Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

retrofitting Related Abstracts

17 Effects of CFRP Confinement on PCC and Glass Fiber Reinforced Concrete

Authors: Junaid Ahmed, Muhammad Jahangeer Munir, Liaqat Ali Qureshi


This paper presents the investigation regarding use of glass fibers in structural concrete members and determining the behavior of normal PCC, GFRC and retrofitted GFRC under different tests performed in the laboratory. Effect of retrofitting on the GFRC & PCC was investigated by using three patterns of CFRP wrapping. Properties like compressive, split tensile and flexural strength of normal GFRC and retrofitted GFRC were investigated and compared with their PCC counterparts. It was found that GFRC has more compressive strength as compared to PCC. At lower confinement pressures PCC behaves better than GFRC. Confinement efficiency was lower in GFRC as compared to PCC in terms of Split tensile strength. In case of GFRC all the patterns of wrapped CFRP strips showed more strength than their PCC counterparts.

Keywords: Glass Fibers, retrofitting, confinement, carbon fiber reinforced polymers

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16 Retrofitting of Asymmetric Steel Structure Equipped with Tuned Liquid Column Dampers by Nonlinear Finite Element Modeling

Authors: A. Akbarpour, M. R. Adib Ramezani, M. Zhian, N. Ghorbani Amirabad


One way to improve the performance of structures against of earthquake is passive control which requires no external power source. In this research, tuned liquid column dampers which are among of systems with the capability to transfer energy between various modes of vibration, are used. For the first time, a liquid column damper for vibration control structure is presented. After modeling this structure in design building software and performing the static and dynamic analysis and obtaining the necessary parameters for the design of tuned liquid column damper, the whole structure will be analyzed in finite elements software. The tuned liquid column dampers are installed on the structure and nonlinear time-history analysis is done in two cases of structures; with and without dampers. Finally the seismic behavior of building in the two cases will be examined. In this study the nonlinear time-history analysis on a twelve-story steel structure equipped with damper subject to records of earthquake including Loma Prieta, Northridge, Imperiall Valley, Pertrolia and Landers was performed. The results of comparing between two cases show that these dampers have reduced lateral displacement and acceleration of levels on average of 10%. Roof displacement and acceleration also reduced respectively 5% and 12%. Due to structural asymmetric in the plan, the maximum displacements of surrounding structures as well as twisting were studied. The results show that the dampers lead to a 10% reduction in the maximum response of structure stories surrounding points. At the same time, placing the dampers, caused to reduce twisting on the floor plan of the structure, Base shear of structure in the different earthquakes also has been reduced on the average of 6%.

Keywords: Finite Element Analysis, retrofitting, Passive Control, tuned liquid column damper

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15 Evaluating the Methods of Retrofitting and Renovating of the Masonry Schools

Authors: Navid Khayat


This study investigates the retrofitting of schools in Ahvaz City. Three schools, namely, Enghelab, Sherafat, and Golchehreh, in Ahvaz City are initially examined through Schmidt hammer and ultrasonic tests. Given the tests and controls on the structures of these schools, the methods are presented for their reconstruction. The plan is presented for each school by estimating the cost and generally the feasibility and estimated the duration of project reconstruction. After reconstruction, the mentioned tests are re-performed for rebuilt parts and the results indicate a significant improvement in performance of structure because of reconstruction. According to the results, despite the fact that the use of fiber reinforced polymers (FRP) for structure retrofitting is costly, due to the low executive costs and also other benefits of FRP, it is generally considered as one of the most effective ways of retrofitting. Building the concrete coating on walls is another effective method in retrofitting the buildings. According to this method, a grid of horizontal and vertical bars is installed on the wall and then the concrete is poured on it. The use of concrete coating on the concrete and brick structures leads to the useful results and the experience indicates that the poured concrete filled the joints well and provides the appropriate binding and adhesion.

