Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

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3 Determinants of Financial Structure in the Economic Institution

Authors: Abdous Noureddine

Abstract:

The problem of funding in Algeria emerged as a problem you need to study after many Algerians researchers pointed out that the faltering Algerian public economic institution due to the imbalance in the financial structures and lower steering and marketing efficiency, as well as a result of severe expansion of borrowing because of inadequate own resources, and the consequent inability This institution to repay loans and interest payments, in addition to increasing reliance on overdraft so used to finance fixed assets, no doubt that this deterioration requires research and study of the causes and aspects of treatment, which addresses the current study, aside from it.

Keywords: Equity, Debt, Financial Structure, financial capital, leverage, firm’s value, return

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2 Comparison of Risk and Return on Trading and Profit Sharing Based Financing Contract in Indonesian Islamic Bank

Authors: Fatin Fadhilah Hasib, Puji Sucia Sukmaningrum, Imron Mawardi, Achsania Hendratmi

Abstract:

Murabaha is the most popular contract by the Islamic banks in Indonesia, since there is opinion stating that the risk level of mudharaba and musyaraka are higher and the return is uncertain. This research aims to analyze the difference of return, risk, and variation coefficient between profit sharing-based and trading-based financing in Islamic bank. This research uses quantitative approach using Wilcoxon signed rank test with data sampled from 13 Indonesian Islamic banks, collected from their quarterly financial reports from 2011 to 2015. The result shows the significant difference in return, while risk and variation coefficient are almost same. From the analysis, it can be concluded that profit sharing-based financing is less desirable not because of its risk. Trading-based financing is more desirable than the profit sharing because of its return.

Keywords: Risk, Financing, Islamic bank, return

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1 The Expansion of Buddhism from India to the Himalayan Region: Nepal, Tibet, India and Bhutan

Authors: Umesh Regmi, Yasoda Basnet

Abstract:

This paper explores the expansion of Buddhism from India geographically to the Himalayan region of Nepal, Tibet, India and Bhutan in chronological historical sequence. The Buddhism practiced in Tibet is the spread of Mahayana-Vajrayana form appropriately designed by Indian Mahasiddhas, who were the practitioners of highest form of tantra and meditation. The Vajrayana Buddhism roots on the esoteric practices incorporating teachings of Buddha, mantras, dharanis, rituals, sadhana for attaining enlightenment. This form of Buddhism spread from India to Nepal after 5th Century AD and Tibet after 7th century AD and made a return journey to the Himalayan region of Nepal, India and Bhutan after 8th century. The first diffusion of this form of Buddhism from India to Nepal and Tibet is partially proven through Buddhist texts and archaeological existence of monasteries historically and at times relied in the mythological traditions. The second diffusion of Buddhism in Tibet was institutionalized through the textual translations and interpretations of Indian Buddhist masters and their Tibetan disciples and the establishment of different monasteries in various parts of Tibet later resulting in different schools and their traditions: Nyingma, Kagyu, Sakya, Gelug and their sub-schools. The first return journey of Buddhism from Tibet to the Himalayan region of Nepal, India and Bhutan of the 8th century is mythologically recorded in local legends of the arrival of Padmasambhava and the second journey of 11th century and afterwards flourished by many Indian masters which is practiced continuously till date. This return journey of Tibetan Buddhism has been intensified after 1959 with the Chinese occupation of Tibet resulting in the Tibetan Buddhist masters living in exile in major locations like Kathmandu, Dharmasala, Dehradun, Sikkim, Kalimpong and beyond. The historico-cultural-critical methodology for the recognition of the qualities of cultural expressions analysis presents the Buddhist practices of the Himalayan region explaining the concepts of Ri (mountain as spiritual symbols), yul-lha (village deities), dhar-lha (spiritual concept of mountain passes), dharchhog-lungdhar (prayer flags), rig-sum gonpo (small stupas), Chenresig, asura (demi gods), etc. Tibetan Buddhist history has preserved important textual and practical aspects of Vajrayana from of Buddhism historically in the form of arrival, advent and development including rise and fall. Currently Tibetan Buddhism has influenced a great deal in the contemporary Buddhist practices of the world. The exploratory findings conducted over seven years of field visits and researches in the Himalayan regions of Nepal, India and Bhutan have demonstrated the fact that Buddhism in the Himalayan region is a return journey from Tibet and lately been popularized globally after 1959 by major monasteries and their Buddhist masters, lamas, nuns and other professionals, who have contributed in different periods of time.

Keywords: Buddhism, expansion, India, Nepal, return, Bhutan, Himalayan region, Tibet, Vajrayana Buddhism

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