investigating both traditional and advanced methods. To inquire into the current knowledge, the existing literature will be divided into categories addressing the different techniques.

Keywords: Soil, Techniques, Stabilization, review

Procedia PDF Downloads 304
8 Climate Change and Health: Scoping Review of Scientific Literature 1990-2015

Authors: Niamh Herlihy, Helen Fischer, Rainer Sauerborn, Anneliese Depoux, Avner Bar-Hen, Antoine Flauhault, Stefanie Schütte

Abstract:

In the recent decades, there has been an increase in the number of publications both in the scientific and grey literature on the potential health risks associated with climate change. Though interest in climate change and health is growing, there are still many gaps to adequately assess our future health needs in a warmer world. Generating a greater understanding of the health impacts of climate change could be a key step in inciting the changes necessary to decelerate global warming and to target new strategies to mitigate the consequences on health systems. A long term and broad overview of existing scientific literature in the field of climate change and health is currently missing in order to ensure that all priority areas are being adequately addressed. We conducted a scoping review of published peer-reviewed literature on climate change and health from two large databases, PubMed and Web of Science, between 1990 and 2015. A scoping review allowed for a broad analysis of this complex topic on a meta-level as opposed to a thematically refined literature review. A detailed search strategy including specific climate and health terminology was used to search the two databases. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied in order to capture the most relevant literature on the human health impact of climate change within the chosen timeframe. Two reviewers screened the papers independently and any differences arising were resolved by a third party. Data was extracted, categorized and coded both manually and using R software. Analytics and infographics were developed from results. There were 7269 articles identified between the two databases following the removal of duplicates. After screening of the articles by both reviewers 3751 were included. As expected, preliminary results indicate that the number of publications on the topic has increased over time. Geographically, the majority of publications address the impact of climate change and health in Europe and North America, This is particularly alarming given that countries in the Global South will bear the greatest health burden. Concerning health outcomes, infectious diseases, particularly dengue fever and other mosquito transmitted infections are the most frequently cited. We highlight research gaps in certain areas e.g climate migration and mental health issues. We are developing a database of the identified climate change and health publications and are compiling a report for publication and dissemination of the findings. As health is a major co-beneficiary to climate change mitigation strategies, our results may serve as a useful source of information for research funders and investors when considering future research needs as well as the cost-effectiveness of climate change strategies. This study is part of an interdisciplinary project called 4CHealth that confronts results of the research done on scientific, political and press literature to better understand how the knowledge on climate change and health circulates within those different fields and whether and how it is translated to real world change.

Keywords: Climate Change, Health, Mapping, review

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
7 The Role and Effects of Communication on Occupational Safety: A Review

Authors: Pieter A. Cornelissen, Joris J. Van Hoof

Abstract:

The interest in improving occupational safety started almost simultaneously with the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. Yet, it was not until the late 1970’s before the role of communication was considered in scientific research regarding occupational safety. In recent years the importance of communication as a means to improve occupational safety has increased. Not only as communication might have a direct effect on safety performance and safety outcomes, but also as it can be viewed as a major component of other important safety-related elements (e.g., training, safety meetings, leadership). And while safety communication is an increasingly important topic in research, its operationalization is often vague and differs among studies. This is not only problematic when comparing results, but also in applying these results to practice and the work floor. By means of an in-depth analysis—building on an existing dataset—this review aims to overcome these problems. The initial database search yielded 25.527 articles, which was reduced to a research corpus of 176 articles. Focusing on the 37 articles of this corpus that addressed communication (related to safety outcomes and safety performance), the current study will provide a comprehensive overview of the role and effects of safety communication and outlines the conditions under which communication contributes to a safer work environment. The study shows that in literature a distinction is commonly made between safety communication (i.e., the exchange or dissemination of safety-related information) and feedback (i.e. a reactive form of communication). And although there is a consensus among researchers that both communication and feedback positively affect safety performance, there is a debate about the directness of this relationship. Whereas some researchers assume a direct relationship between safety communication and safety performance, others state that this relationship is mediated by safety climate. One of the key findings is that despite the strongly present view that safety communication is a formal and top-down safety management tool, researchers stress the importance of open communication that encourages and allows employees to express their worries, experiences, views, and share information. This raises questions with regard to other directions (e.g., bottom-up, horizontal) and forms of communication (e.g., informal). The current review proposes a framework to overcome the often vague and different operationalizations of safety communication. The proposed framework can be used to characterize safety communication in terms of stakeholders, direction, and characteristics of communication (e.g., medium usage).