Keywords: Masonry structures, retrofitting, renovation, old school

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14 Evaluating the Methods of Retrofitting and Renovating the Masonry Schools of Ahvaz City

Authors: Navid Khayat, Babak Mombeni


This study investigates the retrofitting of schools in Ahvaz City. Three schools, namely, Enghelab, Sherafat, and Golchehreh, in Ahvaz City, are initially examined through Schmidt hammer and ultrasonic tests. Given the tests and controls on the structures of these schools, the methods are presented for their reconstruction. The plan is presented for each school by estimating the cost and generally the feasibility and estimated the duration of project reconstruction. After reconstruction, the mentioned tests are re-performed for rebuilt parts and the results indicate a significant improvement in performance of structure because of reconstruction. According to the results, despite the fact that the use of fiber reinforced polymers (FRP) for structure retrofitting is costly, due to the low executive costs and also other benefits of FRP, it is generally considered as one of the most effective ways of retrofitting. Building the concrete coating on walls is another effective method in retrofitting the buildings. According to this method, a grid of horizontal and vertical bars is installed on the wall and then the concrete is poured on it. The use of concrete coating on the concrete and brick structures leads to the useful results and the experience indicates that the poured concrete filled the joints well and provides the appropriate bonding and adhesion.

Keywords: Masonry structures, retrofitting, renovation, concrete coating

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13 Adaptation of Retrofit Strategies for the Housing Sector in Northern Cyprus

Authors: B. Ozarisoy, E. Ampatzi, G. Z. Lancaster


This research project is undertaken in the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (T.R.N.C). The study focuses on identifying refurbishment activities capable of diagnosing and detecting the underlying problems alongside the challenges offered by the buildings’ typology in addition to identifying the correct construction materials in the refurbishment process which allow for the maximisation of expected energy savings. Attention is drawn to, the level of awareness and understanding of refurbishment activity that needs to be raised in the current construction process alongside factors that include the positive environmental impact and the saving of energy. The approach here is to look at buildings that have been built by private construction companies that have already been refurbished by occupants and to suggest additional control mechanisms for retrofitting that can further enhance the process of renewal. The objective of the research is to investigate the occupants’ behaviour and role in the refurbishment activity; to explore how and why occupants decide to change building components and to understand why and how occupants consider using energy-efficient materials. The present work is based on data from this researcher’s first-hand experience and incorporates the preliminary data collection on recent housing sector statistics, including the year in which housing estates were built, an examination of the characteristics that define the construction industry in the T.R.N.C., building typology and the demographic structure of house owners. The housing estates are chosen from 16 different projects in four different regions of the T.R.N.C. that include urban and suburban areas. There is, therefore, a broad representation of the common drivers in the property market, each with different levels of refurbishment activity and this is coupled with different samplings from different climatic regions within the T.R.N.C. The study is conducted through semi-structured interviews to identify occupants’ behaviour as it is associated with refurbishment activity. The interviews provide all the occupants’ demographic information, needs and intentions as they relate to various aspects of the refurbishment process. This research paper presents the results of semi-structured interviews with 70 homeowners in a selected group of 16 housing estates in five different parts of the T.R.N.C. The people who agreed to be interviewed in this study are all residents of single or multi-family housing units. Alongside the construction process and its impact on the environment, the results point out the need for control mechanisms in the housing sector to promote and support the adoption of retrofit strategies and minimize non-controlled refurbishment activities, in line with diagnostic information of the selected buildings. The expected solutions should be effective, environmentally acceptable and feasible given the type of housing projects under review, with due regard for their location, the climatic conditions within which they were undertaken, the socio-economic standing of the house owners and their attitudes, local resources and legislative constraints. Furthermore, the study goes on to insist on the practical and long-term economic benefits of refurbishment under the proper conditions and why this should be fully understood by the householders.

Keywords: retrofitting, Construction Process, Energy-Efficiency, refurbishment activity

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12 Retrofitting of Historical Structures in Van City

Authors: Eylem Güzel, Mustafa Gulen


Historical structures are the most important symbols of a country that link the past with the future. In order to transfer them in their present conditions to the next generations, maintaining these historical structures are one of our main tasks. Seismic performance of historical structures damaged by the earthquake effects can be enhanced by repair and retrofitting applications. However, repair and retrofitting applications of historical structures are more complicated compared with the traditional structures. For this reason, they need much more attention in repair and retrofitting applications to preserve the spirit of historical structures. In this study, the present condition of selected historical structures built up in Van city that has a very rich historical heritage is given and the necessity of repair and retrofitting applications of historical structures are debated in detail.

Keywords: repair, retrofitting, Historical Structures, Van city

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11 A Case Study of Low Head Hydropower Opportunities at Existing Infrastructure in South Africa

Authors: Marco van Dijk, Ione Loots, Jay Bhagwan


Historically, South Africa had various small-scale hydropower installations in remote areas that were not incorporated in the national electricity grid. Unfortunately, in the 1960s most of these plants were decommissioned when Eskom, the national power utility, rapidly expanded its grid and capability to produce cheap, reliable, coal-fired electricity. This situation persisted until 2008, when rolling power cuts started to affect all citizens. This, together with the rising monetary and environmental cost of coal-based power generation, has sparked new interest in small-scale hydropower development, especially in remote areas or at locations (like wastewater treatment works) that could not afford to be without electricity for long periods at a time. Even though South Africa does not have the same, large-scale, hydropower potential as some other African countries, significant potential for micro- and small-scale hydropower is hidden in various places. As an example, large quantities of raw and potable water are conveyed daily under either pressurized or gravity conditions over large distances and elevations. Due to the relative water scarcity in the country, South Africa also has more than 4900 registered dams of varying capacities. However, institutional capacity and skills have not been maintained in recent years and therefore the identification of hydropower potential, as well as the development of micro- and small-scale hydropower plants has not gained significant momentum. An assessment model and decision support system for low head hydropower development has been developed to assist designers and decision makers with first-order potential analysis. As a result, various potential sites were identified and many of these sites were situated at existing infrastructure like weirs, barrages or pipelines. One reason for the specific interest in existing infrastructure is the fact that capital expenditure could be minimized and another is the reduced negative environmental impact compared to greenfield sites. This paper will explore the case study of retrofitting an unconventional and innovative hydropower plant to the outlet of a wastewater treatment works in South Africa.

Keywords: retrofitting, small-scale hydropower, low head hydropower, wastewater treatment works

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10 Adaptive Design of Large Prefabricated Concrete Panels Collective Housing

Authors: Daniel M. Muntean, Viorel Ungureanu


More than half of the urban population in Romania lives today in residential buildings made out of large prefabricated reinforced concrete panels. Since their initial design was made in the 1960’s, these housing units are now being technically and morally outdated, consuming large amounts of energy for heating, cooling, ventilation and lighting, while failing to meet the needs of the contemporary life-style. Due to their widespread use, the design of a system that improves their energy efficiency would have a real impact, not only on the energy consumption of the residential sector, but also on the quality of life that it offers. Furthermore, with the transition of today’s existing power grid to a “smart grid”, buildings could become an active element for future electricity networks by contributing in micro-generation and energy storage. One of the most addressed issues today is to find locally adapted strategies that can be applied considering the 20-20-20 EU policy criteria and to offer sustainable and innovative solutions for the cost-optimal energy performance of buildings adapted on the existing local market. This paper presents a possible adaptive design scenario towards sustainable retrofitting of these housing units. The apartments are transformed in order to meet the current living requirements and additional extensions are placed on top of the building, replacing the unused roof space, acting not only as housing units, but as active solar energy collection systems. An adaptive building envelope is ensured in order to achieve overall air-tightness and an elevator system is introduced to facilitate access to the upper levels.

Keywords: Smart Grid, Energy Efficiency, Residential Buildings, retrofitting, Adaptive Building

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9 The Potential in the Use of Building Information Modelling and Life-Cycle Assessment for Retrofitting Buildings: A Study Based on Interviews with Experts in Both Fields