Keywords: Communication, Occupational Safety, Feedback, review

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
6 HIV/AIDS Knowledge and Social Integration among Street Children: A Systematic Review

Authors: Dewi Indah Irianti

Abstract:

Introduction: Street children include one of the populations at risk of HIV infection. Their vulnerability to these situations is increased by their lack of understanding of the changes associated with adolescence, the lack of knowledge and skills which could help them to make healthy choices. Social integration increased AIDS knowledge among migrant workers in Thailand. Although social integration has been incorporated into health research in other areas, it has received less attention in AIDS prevention research. This factor has not been integrated into models for HIV prevention. Objectives: The goal of this review is to summarize available knowledge about factors related to HIV/AIDS knowledge and to examine whether social integration was reviewed among street children. Methodology: This study performed a systematic search for English language articles published between January 2006 and March 2016 using the following keywords in various combination: street children, HIV/AIDS knowledge and social integration from the following bibliographic databases: Scopus, ProQuest, JSTOR, ScienceDirect, SpringerLink, EBSCOhost, Sage Publication, Clinical Key, Google Web, and Google Scholar . Results: A total of 10 articles met the inclusion criteria were systematically reviewed. This study reviews the existing quantitative and qualitative literature regarding the HIV/AIDS knowledge of street children in many countries. The study locations were Asia, the Americas, Europe, and Africa. The most determinants associated with HIV/AIDS knowledge among street children are age and sex. In this review, social integration that may be associated with HIV/AIDS knowledge among street children has not been investigated. Conclusion: To the best of the author’s knowledge, this study found that there is no research examining the relationship of social integration with the HIV knowledge among street children. This information may assist in the development of relevant strategies and HIV prevention programs to improve HIV knowledge and decrease risk behaviors among street children.

Keywords: HIV/AIDS knowledge, review, Street children, social integration

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
5 Development of a Forecast-Supported Approach for the Continuous Pre-Planning of Mandatory Transportation Capacity for the Design of Sustainable Transport Chains: A Literature Review

Authors: Georg Brunnthaller, Sandra Stein, Wilfried Sihn

Abstract:

Transportation service providers are facing increasing volatility concerning future transport demand. Short-term planning horizons and planning uncertainties lead to reduced capacity utilization and increasing empty mileage. To overcome these challenges, a model is proposed to continuously pre-plan future transportation capacity in order to redesign and adjust the intermodal fleet accordingly. It is expected that the model will enable logistics service providers to organize more economically and ecologically sustainable transport chains in a more flexible way. To further describe these planning aspects, this paper gives an overview on transportation planning problems in a structured way. The focus is on strategic and tactical planning levels, comprising relevant fleet-sizing, service-network-design and choice-of-carriers-problems. Models and their developed solution techniques are presented, and the literature review is concluded with an outlook to our future research directions.

Keywords: Multimodal, review, freight transportation planning, fleet-sizing, service network design, choice of transportation mode

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
4 A Literature Review on Development of a Forecast Supported Approach for the Continuous Pre-Planning of Required Transport Capacity for the Design of Sustainable Transport Chains

Authors: Georg Brunnthaller, Sandra Stein, Wilfried Sihn

Abstract:

Logistics service providers are facing increasing volatility concerning future transport demand. Short-term planning horizons and planning uncertainties lead to reduced capacity utilisation and increasing empty mileage. To overcome these challenges, a model is proposed to continuously pre-plan future transport capacity in order to redesign and adjust the intermodal fleet accordingly. It is expected that the model will enable logistics service providers to organise more economically and ecologically sustainable transport chains in a more flexible way. To further describe such planning aspects, this paper gives a structured literature review on transport planning problems. The focus is on strategic and tactical planning levels, comprising relevant fleet-sizing-, network-design- and choice-of-carriers-problems. Models and their developed solution techniques are presented and the literature review is concluded with an outlook to our future research objectives

Keywords: Multimodal, review, fleet-sizing, service network design, choice of transport mode, freight transport planning

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
3 Risk and Protective Factors for the Health of Primary Care-Givers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders or Intellectual Disability: A Narrative Review and Discussion

Authors: Jenny Fairthorne, Yuka Mori, Helen Leonard

Abstract:

Background: Primary care-givers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or intellectual disability (ID) have poorer health and quality of life (QoL) than primary care-givers (hereafter referred to as just care-givers) of typically developing children. We aimed to review original research which described factors impacting the health of care-givers of children with ASD or ID and to discuss how these factors might influence care-giver health. Methods: We searched Web of Knowledge, Medline, Scopus and Google Scholar using selections of words from each of three groups. The first comprised terms associated with ASD and ID and included autism, pervasive development disorder, intellectual disability, mental retardation, disability, disabled, Down and Asperger. The second included terms related to health such as depression, physical, mental, psychiatric, psychological and well-being. The third was terms related to care-givers such as mother, parent and care-giver. We included an original paper in our review if it was published between 1st January 1990 and 31st December, 2016, described original research in a peer-reviewed journal and was written in English. Additional criteria were that the research used a study population of 15 persons or more; described a risk or protective factor for the health of care-givers of a child with ASD, ID or a sub-type (such as ASD with ID or Down syndrome). Using previous research, we developed a simple and objective five-level tool to assess the strength of evidence provided by the reviewed papers. Results: We retained 33 papers. Factors impacting primary care-giver health included child behaviour, level of support, socio-economic status (SES) and diagnostic issues. Challenging child behaviour, the most commonly identified risk factor for poorer care-giver health and QoL was reported in ten of the studies. A higher level of support was associated with improved care-giver health and QoL. For example, substantial evidence indicated that family support reduced care-giver burden in families with a child with ASD and that family and neighbourhood support was associated with improved care-giver mental health. Higher socio-economic status (SES) was a protective factor for care-giver health and particularly maternal health. Diagnostic uncertainty and an unclear prognosis are factors which can cause the greatest concern to care-givers of children with ASD and those for whom a cause of their child’s ID has not been identified. We explain how each of these factors might impact caregiver health and how they might act differentially in care-givers of children with different types of ASD or ID (such as Down syndrome and ASD without ID). Conclusion: Care-givers of children with ASD may be more likely to experience many risk factors and less likely to experience the protective factors we identified for poorer mental health. Interventions to reduce risk factors and increase protective factors could pave the way for improved care-giver health. For example, workshops to train care-givers to better manage challenging child behaviours and earlier diagnosis of ASD (and particularly ASD without ID) would seem likely to improve care-giver well-being. Similarly, helping to expand support networks might reduce care-giver burden and stress leading to improved health.