Authors: Alex Gonzalez Caceres, Jan Karlshøj, Tor Arvid Vik


Life cycle of residential buildings are expected to be several decades, 40% of European residential buildings have inefficient energy conservation measure. The existing building represents 20-40% of the energy use and the CO₂ emission. Since net zero energy buildings are a short-term goal, (should be achieved by EU countries after 2020), is necessary to plan the next logical step, which is to prepare the existing outdated stack of building to retrofit them into an energy efficiency buildings. In order to accomplish this, two specialize and widespread tool can be used Building Information Modelling (BIM) and life-cycle assessment (LCA). BIM and LCA are tools used by a variety of disciplines; both are able to represent and analyze the constructions in different stages. The combination of these technologies could improve greatly the retrofitting techniques. The incorporation of the carbon footprint, introducing a single database source for different material analysis. To this is added the possibility of considering different analysis approaches such as costs and energy saving. Is expected with these measures, enrich the decision-making. The methodology is based on two main activities; the first task involved the collection of data this is accomplished by literature review and interview with experts in the retrofitting field and BIM technologies. The results of this task are presented as an evaluation checklist of BIM ability to manage data and improve decision-making in retrofitting projects. The last activity involves an evaluation using the results of the previous tasks, to check how far the IFC format can support the requirements by each specialist, and its uses by third party software. The result indicates that BIM/LCA have a great potential to improve the retrofitting process in existing buildings, but some modification must be done in order to meet the requirements of the specialists for both, retrofitting and LCA evaluators.

Keywords: Energy Efficiency, bim, retrofitting, LCA

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8 Experimental Investigation to Produce an Optimum Mix Ratio of Micro-Concrete

Authors: Raquib Ahsan, Shofiq Ahmed, Rakibul Hassan


Concrete is one of the basic elements of RCC structure and also the most crucial one. In recent years, a lot of researches have been conducted to develop special types of concrete for special purposes. Micro-concrete is one of them which has high compressive strength and is mainly used for retrofitting. Micro-concrete is a cementitious based composition formulated for use in repairs of areas where the concrete is damaged & the area is confined in movement making the placement of conventional concrete difficult. According to recent statistics, a large number of structures in the major cities of Bangladesh are vulnerable to collapse. Retrofitting may thus be required for a sustainable solution, and for this purpose, the utilization of micro-concrete can be considered as the most effective solution. For that reason, the aim of this study was to produce micro-concrete using indigenous materials in low cost. Following this aim, the experimental data were observed for five mix ratios with varied amount of cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate, water, and admixture. The investigation criteria were a compressive strength, tensile strength, slump and the cost of different mix ratios. Finally, for a mix ratio of 1:1:1.5, the compressive strength was achieved as 7820 psi indicating highest strength among all the samples with the reasonable tensile strength of 1215 psi. The slump of 6.9 inches was also found for this specimen indicating it’s high flowability and making it’s convenient to use as micro-concrete. Moreover, comparing with the cost of foreign products of micro-concrete, it was observed that foreign products were almost four to five times costlier than this local product.

Keywords: Indigenous, retrofitting, vulnerable, micro-concrete

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7 Triplet Shear Tests on Retrofitted Brickwork Masonry Walls

Authors: Berna Istegun, Erkan Celebi


The main objective of this experimental study is to assess the shear strength and the crack behavior of the triplets built of perforated brickwork masonry elements. In order to observe the influence of shear resistance and energy dissipating before and after retrofitting applications by using the reinforcing system, static-cyclic shear tests were employed in the structural mechanics laboratory of Sakarya University. The reinforcing system is composed of hybrid multiaxial seismic fabric consisting of alkali resistant glass and polypropylene fibers. The plaster as bonding material used in the specimen’s retrofitting consists of expanded glass granular. In order to acquire exact measuring data about the failure behavior of the two mortar joints under shear stressing, vertical load-controlled cylinder having force capacity of 50 kN and loading rate of 1.5 mm/min. with an internal inductive displacement transducers is carried out perpendicular to the triplet specimens. In this study, a total of six triplet specimens with textile reinforcement were prepared for these shear bond tests. The three of them were produced as single-sided reinforced triplets with seismic fabric, while the others were strengthened on both sides. In addition, three triplet specimens without retrofitting and plaster were also tested as reference samples. The obtained test results were given in the manner of force-displacement relationships, ductility coefficients and shear strength parameters comparatively. It is concluded that two-side seismic textile applications on masonry elements with relevant plaster have considerably increased the sheer force resistance and the ductility capacity.

Keywords: retrofitting, expanded glass granular, perforated brickwork, seismic fabric, triplet shear tests

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6 Finite Element Analysis of the Ordinary Reinforced Concrete Bridge Piers

Authors: Nabin Raj Chaulagain


Most of the concrete bridges in Nepal constructed during 90's and before are made up of low strength ordinary concrete which might be one of the reasons for damage in higher magnitude earthquake. Those bridges were designed by the outdated bridge codes which might not account the large seismic loads. This research investigates the seismic vulnerability of the existing single column ordinary concrete bridge pier by finite element modeling, using the software Seismostruct. The existing bridge pier capacity has been assessed using nonlinear pushover analysis and performance is compared after retrofitting those pier models with CFRP. Furthermore, the seismic evaluation was made by conducting cyclic loading test at different drift percentage. The performance analysis of bridge pier by nonlinear pushover analysis is further validated by energy dissipation phenomenon measured from the hysteric loop for each model of ordinary concrete piers.

Keywords: Performance Analysis, Finite element modeling, retrofitting, ordinary concrete bridge pier

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5 Performance Analysis of Ferrocement Retrofitted Masonry Wall Units under Cyclic Loading

Authors: Raquib Ahsan, Md. Mahir Asif, Md. Zahidul Alam


A huge portion of old masonry buildings in Bangladesh are vulnerable to earthquake. In most of the cases these buildings contain unreinforced masonry wall which are most likely to be subjected to earthquake damages. Due to deterioration of mortar joint and aging, shear resistance of these unreinforced masonry walls dwindle. So, retrofitting of these old buildings has become an important issue. Among many researched and experimented techniques, ferrocement retrofitting can be a low cost technique in context of the economic condition of Bangladesh. This study aims at investigating the behavior of ferrocement retrofitted unconfined URM walls under different types of cyclic loading. Four 725 mm × 725 mm masonry wall units were prepared with bricks jointed by stretcher bond with 12.5 mm mortar between two adjacent layers of bricks. To compare the effectiveness of ferrocement retrofitting a particular type wire mesh was used in this experiment which is 20 gauge woven wire mesh with 12.5 mm × 12.5 mm square opening. After retrofitting with ferrocement these wall units were tested by applying cyclic deformation along the diagonals of the specimens. Then a comparative study was performed between the retrofitted specimens and control specimens for both partially reversed cyclic load condition and cyclic compression load condition. The experiment results show that ultimate load carrying capacities of ferrocement retrofitted specimens are 35% and 27% greater than the control specimen under partially reversed cyclic loading and cyclic compression respectively. And before failure the deformations of ferrocement retrofitted specimens are 43% and 33% greater than the control specimen under reversed cyclic loading and cyclic compression respectively. Therefore, the test results show that the ultimate load carrying capacity and ductility of ferrocement retrofitted specimens have improved.

Keywords: retrofitting, cyclic loading, ferrocement, masonry wall, cyclic compression, partially reversed cyclic load

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4 Impact of Green Roofs on Hot and Humid Climate-Vijayawada

Authors: Santhosh Kumar Sathi


In India, Growth and spread of cities lead to the reduction of forests and green areas of the urban center with built structures. This is one of the reasons for increasing temperature about 2-5% in an urban environment and consequently also one of the key causes of urban heat island effects. Green roofs are one option that can reduce the negative impact of urban development providing numerous environmental benefits. In this paper, Vijayawada city is taken as case to study as it is experiencing rapid urbanization because of new capital Amaravati. That has resulted in remarkable urban heat island; which once recorded a highest temperature of 49°c. This paper focuses on the change in quality of the local environment with the introduction of green roofs. An in-depth study has to be carried out to understand the distribution of land surface temperature and land use of Vijayawada. Delineation of an area which has the highest temperature has been selected to adopt green roof retrofitting. Latest technologies of green roof retrofitting have to be implemented in the selected region. The results of the study indicate a significant temperature reduction in the local environment of that region, confirming the potential of green roofs as urban heat island mitigation strategy.