Keywords: Health, autism, Intellectual Disability, Mothers, review, caregivers

Procedia PDF Downloads 31
2 Ideal Posture in Regulating Legal Regulations in Indonesia

Authors: M Jeffri Arlinandes Chandra, Puwaningdyah Murti Wahyuni, Dewi Mutiara M Jeffri Arlinandes Chandra, Puwaningdyah Murti Wahyuni, Dewi Mutiara

Abstract:

Indonesia is a state of the law in accordance with article 1 paragraph 3 of the Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia (1945 Constitution), namely, 'the State of Indonesia is a state of law'. The consequences of the rule of law are making the law as the main commanding officer or making the law as a basis for carrying out an action taken by the state. The types of regulations and procedures for the formation of legislation in Indonesia are contained in Law Number 12 of 2011 concerning the Formation of Legislation. Various attempts were made to make quality regulations both in the formal hierarchy and material hierarchy such as synchronization and harmonization in the formation of laws and regulations so that there is no conflict between equal and hierarchical laws, but the fact is that there are still many conflicting regulations found between one another. This can be seen clearly in the many laws and regulations that were sued to judicial institutions such as the Constitutional Court (MK) and the Supreme Court (MA). Therefore, it is necessary to have a formulation regarding the governance of the formation of laws and regulations so as to minimize the occurrence of lawsuits to the court so that positive law can be realized which can be used today and for the future (ius constituendum). The research method that will be used in this research is a combination of normative research (library research) supported by empirical data from field research so that it can formulate concepts and answer the challenges being faced. First, the structuring of laws and regulations in Indonesia must start from the inventory of laws and regulations, whether they can be classified based on the type of legislation, what are they set about, the year of manufacture, etc. so that they can be clearly traced to the regulations relating to the formation of laws and regulations. Second, the search and revocation/revocation of laws and regulations that do not exist in the state registration system. Third, the periodic evaluation system is carried out at every level of the hierarchy of laws and regulations. These steps will form an ideal model of laws and regulations in Indonesia both in terms of content and material so that the instructions can be codified and clearly inventoried so that they can be accessed by the wider community as a concrete manifestation of the principle that all people know the law (presumptio iures de iure).

Keywords: Evaluation, Reconstruction, Legislation, review

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
1 How Reverse Logistics Can Improve the Sustainability Performance of a Business?

Authors: Taknaz Banihashemi, Jiangang Fei, Peggy Shu-Ling Chen

Abstract:

Reverse logistics (RL) is a part of the logistics of companies and its aim is to reclaim value from the returned products in an environmentally friendly manner. In recent years, RL has attracted significant attention among both practitioners and academics due to environmental directives and governmental legislation, consumer concerns and social responsibilities for environment, awareness of the limits of natural resources and economic potential. Sustainability development is considered as a critical goal for organisations due to its impact on competitive advantage. With growing environmental concerns and legal regulations related to green and sustainability issues, product disposition through RL can be considered as an environmental, economic and social sound way to achieve sustainable development. When employed properly, RL can help firms to improve their sustainability performance. The aim of this paper is to investigate the sustainability issues in the context of RL in the perspective of the triple-bottom-line approach. Content analysis was used to collect the information. The findings show that there is a research gap to investigate the relationship between RL and sustainability performance. Most of the studies have focused on performance evaluation of RL by considering the factors related to economic and environmental performance. RL can have significant effects on social issues along with economic and environmental issues. The inclusion of the social aspect in the sustainability performance will provide a complete and holistic picture of how RL may impact on the sustainability performance of firms. Generally, there is a lack of research on investigating the relationship between RL and sustainability by integrating the three pillars of triple-bottom-line sustainability performance. This paper provides academics and researchers a broad view of the correlations between RL and sustainability performance.

Keywords: Sustainability, review, sustainability performance, verse Logistics

Procedia PDF Downloads 1