Keywords: Energy Consumption, retrofitting, Urban Heat Island, Green roofs

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3 Retrofitting Residential Buildings for Energy Efficiency: An Experimental Investigation

Authors: Naseer M. A.


Buildings are major consumers of energy in both their construction and operation. They account for 40% of World’s energy use. It is estimated that 40-60% of this goes for conditioning the indoor environment. In India, like many other countries, the residential buildings have a major share (more than 50%) in the building sector. Of these, single-family units take a mammoth share. The single-family dwelling units in the urban and fringe areas are built in two stories to minimize the building foot print on small land parcels. And quite often, the bedrooms are located in the first floors. The modern buildings are provided with reinforced concrete (RC) roofs that absorb heat throughout the day and radiate the heat into the interiors during the night. The rooms that are occupied in the night, like bedrooms, are having their indoors uncomfortable. This has resulted in the use of active systems like air-conditioners and air coolers, thereby increasing the energy use. An investigation conducted by monitoring the thermal comfort condition in the residential building with RC roofs have proved that the indoors are really uncomfortable in the night hours. A sustainable solution to improve the thermal performance of the RC roofs was developed by an experimental study by continuously monitoring the thermal comfort parameters during summer (the period that is most uncomfortable in temperate climate). The study conducted in the southern peninsular India, prove that retrofitting of existing residential building can give a sustainable solution in abating the ever increasing energy demand especially when it is a fact that these residential buildings that are built for a normal life span of 40 years would continue to consume the energy for the rest of its useful life.

Keywords: Energy Efficiency, Residential Buildings, Thermal comfort, retrofitting

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2 Retrofitting Adaptive Reuse into Palaces of Northern India

Authors: Shefali Nayak


The architectural appeal, familiarity, and idiom of culturally significant structures are due to societal attachment to various movements, historical association or deviation. Generally, the urge to preserve a building in the northern part of India is driven either by emotional dogma or rational thinking, but, it is also influenced by traditional affinity. The northern region of India has an assortment of palaces and Havelis belonging to various time periods and families with vernacular yet signature style of architecture. Many of them are either successfully conserved by being put into adaptive reuse and some of them have been midst controversies and continued to remain in ruins. The research focuses on comparing successful examples of adaptive reuse such as Neemrana, Mehrangargh Fort palace with a few other merchant havelis converted into heritage hotels. Furthermore, evaluates the architectural aspects of structure, materials, plumbing and electrical installations, as well as specific challenges faced by heritage professionals practicing sustainability, while respecting traditional feelings of various stakeholders. This paper concludes through the analysis of the case study that, its highly unlikely for sustainable design cannot be used as a stand-alone application for heritage structures or cities, it needs the support of architecture conservation to be put into practice. However, it is often demanding to fit a new use of a building into an aged structure. This paper records modern-day generic requirements that reflect challenges faced by different architects, while conserving a heritage structure and retrofitting it into today's requisites. The research objective is to establish how conservation, restoration, and urban regeneration are closely related to sustainable architecture in historical cities.

Keywords: Sustainability, Urban Regeneration, Adaptive Reuse, architecture heritage, retrofitting, architecture conservation

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1 Seismic Retrofit of Existing Bridge Foundations with Micropiles: 3D Finite Element Analysis

Authors: Mohanad Talal Alfach


This paper concerns the seismic behaviour of soil-piles-bridge reinforced by additional micropiles. The analysis carried out by three-dimensional finite element modelling using the FE software ABAQUS. The soil behaviour is assumed to be elastic with Rayleigh damping, while the micropiles are modeled as 3D elastic beam elements. The bridge deck slab was represented by a concentrated mass at the top of the pier column. The interaction between the added micropiles and the existing piles as well as the performance of the retrofitted soil-pile-superstructure system were investigated for different configurations of additional micropiles (number, position, inclination). Numerical simulation results show that additional micropiles constitute an efficient retrofitting solution. Analysis of results also shows that spacing between existing piles and retrofitting micropiles has little effect; while it is observed a substantial improvement (in case of weak piles/micropiles - soil interface) with reducing the inclination angle of retrofitting micropiles.

Keywords: Seismic, retrofitting, finite element, elastic, micropiles

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